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               Performance Evaluation of 3G
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            CDMA IS-95 Evolution ...
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            What is the Drive...
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            3G Standards
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            Maximizing Radio Capacity for...
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            Methods of Increasing Radio Capacity
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            Evaluate the Capacity Improvement using
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            MATLAB Models
             •Derive the E...
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            An Example of Antenna Gain Pattern: 3 Elem...
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            OPNET Models
             • For...
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            Network Config...
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            OPNET Network Layout

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Performance Evaluation of 3G CDMA Networks with Antenna Arrays


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Performance Evaluation of 3G CDMA Networks with Antenna Arrays

  1. 1. Jul. 2003 1 Performance Evaluation of 3G CDMA Networks with Antenna Arrays IEEE 4th Workshop on Applications and Services in Wireless Networks Dr. D. J. Shyy The MITRE Corporation Jin Yu and Dr. Yu-Dong Yao Stevens Institute of Technology August 9, 2004 MITRE
  2. 2. Jul. 2003 2 Background • The 2G CDMA IS-95A cellular network has been deployed for eight years. Although the system design rules and operating procedures for voice services are well established and understood, these rules and procedures need to be re-examined in light of several technology innovations. - Launching of cdma2000 1x high-rate data services* - Interference cancellation** - Antenna array - Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) *D. J. Shyy, "Impact of deploying cdma2000 data to voice capacity using cellular simulator," OPNETWORK Conference, Aug. 2002. **D. J. Shyy and J. Dunyak, "Evaluation of interference cancellation technique in CDMA networks," OPNETWORK Conference Distinguished Paper Award, Aug. 2003. MITRE
  3. 3. Jul. 2003 3 Objectives • We have built a 3G cdma2000 1x cellular simulator to investigate various design issues of cdma2000 1x networks. - Simulate the physical layer using MATLAB - Simulate the networking layer, call processing and system aspects using OPNET Modeler • In this paper, we investigate the effectiveness of deploying antenna arrays in CDMA networks using cdma2000 1x cellular simulator. MITRE
  4. 4. Jul. 2003 4 US Cellular Service Providers and Their Deployed Technology cdma2000 1x cdma2000 1x GSM/GPRS IS-136 i-DEN W-CDMA EVDO (TDMA) (TDMA) (TDMA) AT&T x x x Cingular x x Monet Mobile x x Networks Nextel x T-mobile x Verizon x x Sprint PCS x x *Note: In December 2002, AT&T Wireless and DoCoMo announced an agreement to work together to launch four U.S. markets using W-CDMA by the end of 2004. In July 2004, W- CDMA has bee deployed in the following 4 US cities: Detroit, Phoenix, San Francisco and Seattle. MITRE
  5. 5. Jul. 2003 5 CDMA IS-95 Evolution Path Korea only 1x EV Phase 1 IS-95B cdma2000 1xEV-DO 64 kbps 2.4 Mbps 1x EV Phase 2 IS-95A cdma2000 1x 1.25 MHz cdma2000 1xEV-DV 153.6 kbps 3.09 Mbps 1.25 MHz 1.25 MHz 1996 2000 2002 MITRE
  6. 6. Jul. 2003 6 What is the Drive for 3G? • Achieve higher voice capacity than 2G systems (at least double) • Support high-rate data services - However, it is not sure where the 3G market is and what the killer applications are? Wireless Internet? Camera photos? Streaming audio and video? Location service? In addition, Wi- Fi (WLAN) hot spots are taking over 3G data market in a fast pace. - As a result, US operators are not counting on data applications. Instead, US operators are counting on the superior voice capacity. • Better spectrum efficiency • Seamless global roaming (does not seem to be possible any more) MITRE
  7. 7. Jul. 2003 7 IMT-2000 •International Mobile Telecommunications- 2000 (IMT-2000) is the 3G standards in International Telecommunications Union (ITU) - In Europe, 3G is also referred as Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) - 2000 referred to both the frequency band (2 GHz) and the expected deployment date (year 2000) •Data rate capabilities - 144 Kbps for vehicular (macro cell) - 384 Kbps for pedestrian (micro cell) - 2 Mbps for fixed (pico cell) MITRE
  8. 8. Jul. 2003 8 3G Standards • On 11/05/99, ITU Radio Communication Sector (ITU- R) Task Group 8/1 endorsed 3 modes for IMT-2000 standards: - Multi-carrier (MC) FDD • IMT-MC • cdma2000 1x and 3x for radio access network - Direct Spread (DS) FDD • IMT-DS • W-CDMA FDD for radio access network - Direct Spread (DS) TDD • IMT-TC • W-CDMA TDD for radio access network • Mainly in China Comment: 3 modes actually mean 3 standards. MITRE
  9. 9. Jul. 2003 9 Maximizing Radio Capacity for 3G • The fundamental bottleneck of a 3G network is still in the radio access network, not in the core network. As a result, capacity optimization of the radio access network is most important. - Conserving the usage of spectrum is the top priority for US cellular service providers because some of the providers have only 5 MHz of spectrum • IS-95 voice capacity per cell • 20 – 25 users • cdma2000 1x voice capacity per cell • 35 – 40 users MITRE
  10. 10. Jul. 2003 10 Methods of Increasing Radio Capacity • cdma2000 1x enhancements • Interference cancellation • Smart antenna • Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) MITRE
  11. 11. Jul. 2003 11 Evaluate the Capacity Improvement using Antenna Array at the BS • MATLAB Models • Antenna Array Models • OPNET Models MITRE
  12. 12. Jul. 2003 12 MATLAB Models •Derive the Eb/Nt for forward and reverse links MITRE
  13. 13. Jul. 2003 13 Antenna Array Models • A standard linear equally Array elements Main lobe beamwidth Main lobe gain Side lobe beamwidth Side lobe gain spaced (LES) array is considered. The distance d between the elements of the LES array is half of the carrier wavelength. • The overhead channels 1 360 0 17.1 dB N/A N/A (pilot, paging and sync) are sent over the common omni- 2 138 0 17.1 dB 222 0 11.3 dB directional antenna. The traffic channel is sent over the individual beam pointing 4 760 17.1 dB 284 0 7.8 dB toward the user. The patterns of individual beams are the same except the 6 540 17.1 dB 306 0 5.9 dB direction is different. MITRE
  14. 14. Jul. 2003 14 An Example of Antenna Gain Pattern: 3 Elements MITRE
  15. 15. Jul. 2003 15 OPNET Models • Forward link and reverse link (Downlink and uplink) • Pilot, paging and sync channels • Fundamental channels • Supplemental channels • Soft handoff procedures and messaging • Power control for forward and reverse links • Admission control for forward and reverse links • Computation of same-cell interference, other-cell interference, and noise for both forward and reverse links MITRE
  16. 16. Jul. 2003 16 Network Configuration • 1 Base Station Controller (BSC) • 19 omni-directional cells - Statistics are collected only for the center cell.The other cells are used to provide realistic interference condition. • 836 mobiles • Cell antenna height: 30 m • BS max. power: 16 W • PCS frequency band (1900 MHz) • Propagation model: Extended HATA • In-building penetration loss: 15 dB • Cell radius: 675 meter (derived from RF link budget) MITRE
  17. 17. Jul. 2003 17 OPNET Network Layout MITRE
  18. 18. Jul. 2003 18 Simulation Results I: Voice Capacity Comparison • The voice service uses Rate Array elements Strongest serving cell is cell 0 Serving cells include cell 0 Set 1, i.e. 9.6 kbps. The required Eb/Nt to achieve the target FER 1% for the forward voice channel is 7 dB. M=1 22 27 M=2 26 38 M=4 29 51 M=6 34 63 MITRE
  19. 19. Jul. 2003 19 Simulation Results II: Always Available 153.6 Kbps Data • Beamforming is used to Array elemen Number of users (strongest Number of users (serving cells ts serving cell is include cell 0) compensate for the difference cell 0) in processing gain when supporting different data rates. As a result, the users can always enjoy high-rate data service regardless of the M=1 N/A N/A location. At the BS, the forward transmit power M=2 N/A N/A required to support 153.6 kbps SCH can be computed assuming the data rate is 9.6 M=4 N/A N/A kbp. M=6 32 60 MITRE
  20. 20. Jul. 2003 20 Simulation Results III: Dynamic Handover Thresholds Adjustment • Since the interference is Array elemen Number of users (strongest Number of users (serving cells ts serving cell is include cell 0) reduced using antenna array cell 0) techniques, the pilot Ec/Nt seen by the user also becomes stronger. As a result, more users are in 2-way and 3-way soft handoff. The voice M=1 N/A N/A capacity can be further improved if the soft handoff M=2 27 36 thresholds are optimized (e.g. increase T_ADD) M=4 36 49 M=6 42 59 MITRE
  21. 21. Jul. 2003 21 Conclusions • With the help of the cellular simulator, we conclude that the network capacity increase is proportional to the antenna array capability at the BS. • When the BSs are equipped with antenna array, the network capacity is largely improved (almost doubled with a high enough number of array elements) compared to a network without antenna array. - This finding is impressive since with the major enhancements from cdma2000 1x (such as improved coding gain, faster forward power control, and coherent demodulation for the reverse link), the capacity improvement of cdma2000 1x compared to IS-95 is only between 1.5 – 2 times MITRE
  22. 22. Jul. 2003 22 Recommendations • Our recommendations for deploying antenna array in the cdma2000 networks are to -Balance the coverage of pilot channel and traffic channels -Deploy at least 6 array elements per antenna array to double the voice capacity -Use antenna array to perform QOS provisioning for high-rate data users, i.e., increase the coverage range for high-rate data connections. MITRE