The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology




IEEM 552 – Human-Computer Systems
                       Project

   ...
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................
APPENDIX 4: SECURITY ISSUES.........................................................................................22

Se...
Introduction

       Today’s society is tremendously and suddenly changing as a result of new technologies. Our

day-to-da...
Objectives

       As a group of consultants, we have been hired to study the current trends regarding the

market of port...
Market research

       This section emphasizes on describing the research that has already been done in this area.

Vario...
Features

        Reference 1 asked 5000 registered users in the USA to rank a “wish list” of what they found

important (...
Reference 1 shows that the users are not fully satisfied with today’s solution of getting the Internet on

the handheld de...
markets compared to the range from 21 to 40 years old. In addition, young Hong Kong people are

eager to buy the latest tr...
As a third hypothesis, we think that the offers today are not customized enough according to

different types of users. Ac...
way. In order to validate the questionnaire, we started to perform a pilot test with 10 respondents on

it. We then update...
Analyzing the results

       The analysis will be split into two parts. First, we need to analyze the answers of the

que...
After taking into account the limitations due to social factors, it is also important to refer to the

notion of killer ap...
Appendix 1: Technology

       The existing technology and the state-of-the art research and development promise portable
...
personal devices in Personal Area Networks (PANs). The demand for a system that could easily

connect devices for transfer...
The following part is devoted to some applications integrating PDA and Bluetooth.

Electronic wallet

       The PDA will ...
Appendix 2: State-of-the-art products

       This part is devoted to some state-of-the-art products. Other devices are pr...
can transfer their existing data to their new Treo communicator with ease. They can also receive Email

and short messages...
Appendix 3: Case study: i-mode

       i-mode is NTT DoCoMo's mobile internet access system. "i-mode" is also a trademark ...
use PCs for internet access as much as in the US or Europe and several other reasons. Here is a list of

possible reasons:...
-      Security of private networks on i-mode

-       Security of private network links between the i-mode center and spe...
Appendix 4: Security issues

Secure connection & data transfer

       The motion of data in wireless networks is more sen...
communication (E-mail) the use of encryption, Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) for example should be

mandatory. But still,...
Appendix 5: Figures




     Appendix figure 1




     Appendix figure 2
Appendix figure 3




Appendix figure 4
Appendix figure 5
Appendix figure 6
Appendix figure 7




Appendix figure 8
Appendix figure 9




Appendix figure 10
Some Pictures…
NOKIA 7650
TREO 180




Octopus Watch




YOPI
Questionnaire

General Information

Gender :               M            F

Age :                  < 20         21– 30     ...
Current Trend

                    Do you     Will                       Not            If you own, how often do you use i...
What is important to consider for your portable integrated device ?

Are the following characteristics important to you co...
Functions

Consider you can choose among the following functions/technologies, which ones would
you like to be included in...
What kind of online services would you like to be accessible from your next integrated
portable device?
Please, rate each ...
Display


What kind of interface do you prefer?

      1-       Text-based Interface            Graphical Interface

     ...
Control (ways to input data)

Rate the following controls according to if they are appropriate or not from 1 – not
appropr...
Presentation – Slides




                       PDA, Phone, Portable PC
                         What we all want !?

   ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

(Report).doc

1,408
-1

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,408
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
28
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

(Report).doc

  1. 1. The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology IEEM 552 – Human-Computer Systems Project PDA, Phone and Portable PC What we all want !? Presented by Antoine JEGOU (01999258) Nicolas LASSUS (00807082) Tivil MOK (00807094) Christian SCHOU SORENSEN (01999351) Fall 2001
  2. 2. Table of Contents INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................4 OBJECTIVES.............................................................................................................................5 MARKET RESEARCH...............................................................................................................6 Demographics..........................................................................................................................................6 Features....................................................................................................................................................7 Functions..................................................................................................................................................7 TRENDS / HYPOTHESES.........................................................................................................8 METHODOLOGY.....................................................................................................................10 Elaborating the questionnaire..............................................................................................................10 Conducting the experiment..................................................................................................................11 Budget.....................................................................................................................................................11 Analyzing the results.............................................................................................................................12 CONCLUSION..........................................................................................................................12 APPENDIX 1: TECHNOLOGY.................................................................................................14 Bluetooth technology.............................................................................................................................14 Future Mobile Communication networks...........................................................................................15 APPENDIX 2: STATE-OF-THE-ART PRODUCTS.................................................................17 NOKIA 7650 (http://nokia.com) ..........................................................................................................17 TREO 180 (http://www.handspring.com) ..........................................................................................17 Octopus Watch.......................................................................................................................................18 YOPI (http://www.gmate.com) ...........................................................................................................18 APPENDIX 3: CASE STUDY: I-MODE ..................................................................................19
  3. 3. APPENDIX 4: SECURITY ISSUES.........................................................................................22 Secure connection & data transfer......................................................................................................22 Secure personal data stored on the portable device...........................................................................23 APPENDIX 5: FIGURES..........................................................................................................24 SOME PICTURES…................................................................................................................30 QUESTIONNAIRE....................................................................................................................32 PRESENTATION – SLIDES ...................................................................................................39
  4. 4. Introduction Today’s society is tremendously and suddenly changing as a result of new technologies. Our day-to-day life will be transformed totally in just few years from now. As actors to this change, portable devices play a large role in settling down the new foundations of people’s habits. Not only increasing the connectivity between people, portable devices in the future have the capability to give us access to global information on a continuous basis and also to integrate many functionalities in a very simple and handy device. But that’s the future. For now portable devices are in their infancy and designers are struggling to find the best interfaces and functions that can fulfill users expectations. Mobile Phones, PDA, MP3 players, 3G, and so on are all the components of this next type of integrated devices. The issue is to find out who, where, when and how people are interested in using those devices. In that context, the Hong Kong market can be seen as a great experimental field for these new technologies. Indeed, HK people are very much technology oriented and eager to try new devices. Many market studies have shown the special role that the 6.7 million population of Hong Kong plays in the global scene. With Japan maybe, Hong Kong market is where new technologies are to be adopted first. As a result, in our study we will focus on the development of portable devices technology in this area. Still, even if Hong Kong is a specific market, it is needed to collect information about the global market trends regarding these technologies in order to articulate the hypotheses that will guide our study. That’s what will be done in the second part of this paper. Following our hypotheses will be the methodology we will use to study the market and its opportunities. Finally, as technology may go faster than the market we will focus on the promising technologies that we expect will be integrated in portable devices as well as on the limitations that may hinder their acceptance.
  5. 5. Objectives As a group of consultants, we have been hired to study the current trends regarding the market of portable devices. Our main target is to answer the general questions - who, where, when, and how – applied to this specific market. As introduced before, this study will focus on the Hong Kong market. Indeed as our focus is on short-term trends, we need to focus on a rather mature market in regard to technology’s penetration into the everyday life of the population. Our objectives are threefold. First, we want to assess the market development and the current technology available. This will help us to achieve our second objective, which is to identify some potential trends in the development of portable devices and especially identify trends regarding users’ wishes on that type of technology. Finally, our last objective is to focus on the future of portable devices. Future in term of technologies that will add up to portable devices’ functionalities and also in terms of social factors that may limit the penetration of such technologies.
  6. 6. Market research This section emphasizes on describing the research that has already been done in this area. Various articles have been searched on the Internet, but the outcomes are poor. The reason for that might be that this area is very sensitive. The companies doing this kind of research are interested in keeping this information secret (e.g. future customer needs). Indeed, this information has a high competitive value. However this section emphasizes on the articles found and summarizes up what has been published. This section is divided into three parts. The first one, Demographics, shows who are the users. The next one, Features, explains what the users want their device to do and the last section, Functions, indicates the technical demands. Demographics The number of Internet users is growing by over half a million per day. A quarter of a million people around the globe are signing up for mobile cellular services every single day. Mobile cellular is on target to reach one billion subscribers worldwide by 2002-2003 (see Appendix figure 4). As the number of users of communication devices grows, forecasts have been made for the need of third generation devices (3G). Appendix figure 10 shows the number of countries, which predict the need for 3G mobile phones. Therefore the market for 3G is already there. To find out who the users are, researches have been made. A survey (reference 1) shows who these users are. Of the people they asked, 28% were in the age group 21-30 years old, and 31% were in the age group 31-40. Reference 2 supports this. Of the people asked, 36% already used a PDA. 66% of the users of PDA’s were men.
  7. 7. Features Reference 1 asked 5000 registered users in the USA to rank a “wish list” of what they found important (e.g. programs). The feature with the highest score is (77%) – sending and receiving E-mails wherever the users go. The feature second on the list is storage of contacts information and the third is calendar. Furthermore, 40% want business applications. Reference 2 attacks this survey differently. They claim that looking at the trends in using the existing Internet will be helpful for determining the future needs for 3G applications. They refer to an America Online (AOL) study: the most popular activities are “searching the net” and “communication with friends”. Then “getting news”, “playing games” and “purchasing” were the following popular activities (Appendix figure 1). Looking at the figures, it can be seen that the objectives for the age group 15-17 years old are slightly different than for the rest of the users. Their preferences are communication and games. They also ranked “exchanging photos”, “live video conference”, “downloading music” and “watching video clip” as very important (see Appendix figure 2). The user needs can be connected to the profiles of the users. Appendix figure 3 shows this connection. They all have in common that communication is very important. Games are important for the everyday people. This survey shows that the “work at home professionals” and the “mobile professionals in sales, administration”, etc. have high preferences in news, e-mails, research (‘searching the net’), and purchasing. Young adults are more interested in news and games. Functions Furthermore, the functions that the users found critical for purchasing a product are reliability of the network (communication between the device and the world), mobility, the cost for the device, and the monthly fees for usage of the service (reference 1). Other important characteristics were increased memory and faster transmission.
  8. 8. Reference 1 shows that the users are not fully satisfied with today’s solution of getting the Internet on the handheld devices (Appendix figure 5). It shows that users will demand full time HTML instead of WAP, which is used today. Appendix figure 6 shows a more detailed view of the demand for the nearby future. It shows that both business people and traditional customers need fulltime and full access to the Internet (possibility to get the same information from the handheld device and a fixed computer). For the business people the security is important. The plans for fulltime Internet access are agreeable. 73% of the users want a fixed monthly rate. Only a small number of people want “pay per use” plans (reference 2 and Appendix figure 8). This survey also shows that a majority of the users expects all plans to be fixed pay plans in the future (Appendix figure 9). Trends / Hypotheses In regard to the issues that have been presented in the above section, a set of hypotheses has been elaborated in order to know what Hong Kong users want as a next portable device, where, when and how they want to use it. Actually by shedding light on this concern, the aim is to provide a set of recommendations to designers of portable devices, in order to offer the customer what he or she really wants. First, we want to define the scope of our study. As stated earlier, the market studied to identify what the user wants as a next portable device is the Hong Kong market. In the survey conducted in the United States, it was found out that the age range of portable devices users is between 21 and 40. We believe that the result in Hong Kong will be quite similar given that the technology is well advanced and that trend has a great importance in the view of young people. So, we believe that the importance of the age range under 21 years old will be greater than in other
  9. 9. markets compared to the range from 21 to 40 years old. In addition, young Hong Kong people are eager to buy the latest trendy device; hence the frequency of purchase should be quite high (at least once a year). Also in the next few years, more and more women will be willing to use portable devices. At last, we think people will be ready to pay a premium price for their device. Still the price should be in the higher-end of PDA prices rather than laptops and more advanced products. Our first hypothesis concerns the use of portable devices. We think that people will be using their portable devices more for leisure than professional use in the near future. Indeed, companies do not offer any mobile phone or other portable devices to their employees. Employees use their own ones. As users are more and more demanding, they want to use their portable devices from anywhere at any time and integrate many different functions. Consequently a lot of emphasis has to be laid on creating compelling interfaces. As for now, no universal interface has been found that is fitted for any use, we foresee that the concept of add-ons accessories or functions should be the best approach. In line with this concept, many designers nowadays offer a PDA-based device with a possible mobile phone add-on accessory. Our second hypothesis deals with interface and design. Despite the limited resources of actual devices, as well as batteries autonomy problem, we assume that the user is willing to have a colorful and graphical display. As our target is Chinese-language user, the touch pad or pen should be the most appropriate way to input data in the device (graphical language), in contrast with Latin- language user who may prefer joy-pad or track-ball. Following the same idea that for our first hypothesis, we think that we cannot find out a single interface that can fit all the different uses. Then devices that can combine different interfaces and controls are predicted to be the most effective. For example, online games, especially in Hong Kong, should be promising functions to add to a portable device. In order to render the offer more compelling, special designs may be proposed like adding joystick or enhanced screen accessories.
  10. 10. As a third hypothesis, we think that the offers today are not customized enough according to different types of users. Actually the only propositions are according to business or home use but they do not differ from each another. The trend should be to propose designs that are going away from a business-like device to more entertainment designs (colors, shape, etc.). In our study, we estimate mainly that age is an important factor to take into account. In fact, young people have been shown to have a different demand in term of services compared to other age groups. Our study will focus on showing that their demand is also different in terms of design and interface. Methodology Given the nature of our study, several paths were possible to follow. On the one hand we could have chosen one or several designs that have been already marketed, and test them with some users in order to rate the best designs and then maybe identify the most promising trend among these devices. But, we preferred to focus on a more market-oriented type of study. Then we developed a questionnaire that focuses on the issues we highlighted in our hypotheses. The reason for choosing this format for our study is because we wanted to gather data about users’ expectations. Indeed, we have the feeling that “The” design of tomorrow’s portable devices has not been identified yet. There is more room for innovation in that area, and innovation can only come from a better in-depth understanding of users. Elaborating the questionnaire After an extensive research of market information on portable devices, we started to layout some high-level categories that would be interesting to analyze in more details. These categories cover the areas of user profile (age, salary, gender), type of use (features, online services, environment) and finally interface (display, controls, user preferences). In designing the questionnaire we kept in mind that it is to be easy to fill in and should allow us to analyze the data in an effective
  11. 11. way. In order to validate the questionnaire, we started to perform a pilot test with 10 respondents on it. We then updated our questions according to people’s comments. For now, the pilot test has only been made on University students, so we need to gather comments from working people, who may have a different perception of the questions and especially the vocabulary used. Conducting the experiment In order to collect more in-depth information, we will combine the questionnaire with an interview. On several different days, we will conduct our study in some business areas in Hong Kong, as well as on HKUST campus, and ask people to fill in the questionnaire and answer a few questions. The whole process will be meant to last for 30 minutes. Each respondent will get HK$50 in exchange of their time and contribution. The respondents will first fill in the questionnaire on their own. The questionnaire will be reviewed with one of the experimenter in order to validate questions and particularly avoid “neutral” answers to questions. After they will be introduced to a specific device through promotion materials. They will be asked what they think about the product, its design, its available functions and its general appeal. The product will be chosen among 4 different ones that will be compared afterwards (see Appendix and slides). The models chosen belong to the following categories: an i-mode mobile phone, a new generation PDA (or pocket PC), a new generation phone and a tablet PC. To get an appropriate sample size for our analysis, the target number of respondents is set to 80. Budget According to the number of respondents and the reward provided, we need a budget of HK$4,000 in order to get the answers. Then we also need to add budget for the supporting materials used. We will perform the interviews on our own, so we have no budget for third-party participation. We need to rent a room for interview in a Hong Kong business area for one day. The overall budget is then expected to be around HK$8,000 to HK$10,000.
  12. 12. Analyzing the results The analysis will be split into two parts. First, we need to analyze the answers of the questionnaire. After studying each set of factors independently, using counting frequency analysis, we will put emphasis on studying the correlation between the factors that we highlighted in the hypotheses. Specifically we will control the results we collected with gender, age, and salary range for example. Secondly, we need to compile the comments gathered from the interviews. The data gathered from interviews will have a more qualitative format. Then we will compile the comments using card-sorting techniques in order to identify some trends in respondents’ answers. Conclusion The analysis of the portable devices market and our study to determine what the user wants let us think that the user expectations are quite high but unclear. Despite the booming market for portable devices, we brought out some limitations, in terms of social factors and killer application. First of all, it is quite obvious to say that technology creates the need. PDA, mobile phones and portable PC were not created at customers’ request but because they are technology-enabled. It takes time for people to embrace new technologies. People resist change. When they understand it is in their self-interest, they not only embrace change but also cooperate to make it happen. Thus, the central challenge is to convince people that new technologies are for their better. Then, we think that security and privacy are still important social issues to take into account. People want their data to be protected – data stored in their device and also data transferred through the networks. In addition, we can point out the “Big Brother” threat. Indeed, people may feel controlled – because of technologies’ advances, one can tell where people are and what they are doing. The last social factor we want to mention is about automation (Bluetooth). It is pointless to say that this will change how people interact with everyday life devices.
  13. 13. After taking into account the limitations due to social factors, it is also important to refer to the notion of killer application – the application that will create the portable device boom. Actually our study leads us to the conclusion that the real killer application in that area is not quite dependent on the devices themselves. Of course functionality, usability and design are very important factors, but what is more important is the infrastructure behind them. For example, much of the i-Mode success in Japan comes from the services and the network that has been settled to support it. As a result, as an extension to our study, we could focus on the aspects that limit the expansion of wireless access or Bluetooth in today’s societies. We believe that laying emphasis on these features rather than on the devices themselves will give us more insights about a potential killer application. Indeed, it is not very interesting to have a Bluetooth-enabled device that can be used as a remote control or identification card if there is no support for that included in other products or services.
  14. 14. Appendix 1: Technology The existing technology and the state-of-the art research and development promise portable devices to move towards completely new products with functionalities, designs and a usability that will change the way people interact with them. This part includes only radio technologies and concepts. It seems to be the cutting edge trends that will enhance mobility. Bluetooth technology Bluetooth is an open standard specification to develop wireless connectivity. Ericsson first launched it in 1994. Rapidly many industrials (among them: IBM, Compaq, Nokia, …) joined Ericsson to create Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) in 1998. The first open Bluetooth specification was released in 1999. Now Bluetooth is the fastest growing communication standard. Technologically speaking, Bluetooth wireless technology is a low-cost, low-power, short-range radio link for mobile devices and for WAN/LAN access points. It offers fast and reliable digital transmissions of both voice and data over the globally available 2.4 GHz band. The Bluetooth Qualification Program guarantees global interoperability between devices regardless of the vendor and regardless of the country in which they are used. The Bluetooth Specification defines a short (around 10 m) or optionally a medium range (around 100 m) radio link capable of voice or data transmission up to a maximum capacity of 720 Kb/s per channel. One simple example: Automatic synchronization of calendars, address books, etc. is a feature long-awaited for many of us. Simply by entering your office, the calendar in your phone or PDA will be automatically updated to agree with the one in your desktop PC, or vice versa. Phone numbers and addresses will always be correct in all your portable devices without docking through cables or infrared. Countless electronic devices for home, personal and business use have been presented to the market during recent years but no widespread technology to address the needs of connecting
  15. 15. personal devices in Personal Area Networks (PANs). The demand for a system that could easily connect devices for transfer of data and voice over short distances without cables grew stronger. Bluetooth wireless technology fills this important communication need, with its ability to communicate both voice and data wirelessly, using a standard low-power, low-cost technology that can be integrated in all devices to enable total mobility. The price will be low and result in mass production. The more units around, the more benefits for the customer. Future Mobile Communication networks IMT–2000 is a set of requirements defined by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). “2000” represents the frequency range of 2000 MHz (WARC’92: 1885–2025 MHz and 2110– 2200 MHz). All 3G standards have been developed by regional standards developing organizations. In total, proposals for 17 different IMT–2000 standards were submitted by regional SDOs to ITU in 1998, all accepted by ITU as IMT–2000 standards in late 1999. The most important IMT–2000 proposals are the UMTS (W-CDMA, Wideband-CDMA) as the successor to GSM and CDMA2000 as the interim standard ’95 (IS–95) successor. UMTS allows many more applications to be introduced to a worldwide base of users and provides a vital link between today’s multiple GSM systems and IMT–2000. The new network also addresses the growing demand of mobile and Internet applications for new capacity in the overcrowded mobile communications sky. UMTS increases transmission speed to 2 Mbps per mobile user and establishes a global roaming standard. Intermediate technical solutions (GPRS, EDGE, …) are now emerging as IMT-2000 networks deployment are delayed. All those technologies are based on "packet-switched" that suits best data transfer for online Internet services and multimedia applications (audio and video streaming).
  16. 16. The following part is devoted to some applications integrating PDA and Bluetooth. Electronic wallet The PDA will store the user's information, such as driver's license number, social security, passport number, picture, credit card number. Using Bluetooth wireless technology, it will be easy for them to give the information to police, merchant, cashier, etc. We can also imagine that such a system can be used for electronic ticketing on airplanes, trains, etc. Instead of trading business cards, we will simply have to transfer one another's information. It can also replace the house keys. When user gets close to their home, the door will detect their presence, again via Bluetooth technology, and the door will unlock. The major concern for all these applications is that there is a need for a strong authentication system in case the PDA is stolen or lost. Universal remote control In the future, if TVs, VCRs, stereos, etc. are Bluetooth compatible, therefore the PDA can also be a universal remote control. News It would also be possible to download the news on PDA. This can be customized depending on the location of the users. For example a profile could be, no work-related news when the user is at home, but at work it is desired.
  17. 17. Appendix 2: State-of-the-art products This part is devoted to some state-of-the-art products. Other devices are presented in the PowerPoint file. Some comparisons have been made, also. NOKIA 7650 (http://nokia.com) The new Nokia 7650 is not only a phone - it's also an integrated digital imaging device. People can point, use the color display as a viewfinder, snap a picture, and share the moment. Then, they can save the picture in the photo album - there's memory for dozens of pictures - or send it to a friend. So, integrated digital camera, picture taking and sending, MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service), photo album for storing pictures, GPRS, an advanced user interface, joystick navigation and a color display are the key features of this portable device. TREO 180 (http://www.handspring.com) The Treo™ communicator is the one device that does it all. So people will have phone, Palm OS® organizer, email, SMS text messaging and wireless web all in one incredibly compact device. The Treo communicator is smaller than any other Palm OS handheld. This stylish communicator has been jam-packed with features without compromising functionality or ease of use. And it comes in two models—with a built-in keyboard or with a Graffiti® writing area. The Treo communicator does everything a mobile phone does. And more. That's because this dual-band world phone has all the features you expect in a phone, like speed dial, three-way calling, and call history. Plus, it has extra features like full integration with the built-in PhoneBook so people can dial direct from the contact list, a personal speakerphone and more. It's easy with this feature-rich Palm OS organizer. With 16 MB of memory and a fast processor, the rechargeable Treo communicator has it all—Date Book Plus, PhoneBook (an improved Address Book), To Do List, Memo Pad, and more. Plus, people can install thousands of other cool Palm OS applications. If people already have another Palm OS device, they
  18. 18. can transfer their existing data to their new Treo communicator with ease. They can also receive Email and short messages, all wirelessly. Now it's easy to read and send email from virtually anywhere. And, if the message is short, people can send an SMS text message to other mobile phone users in their network or even to an email address. Now people can access the web from just about everywhere. Every Treo communicator comes with Blazer™—the award-winning wireless web browser—so people can access virtually any web site, not just those sites optimized for mobile access. They can get directions, confirm flight, check the weather—and see it all on the Treo communicator's organizer-sized screen. Octopus Watch The Octopus travel card is a Smart Card introduced in Hong Kong in 1997. The use of this plastic chip card technology as an alternative to paper tickets, with the possibility of recharging it at special machines at any time of the day, is proved to be very popular and of great advantages. But a card is boring, while a watch makes a personal statement. So why not combine functional and fashionable aspects in a smart package ? With the help of transponder technology, the SmartCard watch can be used as an electronic ticket. This idea was introduced by Junghans Uhren GmbH, a German leading watchmaker. The watch costs 250 Hong Kong Dollars. It is the perfect solution for those customers who “don't want to lose time and find chip cards too boring”. So, this Smart Card Watch opened up a wide range of new applications - the watch as ticket, key, wallet and I.D. A new vision has emerged. YOPI (http://www.gmate.com) The multimedia PDA YOPI uses the Linux OS developed by G.Mate, Linupy™. With its slim size and folder type design, mobility and high performance, YOPI is capable of providing entertainment contents such as images, games, or music, and the newest information on the Internet, from anywhere, at any time.
  19. 19. Appendix 3: Case study: i-mode i-mode is NTT DoCoMo's mobile internet access system. "i-mode" is also a trademark and service mark owned by NTT DoCoMo. As of October 4th 2001, there are 27.8 million i-mode subscribers, increasing by about 40,000 per day. According to DoCoMo's data, the large majority of subscribers uses email and browse web pages every day. Since there are 60 million mobile users in Japan, i-mode and competing mobile Internet systems may potentially have around 60 million users in Japan. At the moment 99.999% of i- mode users are Japanese. i-mode users are a cross-section of Japan's society, i-mode users include young people, but middle aged and old people also use i-mode. Users send email, look at the weather forecast, look at sports result, load ringing melodies into their handsets, play games, do online banking, online stock trading, purchase airplane tickets, download cartoons and images, look for restaurants and look for new friends. Technology Technically i-mode is an overlay over NTT-DoCoMo's ordinary mobile voice system. While the voice system is "circuit-switched" (i.e. you need to dial-up), i-mode is "packet-switched". This means that i- mode is in principle "always on", provided you are in an area where the i-mode signal can reach you. i-mode uses c-HTML (compact HTML), which is in part a subset of ordinary HTML. However, in addition to HTML tags, there are some special i-mode only tags (for example a tag to set up a link, which when pressed dials up to a telephone number, or another i-mode only tag, informing search machines that a particular web page is an i-mode page). Reasons of the success There is not one single reason. It's to a large extent the fact, that NTT-DoCoMo made it easy for developers to develop i-mode websites, that PC's in Japanese homes are not so wide spread as in the USA and Europe, that local access charges are very expensive in Japan, so that Japanese people don't
  20. 20. use PCs for internet access as much as in the US or Europe and several other reasons. Here is a list of possible reasons: - low i-mode handset cost - High mobile phone penetration (60 million mobile subscribers) - Japanese people love gadgets - Relatively low PC penetration at home, high local loop access charges - i-mode uses packet switched system: "always on" - charges according to information accessed not usage time, relatively low fees - Efficient micro-billing system via the mobile phone bill. Microbilling system makes it easy for subscribers to pay for value added, premium sites, and attractive for site owners to sell information to users - Fashion and efficient marketing - Email is the "killer application" like in the initial years of Internet growth - Uses c-HTML, which makes it easy not only for developers but also for ordinary consumers to develop content. Explosive growth of content - AOL-type menu list of partner sites, gives users access to a list of selected content on partner sites that are included in the micro-billing system and can sell content and services Security issue for i-mode Mobile commerce (m-commerce) is conducted on i-mode including mobile banking and security trading; therefore security is a serious issue. The security issues on i-mode are divided into different sectors: - Security of the radio link between i-mode handset and the cellular base station (this link uses proprietary protocols and encoding controlled by NTT DoCoMo - Security of the transparent public Internet connection between i-mode sites and the handset in the c-html layer
  21. 21. - Security of private networks on i-mode - Security of private network links between the i-mode center and special service providers such as banks - Password security Each of these different security issues needs to be addressed separately. The international future of i-mode NTT DoCoMo is at present entering into a number or partnerships in the US, Europe and Asia, and there is a possibility that DoCoMo will seek to introduce i-mode based services, or services similar from i-mode to other countries. source: eurotechnology.com
  22. 22. Appendix 4: Security issues Secure connection & data transfer The motion of data in wireless networks is more sensitive than ever. Firstly, data can be intercepted onto the air before entering the core of the telecommunication network. Secondly, mobile networks are now interconnected with the Internet in a packet way. The Internet security issues are now the ones of wireless networks. As GSM did, UMTS and others IMT-2000 networks will provide security encryption of the data to protect user's privacy, but it is not safe enough according to studies. As Bluetooth and other wireless technologies multiple the opportunities to hack private data or critical information, security for wireless networks is of increasing concern. As sensitive transactions begin to be possible with mobile phones and small devices, data security will be an even more sensitive issue. The advent of VPN technology is changing all that, just as it's changing the security environment for remote users. Still, wireless networking needs more than just a VPN to make things really secure. To ensure end-to-end trust in m-commerce environments, enterprises and service providers must address the same challenges involved in securing wired environments, namely controlling user access to both the network and individual resources (applications, content and transactions). For example, in a wired network, a firewall provides the first level of security between the user and the Web server he or she is trying to access. In the wireless world, WAP gateways manage access to a Web server, provide encryption through the Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) specification and authenticate users to enable a secure connection between the wireless device and the application server. WTLS, which is a version of TLS/SSL that has been optimised for wireless communications, provides data integrity, privacy, authentication and denial-of-service protection. In term of private
  23. 23. communication (E-mail) the use of encryption, Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) for example should be mandatory. But still, as for the Internet today, security of data on a network is almost impossible… Secure personal data stored on the portable device Using solutions to protect information flowing across and beyond your network (data in motion) is a common behavior, but protecting the devices where the data actually resides (data at rest) is now a new concept. The aim is to develop and markets security software for protecting the privacy of data and credentials on desktops and mobile computing devices such as Laptops, PDAs, and Smartphones, to ensure that confidential information remains private even if the mobile device is lost or stolen. Today's increasingly wireless environment presents the business world exciting new freedom and opportunities. However, with this freedom comes considerable risk. Critical types of information reside on company's mobile devices, such as laptops and personal digital assistants (PDAs): Intellectual properties, databases, digital certificates, credit card numbers, and possibly vital third- party information. Loss of any or all of these could harm the organization's reputation. One solution could be to encrypt the whole hard disk, sector per sector with a strong encryption tool including the system files, temp files, and even deleted files. The encryption is user transparent and automatic, so there is no need for user intervention or user training. Because the encryption occurs in background without noticeable performance loss, there is no user downtime. This provides enforceable security that cannot be bypassed by the user.
  24. 24. Appendix 5: Figures Appendix figure 1 Appendix figure 2
  25. 25. Appendix figure 3 Appendix figure 4
  26. 26. Appendix figure 5
  27. 27. Appendix figure 6
  28. 28. Appendix figure 7 Appendix figure 8
  29. 29. Appendix figure 9 Appendix figure 10
  30. 30. Some Pictures… NOKIA 7650
  31. 31. TREO 180 Octopus Watch YOPI
  32. 32. Questionnaire General Information Gender : M F Age : < 20 21– 30 31 – 40 41 – 50 > 51 Hong Kong Resident Other Salary Range (kHK$) < 10 11 – 20 21 – 40 41 – 60 > 61 Situation : Student Working Field : Accounting Marketing Banking Computers Construction Consulting Service Education Engineering Financial Services Government Healthcare Tourism Human Resources IT Maintenance Insurance Internet/e-commerce Legal Manufacturing Real Estate Retail Sales Telecommunications Other : ___________________
  33. 33. Current Trend Do you Will Not If you own, how often do you use it ? Are you currently you interested interested in own buy in Several Several Several Everyday times a times a times a week month year Mobile Phone WAP Phone Laptop Digital Camera PDA Pager Game Device (Gameboy) MP3 Player Radio FM Usage Please rate the following questions from 1 – never to 5 – very often : Do you use your portable integrated devices for 1 2 3 4 5 Professional use Leisure In what kind of situations do you use your portable integrated devices? 1 2 3 4 5 Office Home Transportation In the streets Doing sports International At night In which posture do you use your portable integrated devices 1 2 3 4 5 Standing Walking Running Sitting Lying down
  34. 34. What is important to consider for your portable integrated device ? Are the following characteristics important to you considering portable devices? Please, rate from 1 – not important at all to 5 – essential 1 2 3 4 5 a Secure b High Privacy c Easy to use d Trendy e Small f Pocket-sized g Lightweight h State-of-the-art external design i Colorful j Customizable k Robust (bug free) l Resistant m Water resistant n Shock resistant o Battery duration p State-of-the-art technology Please rank the 3 most important characteristics 1. _____ 2. _____ 3. _____ How much will you be ready to pay for YOUR personalized next generation portable device ? < HK$2,000 HK$2,000 – 5,000 HK$5,000 – 10,000 > HK$10,000 How often would you consider replacing your portable device ? < 2 months 2 – 6 months 6 – 12 months > 12 months
  35. 35. Functions Consider you can choose among the following functions/technologies, which ones would you like to be included in your next integrated portable device. Please, rate each of them according to their usefulness : 1 – totally useless to 5 – very useful 1 2 3 4 5 a Telephony b Address Book c Calculator d Calendar / Time / Alarm e Audio Player f Video Player g Audio Recorder h Video Recorder i Games j Digital Camera k Scanner l Fax m Video Conference n Files Storage o GPS p Infra-Red q Bluetooth* r e-payment s e-book t Translator u Dictionary * wireless connectivity Please rank the 3 most important functions 1. _____ 2. _____ 3. _____
  36. 36. What kind of online services would you like to be accessible from your next integrated portable device? Please, rate each of them according to their usefulness : 1 – totally useless to 5 – very useful 1 2 3 4 5 a E-mail b SMS c Retail Services d Information Retrieval e Instant Messages f Playing Online Games g Mobile Commerce h Multimedia i News Please rank the 3 most important services 1. _____ 2. _____ 3. _____
  37. 37. Display What kind of interface do you prefer? 1- Text-based Interface Graphical Interface 2- Color Black and White Would you be interested in integrating the portable device with some common accessories (watch, jewelry, belt,…) ? Please, rate from 1 – not interested at all to 5 – very interested 1 2 3 4 5 Would you be interested in a customizable device (for example, being able to plug in some additional accessories to enhance the functionality of the device) ? Please, rate from 1 – not interested at all to 5 – very interested 1 2 3 4 5 Please, rate the following interfaces of the following devices according to their user- friendliness from 1 – not usable at all to 5 – very usable 1 2 3 4 5 Mobile Phone PDA Pager Digital Camera MP3 Player Head-mounted Devices
  38. 38. Control (ways to input data) Rate the following controls according to if they are appropriate or not from 1 – not appropriate at all to 5 – very appropriate 1 2 3 4 5 Touch-Screen Pen Standard Keyboard Numeric Keyboard Track-Ball Voice Arrows (drop-down menus) Joystick / Joypad Subscription What kind of subscription type would you prefer for your network connection? Please rate your interest from 1 – not interested at all to 5 – very interested 1 2 3 4 5 Flat fee with all the options incorporated Incremental fee depending on the options chosen Variable fee fixed on the time spent connected Variable fee fixed on the information downloaded Flat fee with limit on the amount of information downloaded Flat fee with limit on the amount of information uploaded
  39. 39. Presentation – Slides PDA, Phone, Portable PC What we all want !? Presented by: Tivil, Christian, Nicolas and Antoine File Name : PDA_phine_Games.ppt

×