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  • The Future of Information Services and their management Presentation at the KhTURE 12.9.2000 Kalle Lyytinen University of Jyväskylä
  • Future of Information Services
    • Fast change in all computing technologies
    • Networks and distributed computing architectures ubiquitous (internet)
    • Migration of applications, telecommunications and media
    • Creates new information services and service channels
  • The New Digital Environment Technology Market Global connectivity via an open network Global Information Infrastructure Transformation of physical media into digital format Digital Convergence Doubling of digital engine capacity every 18 months Moore’s Law For transmission, presentation, interaction, security Open Standards Tailoring of product/service to unique needs of the customer Mass Customization Value increasingly derived from information content Information Industries High penetration of computers and knowledge to use them Computer Literacy On-demand delivery, whenever, wherever Anytime, Anyplace
  • And … Digital Convergence The conversion, processing, movement of all media in binary 10011100101 10011100101 10011100101 10011100101 10011100101 10011100101 10011100101 10011100101 Video Voice Books Film Documents Pictures Commercial transactions Global Information Infrastructure
  • Digital Media New Communication Services / Jorma Havia 27.08.1999 Equipment expansion
  • The Change in Telecommunication Landscape
    • From fixed to wireless
    • From narrow band to broadband
    • From circuit switched to packet switched
  • From Fixed to Wireless
  • Forecast for Mobile Communications in Finland by Finnish Post & Telecom in 1983 150.000 100.000 50.000 0 1971 -75 -80 -85 -90 -95 2000 GSM NMT ARP Total Subscribers Note: Actual number of connections in 1998 was 20 times as many as forecast
  • Case: Finnish experiences - Highest Mobile Communications Penetration in the World % of population February 1999
  • Mobile connections as substitute for wireline Annual net increase of connections ’ 000s 1980 1985 -90 -91 -92 -93 -94 -95 100 50 0 x 250 150 200 Mobile penetration 6.0 % Mobile Wireline Related to segment S1 - Annual net increase of mobile vs. wireline
  • Mobile originating calls Wireline originating calls Calls by origination Calls are Percentage of calls by termination Growth rate terminating to Year 1994 Year 1998 Next 2 years - mobile conns 30 % 50 % Strong - wireline conns 70 % 50 % Slight - Internet 15 % 27 % Strong - mobile conns 7 % 20 % Slight - wireline conns 78 % 53 % Zero / declining Mobile calls as a substitute for wireline calls
  • Number of subscriptions 1989 Number of users 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 2002 (est.) Mobile penetration rate 1989 -2002 - Realised and forecast development Nov 1998 Mobile connections equal wireline conns at mobile penetration rate of 58 % 58 %
  • The new wireless technology enablers
    • WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)
    • UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) and Media Phones
  • What Is WAP ?
    • The WAP (wireless application protocol) is a specification for a set of communication protocols to standardize the way that wireless devices, such as cellular telephones and radioTransceivers, can be used for internet access, including e-mail, the world wide web, Newsgroups, and internet relay chat (IRC).
  • What is WAP (2)
    • WAP specifies means for offering mobile internet services:
    • Vendor independence (open standard)
    • For mobile terminals
    • Assumes slower and lower reliability in connections
  • What is WAP ? (3)
    • Compatibility is ensured:
      • all digital mobile networks including:
      • GSM-900, GSM-1800, GSM-1900 ,CDMA IS-95 TDMA IS-136
      • 3G systems - IMT-2000, UMTS, W-CDMA, Wideband IS-95GSM, DCS, DCMA, WCDMA
      • WWW bases standards and protocols
      • in future UMTS and other 3G will bring only more bandwitdth, but the service level will remain the same (WAP)
  • WAP HTTP Päätelaite WAP-gateway WWW-palvelin
  • Internet Comparison between Internet and WAP Technologies HTML JavaScript HTTP TLS - SSL TCP/IP UDP/IP Wireless Application Protocol Wireless Application Environment (WAE) Session Layer (WSP) Security Layer (WTLS) Transport Layer (WDP) Other Services and Applications Transaction Layer (WTP) SMS USSD CSD IS-136 CDMA CDPD PDC-P Etc.. Bearers:
  • <?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot;?> <!DOCTYPE wml PUBLIC &quot;-//WAPFORUM//DTD WML 1.1//EN&quot; &quot;http://www.wapforum.org/DTD/wml_1.1.xml&quot;> <wml> <card id=&quot;get&quot; title=&quot;Germany&quot;> <p>City: $(lVar)<br/> Select the time period: <select name=&quot;tVar&quot;> <option value=&quot;1day&quot; onpick=&quot;#get2&quot;>1 day</option> <option value=&quot;3day&quot; onpick=&quot;#get2&quot;>3 days</option> </select> </p> </card> <card id=&quot;get2&quot; title=&quot;Germany&quot;> <p><anchor>Get the forecast<go href=&quot;fetch.asp?Tyyppi=weather+$(tVar:e)&amp;text=$(lVar:e)&quot;/></anchor></p> <p><anchor>Change the city<go href=&quot;#city&quot;/></anchor></p> </card> </wml>
  • WAP Application Server WAP Application Server Application Logic WML Decks with WML-Script WSP/WTP Content WML Encoder WMLScript Compiler Protocol Adapters Client WML WML-Script WTAI Etc.
  • WAP server
    • platform on which software houses can develop WAP based services
    • creates a new channel for any type of internet based access
    • can be used for extranet, intranet and internet based services (connections to Lotus Notes, R3 etc)
    • generates service requests to a WWW-server or includes itself a MMM-server
    • Nokia Beta release of the servers available at
    • www.nokia.com/corporate/wap/gateway.html
  • Features of WAP service
    • closer to browsing but services more limited due to narrow keyboard and display
    • user does not have to remember keywords or passwords- can be merged into service portals (ZED)
    • outlook weblike
    • both push and pull on demand like in SMS
    • can utilize forms, icons and pictures
    • use of hyperslinks possible
    • WAP services can utilize phone control features that can be found in GSM
  • Technology enablers: mobile terminals
  • Mobile Media Time Line Generations of Mobile Telephones (NOKIA) New Communication Services / Jorma Havia 27.08.1999 NMT GSM HSCSD GPRS UMTS 1981 1992 1999 2000 200x Data: 9.6 kbit/s 14.4 kbit/s 64 kbit/s 2Mbit/s WAP (Wireless Access Protocol) 1 st G 2 nd G 3 rd G
  • Types of mobile terminals
    • Portable computers
    • Communicators
      • Personal Digital Assistant+mobile phone (or a PCMCIA card able to transmit data)
    • WAP phones
      • like Nokia 7110
    • Normal GSM phones with text messages
  • Characteristics of the Communicator
    • (Nokia 9000, 9110i)
    • free memory 2 (+10) MB
      • Internet protocol stack (TCP/IP) run over GSM data circuits (modem access to Internet service provider)
      • a simple WWW browser
      • HTTP, Telnet, SMTP, Terminal protocols
      • business cards, clock, etc
      • displays are fairly small (120 x 35 mm)
  • WAP-phones
    • Wireless Application Protocol environment
      • microbrowser interpreting Wireless Mark-Up Language (WML)
      • applications can be written with WML
      • WAP protocol stack support (not directly IP-support)
      • small displays (almost like in a voice phone)
      • memory: ca 1 MB
  • Mobile Media (Vision) Camera - Mobile phone Prototype MX-1 (Canon) New Communication Services / Jorma Havia 27.08.1999
  • Example: Mobile Virtual Meeting
  • What is enabled with WAP?
    • Banking
    • Timetables
    • Customer information, phone (connection) books
    • Customer databases, ordering,
    • Logistics, production planning, scheduling
    • maintenance, transportation services
  • Weather forecast Train timetables Car wash Drink vending machine GSM e-mail On Demand Information Services Pay by Mobile Person to Person SMS Telebanking Current media phone services
  • Examples of WAP-services (available now in Finland)
    • General information services
      • news
      • traffic announcements
      • local weather
      • sports
      • trading and stocks
    • Entertainment
      • jokes
      • ticket services
      • gambling
  • Why WAP is interesting?
    • WAP combines internet and mobility
      • power of the installed base
      • global service
      • mobile terminals owned by nearly everybody
    • phones changed by every 18 months
    • In 2000 c.a. 20 % of sold phones are WAP-phones
  • Why WAP is interesting ?
    • SMS has been a phenomenal success:
    • 12 months x 20 msg/subs/month x 0,2 USD/msg x 200.000.000 subs in year 2000= 9.6 B USD
    • WAP is a way to develop and prepare for next generation (UMTS) services
    • Will develop a totally new way of thinking
  • From narrow band to broad band
  • Stationary Pedestrian Mobile 1 10 100 1.000 10.000 100.000 Bit rate (kbps) PSTN ISDN xDSL UMTS GSM DAB DVB terrestrial DVB cable DVB satellite GPRS Bluetooth LAN Transmission speeds for information services 2002 2000 2000 2000 1998 2001 1990 1999
  • Edge Routers
  • From circuit switched to packet switched
  • Wireline Wireless/Mobile Type of Network connections Traditional voice comms Delivery of content transactions ’ Telephony’ Wireless telephony for voice Next generation mobile service provision ’ media phone’ Next generation wireline service provision ’ IP MM’ State 1. State 2. State 3. State 4. Transition 2 Transition 3 Transition 1 Network connections are used for: How the nature of ’telephony’ is changing Year 1995 - Year 1980- Year 2000 -
  • Technological infrastructure Horizontal architecture IP Network Community Server Application server
  • Towards New 3G service structures
  • Entertainment Information services E-commerce, pay- ments, public access Communications Broad (keyboard) Narrow Network games Pay-per-view Netgames Gambling Information brow- sing Broadcast data (super Text TV) Catalogue sales, Simple transactions payments E-commerce, public services WWW information Direct response advertising TV:n watching E-mail, video- services, voice- mail, chat services New access methods to information services Level of interactivity Passive digiTV digiTV media phone
  • 3G Internet Services DVB-Carousel DVB xDSL UMTS WLAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interactive Services Service M anagement Billing DVB Channels MUX REMUX Internet . . . . . . . . Media Switch Media Switch Media Switch Media Switch 22 Mbps GSM Media Screen
  • 3G Internet Services 1995 2000 2005 2010 E- Publishing Audio and Video E- Commerce 0 5 10 15 20 25 Billion USD in Europe
  • DIGITAL TV - more channels; payTV, 24 news, 24 h sports, ... - supertext TV; graphics, hypertext - interactive citizen’s ’information society’ services PC / INTERNET - from passive html-pages to streaming multimedia - from Kb’s to Mb’s - virtual reality MEDIAPHONE / NEW MOBILE NETWORKS - personal device - service adapted to use context (meeting, home, on-the-road) - Serves multiple and changing needs Main platforms 2000 -
  • Digital Television (DVB) Television - Internet Integration (Inet-tv, WEB-tv) New Communication Services / Jorma Havia 27.08.1999
  • Startup of Digital TV 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Terrestrial UK Sweden Finland Spain Europe Satellite France, Germany, Italy Cable France UK Germany Terrestrial DTV USA Satellite DirecTV PrimeStar Echostar Cable TCI,Time Open Wamer Cable Terrestrial Japan Satellite PerfectV DirecTV BS Digital Cable Kagoshima Cable
  • Digital TV Access Million households with dTV
  • New service combinations and value to the user
  • Services User Satisfaction Few Simple Isolated One Channel Many - All Complex Combined All channels VALUE All devices: Telephone + PC + TV + Mobile + Digi-TV * Total Mobility * Economy of Scope
  • Horizontal layers such as Service Mgmt, Customer Care & Billing Third party actors: (i) enterprises having interest to online interact with their customers (ii) enterprises whose goods and services can be directly used via the network (iii) user based services, civic cybersociety POTS, ISDN/ xDSL/ Internet DCS UMTS DVB-T DVB-C DVB-S CORP. NETW.
  • Value chain for future digital services Basic services Support Services Value Added services Consumers Value added services Producers Technological Infrastructures Service Architectures
    • Technologies
    • - wireless technologies
    • internet technologies (IPv6, SGML)
    • - data management (Object management)
    • - software architectures (DCOM, CORBA)
    • Service Architectures
    • generic service concepts
    • regulation
    • reference models
    Education E-commerce Public services Library Tourism Consumers Usability Business models Technology Push Market pull
  • Integrated information service platform Diffusion Factors and Rate Dynamic Virtual Communities Technology Changes Infrastructure investments Business models Industry structures Demographics Ergonomic factors User learning and experience User support Quality of Service Social Capital, Culture Service concepts, applications, service portfolios, DRIVERS IN COM- MUNITY BASED INFORMATION SERVICE DIFFUSION Technology Service Adoption Community
  • Research Challenges
    • Design, management and packaging of digital services based on new business models
    • All information services need careful rethinking and will be transformed
    • Adaptability to multiple access channels
    • Understanding user needs in a new information rich environment
  • Challenges
    • Management of content and metadata management
    • Usability
    • Evolution and expansion of services based on user learning
    • Understanding the demand and what drives it is difficult
    • Many services based on increasing returns and are community based