University of Massachusetts




                             CWINS




           Evolution of Wireless Network
          ...
Outline
   Introduction
   Voice-Oriented Cellular Networks
    – 1G analog cellular
    – 2G
        • Cellular, PCS, M...
What is a wireless network?




3
Evolution of terminals


      Morse Pad                                                                                  ...
5
                         Bandwidth (Kbps)

                                                                    (100 Mbps...
Four Original Traditional Industries




6
1G Systems
 Analog cellular or mobile phone for the car
 Analog cordless telephones for homes
 Pagers (?) as mobile dat...
1G Analog Cellular Systems
    Standar    Forward       Reverse       Channel   Region     Comments
    d         Band MHz...
2G Systems
 Digital cellular for mobile users
 PCS for pedestrians
 Independent Mobile data for portable
  computers
 ...
2G Digital Cellular Systems
     System                     GSM          IS-54        JDC       IS-95
     Region         ...
2G Digital Cordless (PCS)
                                CT2 and
     System                       CT2+        DECT      ...
Mobile Data Systems (2G, 2.5G?)
     System          ARDIS    Mobitex   CDPD    TETRA GPRS         Metricom
     Frequency...
WLAN Standards (2G,3G,4G?)
     Parameters    IEEE 802.11    IEEE          IEEE 802.11a      HIPERLAN/2         HIPERLAN/1...
3G W-CDMA for IMT-2000

      CDMA provides a better quality of voice
      CDMA is more flexible air interface to
     ...
Overview of the Current Wireless Access Methods


                                         Wide Area Network (WAN)
     Mo...
Two Sectors of Wireless Industry:

    Voice-Oriented Cellular
     – 3G IMT-2000 for Access
     – Integrates Cellular, ...
Beyond 3G

    First Generation: Analog Cellular, Analog Cordless,
     Pager (?), Local Area Low-Speed Packet Data
    ...
Braodband and Ad-Hoc Access:

         Wireless LAN for broadband access
          – IEEE 802.11
          – HIPERLAN
   ...
Evolution of WLAN Products:
                                  Building Cross-connect




                                 ...
W-CAN
     ATWATER KENT LABORATORIES                                                                                 Fulle...
Telecomm. View
        Corporate Network
                                                              Home
             ...
BW-Internet Access




22
WPAN Vision for Bluetooth



     Landline


                                              Cable
                         ...
Two Technologies for Home




     Internet

                  Broadband
                 Home-Access



                 ...
Military interest ………..




25
Body LAN or Wearable LAN




26
Urban fighting ………..




27
Self healing mines ….




28
Unmanned combat air vehicle…




29
Fixed-mobile networks




30
Wireless vs Wired
        Wireless operates on the unreliable radio channel that needs far
         more complex PHY laye...
Elements of a Wireless Network
          Architecture
    Services
     – voice, data, call forwarding, …
    System inf...
Technical Aspects of Wireless
             Infrastructure
 Network deployment planning
 Mobility and location management...
Technical Aspects for Air-Interface
      Understanding of the medium (path-loss,
       variations of the channel and mu...
What is important in wireless?
    In voice oriented networks
     – 2G designed a new digital air-interface to facilitat...
What is a telecomm network ?

                                                                      Satellite
            ...
Wireless Voice-Oriented Networks



      Traditional fixed telephone infrastructure




                                 ...
Comparison of PCS and Cellular
     System Aspects                  PCS               Cellular
     Cell size             ...
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November 5, 2004 ©KP University of Massachusetts

  1. 1. University of Massachusetts CWINS Evolution of Wireless Network K. Pahlavan November 5, 2004 ©KP
  2. 2. Outline  Introduction  Voice-Oriented Cellular Networks – 1G analog cellular – 2G • Cellular, PCS, Mobile data, WLAN – 3G and beyond • IMT-2000 • Broadband and adhoc networks • Future directions and 4G systems  Wireless Data Networks – Mobile data – Broadband Adhoc networks 2
  3. 3. What is a wireless network? 3
  4. 4. Evolution of terminals Morse Pad Workstation Telephone Mainframe Printer Computer Fax iBook Hand held computer Scanner Video Mouse Pen computer Cell phone PDA Laptop CRT projector Keyboard 4
  5. 5. 5 Bandwidth (Kbps) (100 Mbps) (10 Mbps) (1 Mbps) 10,000 100,000 100 10 1,000 1 Smart Appliances Utility Metering Security Systems Phone Appliances Real Audio G2 MP3 Audio Games Printing Internet Camcorder DV MPEG2 Video 3D Games Bandwidth Requirements for Applications
  6. 6. Four Original Traditional Industries 6
  7. 7. 1G Systems  Analog cellular or mobile phone for the car  Analog cordless telephones for homes  Pagers (?) as mobile data  Low-speed LANs using voiceband modems and walkie-talkies as local wireless (?) 7
  8. 8. 1G Analog Cellular Systems Standar Forward Reverse Channel Region Comments d Band MHz Band MHz Spacing kHz AMPS 824-849 869-894 30 America Also in Australia, SE Asia, Africa TACS 890-915 935-960 25 EC Later, bands were allocated to GSM ETACS 872-905 917-950 25 UK NMT 450 453-457.5 463-467.5 25 EC NMT 900 890-915 935-960 12.5 EC Freq. overlapping Also in Africa and SE Asia C-450 450-455.74 460-465.74 10 Germany Portugal RTMS 450-455 460-465 25 Italy Radioco 192.5-199.5 200.5-207.5 12.5 France m 2000 215.5-233.5 207.5-215.5 165.2-168.4 169.8-173 414.8-418 424.8-428 NTT 925-940 870-885 25/6.25 Japan First band is 915-918.5 860-863.5 6.25 nationwide, 922-925 867-870 6.25 others regional JTACS/N 915-925 860-870 25/12.5 Japan All are regional TACS 898-901 843-846 25/12.5 918.5-922 863.5-867 12.5 8
  9. 9. 2G Systems  Digital cellular for mobile users  PCS for pedestrians  Independent Mobile data for portable computers  WLANs for wire replacement 9
  10. 10. 2G Digital Cellular Systems System GSM IS-54 JDC IS-95 Region Europe/Asia USA Japan USA/Asia Access Method TDMA/FDD TDMA/FDD TDMA/FDD CDMA Modulation Scheme GMSK /4-DQPSK /4-DQPSK QPSK Frequency Band 935-960 869-894 810-826 869-894 (MHz) 890-915 824-849 940-956 824-849 1477-1489 1429-1441 1501-1513 1453-1465 Carrier Spacing (kHz) 200 30 25 1250 Bearer 8 3 3 Variable channels/carrier Channel bit rate 270.833 48.6 42 1228.8 (kbps) Speech Coding 13 kbps 8 kbps 1-8 kbps (variable) Average handset Tx. 125 mW 20 mW 20 mW Power (mW) Peak power (W) 1 0.6 Frame duration (ms) 4.615 40 20 20 10
  11. 11. 2G Digital Cordless (PCS) CT2 and System CT2+ DECT PHS PACS Europe Region Canada Europe Japan United States Access Method TDMA/TDD TDMA/T DD TDMA/TDD TDMA/FDD 864 -868 1850 -1910 Frequency band (MHz) 944 -948 1880 -1900 1895 -1918 1930 -1990 Carrier spacing (KHz) 100 1728 300 300, 300 Number of carriers 40 10 77 16 pairs Bearer channels/carrier 1 12 4 8 per pair Channel bit rate (kb/s) 72 115 2 384 384 Modulation GFSK GFSK /4-DQPSK /4-DQPSK Speech coding 32 kb/s 32kb/s 32 kb/s 32 kb/s Ave. handset Tx power (mW) 5 10 10 25 Peak handset Tx power (mW) 10 250 80 200 Frame duration (ms) 2 10 5 2.5 11
  12. 12. Mobile Data Systems (2G, 2.5G?) System ARDIS Mobitex CDPD TETRA GPRS Metricom Frequency 800 935-940 869- 380- 890-915 902-928 band bands 896-961 894 383 935-960 ISM (MHz) 45 kHz 824- 390- bands sep 849 393 Channel bit 19.2 8.0 19.2 36 300-400 100 rate (kbps) RF channel 25KHz 12.5KHz 30KHz 25KHz 200 KHz 160KHz spacing Channel FDMA/ FDMA/ FDMA/ FDMA/ FDMA/ FHSS/ Access/ DSMA Dynamic DSMA DSMA TDMA/ BTMA Multi-user S-ALOHA Reserve access Modulation 4-FSK GMSK GMSK /4- GMSK GMSK Technique DQPS K HDR that can support up to over 2Mbps 12
  13. 13. WLAN Standards (2G,3G,4G?) Parameters IEEE 802.11 IEEE IEEE 802.11a HIPERLAN/2 HIPERLAN/1 802.11b Status Approved, Final Final ballot, In preparation Approved, Products ballot, Products No products Products Freq. Band 2.4 GHz 2.4 GHz 5 GHz 5 GHz PHY, DSSS: DSSS: OFDM GMSK modulation FHSS: CCK Data rate 1, 2 Mbps 1, 2, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 54 Mbps 23.5 Mbps 5.5, 11 Mbps Access Distributed control, Central control. Active method CSMA/CA Reservation contention Or based access resolution, RTS/CTS Priority signalling Also 802.11g that is OFDM in 2.4GHz coexisting with 11.b. 13
  14. 14. 3G W-CDMA for IMT-2000  CDMA provides a better quality of voice  CDMA is more flexible air interface to customize multi-media applications  Two overall approaches – build on the success of the installed GSM infrastructure (UMTS/IMT-2000) – build on the cdmaOne experience (cdma2000/IMT-2000) 14
  15. 15. Overview of the Current Wireless Access Methods Wide Area Network (WAN) Mobility - Expensive licensed bands Vehicle Local Area Network (LAN) Outdoor Walk - High speed unlicensed 3G Personal Area Network (PAN) Fixed Cellular -Ad-hoc unlicensed Walk W-LAN Indoor Fixed/ WPAN Desktop 0,1 1 10 100 Mbps User Bitrate, Datacom services 15
  16. 16. Two Sectors of Wireless Industry:  Voice-Oriented Cellular – 3G IMT-2000 for Access – Integrates Cellular, PCS, and Mobile Data – Operates in licensed bands  Data-Oriented Broadband Ad-hoc – WLAN and WPAN – Provides for broadband wireless Internet access and wireless media for consumer products – in unlicensed bands for traditional 16
  17. 17. Beyond 3G  First Generation: Analog Cellular, Analog Cordless, Pager (?), Local Area Low-Speed Packet Data  Second Generation: Digital Cellular, PCS, Mobile Data, Wireless LAN  Third Generation: Improved Quality and Capacity for the Voice and Higher Data Rates for the Data.  Beyond 3G: – Integration with WLAN in unlicensed bands – Increase the quality and capacity using time-space diversity – Include location aware services – Include ad-hoc networking capabilities 17
  18. 18. Braodband and Ad-Hoc Access:  Wireless LAN for broadband access – IEEE 802.11 – HIPERLAN  Wireless PAN for ad-hoc networking – Bluetooth – UWB 18
  19. 19. Evolution of WLAN Products: Building Cross-connect (2) PCMCIA cards and Laptops Wired Backbone (3) (1) Shoebox type LAN Extension 19
  20. 20. W-CAN ATWATER KENT LABORATORIES Fuller Laboratories Wireless Wireless Bridge Bridge Wireless A ccess Point Sw itch Router Electronic w hiteboard Campus Backbone Netw ork Gordon Library Wireless Bridge Bridge Bridge Wireless Wireless Wireless Bridge Olin Hall Salisbury Laboratories Wireless Wireless Bridge Bridge 20
  21. 21. Telecomm. View  Corporate Network Home 3rd generation Cellular  Home Environment Internet Office Ethernet ISP  Public Networks 21
  22. 22. BW-Internet Access 22
  23. 23. WPAN Vision for Bluetooth Landline Cable Replacement Data/Voice Access Points Personal Ad-hoc Networks 23
  24. 24. Two Technologies for Home Internet Broadband Home-Access Broadband Home-Distribution 24
  25. 25. Military interest ……….. 25
  26. 26. Body LAN or Wearable LAN 26
  27. 27. Urban fighting ……….. 27
  28. 28. Self healing mines …. 28
  29. 29. Unmanned combat air vehicle… 29
  30. 30. Fixed-mobile networks 30
  31. 31. Wireless vs Wired  Wireless operates on the unreliable radio channel that needs far more complex PHY layer as well as connection management  Wireless should arrange change of connection point during the moves by a more complex registration and call routing  Wireless has limited number of channels (radio frequency bands) that should be managed to be shared among a huge number of users  Wireless needs security (authenticate and ciphering) to avoid fraud and preserve privacy  Wireless, due to bandwidth scarcity, needs more complex source coding techniques (e.g. for voice or video)  Wireless needs permanent and temporary addressing to support mobility  Wireless mobile operates out of the battery energy and needs power management  Wireless terminals use small screens that needs special graphics 31
  32. 32. Elements of a Wireless Network Architecture  Services – voice, data, call forwarding, …  System infrastructure to connect the mobile user to the existing fixed networks – Mobile terminal – Fixed wireless infrastructure  Detailed layered protocols to tie all components together – PHY, Data Link, Network Layer  Traffic engineering and deployment 32
  33. 33. Technical Aspects of Wireless Infrastructure  Network deployment planning  Mobility and location management  Radio resource and power management  Security 33
  34. 34. Technical Aspects for Air-Interface  Understanding of the medium (path-loss, variations of the channel and multipath effects)  Study of the PHY layer alternatives (pulse transmission techniques, traditional RF, spread spectrum)  Study of the MAC layer alternatives (voice- oriented FDMA, TDMA and CDMA, and data- oriented: ALOHA and CSMA based) 34
  35. 35. What is important in wireless?  In voice oriented networks – 2G designed a new digital air-interface to facilitate data applications and increase the capacity of analog 1G – 3G designed a CDMA air-interface to provide higher data rates and improve the quality and capacity – 4G possibly uses time-space diversity and MIMO air-interface to get what 3G did not  In data oriented networks – 802.11 used spread spectrum modem because FCC wanted it. – CCK modems were developed for 802.11b to increase the data rate at 2.4GHz – OFDM was used in 802.11a and g to further increase the data rate – UWB is expected to increase the data rate and number of users 35
  36. 36. What is a telecomm network ? Satellite Satellite dish Satellite dish Point-to-point plus interconnect elements (switches/routers) 36
  37. 37. Wireless Voice-Oriented Networks Traditional fixed telephone infrastructure Additional fixed components for a wireless infrastructure 37
  38. 38. Comparison of PCS and Cellular System Aspects PCS Cellular Cell size 5-500 m 0.5-30 Km Coverage Zonal Comprehensive Antenna height < 15 m > 15 m Vehicle speed < 5 kph < 200 kmp Handset comp. Low Moderate Base station comp. Low High Spectrum access Shared Exclusive Average handset power 5-10 mW 100-600 mW Speech coding 32 kb/s ADPCM 7-13 kb/s vocoder Multipath mitigation Antenna diversity Diversity/equalizati (optional) on/Rake Duplexing Usually TDD FDD Detection Non-coherent Coherent 38
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