How many people from mobile carriers? ISP / fixed line carriers? About myself
High level overview….assume most people from data / ISP background so good intro. 2G and 3G as well.
WLAN Access Server is used to provide other services to WiMax/WiFi network.
CDMA pioneered by Korea in Asia…
3G Technology - Consists of 1X and 1xEV standards 1X also referred to as 1X-RTT(Radio Transmission Technology) Doubles the voice capacity of cdmaOne systems and offers packet data speeds of 153 kbps (Release 0) and 307 kbps (Release 1) in a single 1.25 MHz channel 1xEV consists of 1xEV-DO (Data Only) and 1xEV-DV (Data & Voice) 1xEV-DO delivers peak data speeds of 2.4Mbps in single 1.25MHz channel, CDMA2000 1xEV-DV provides integrated voice and simultaneous packet data at speeds of up to 2.4Mbps in a single 1.25MHz channel Both standards are backwards compatible with cdmaOne(2G) Standardization effort being led by 3GPP2 (www.3gpp2.org)
TS 23. 2 05 4 .x.x Bearer-independent circuit-switched core network; Stage 2 (Release 4) TS 29.414 Core Network Nb Data Transport and Transport Signalling
23.228 IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS); Stage 2
Mobile IP is emerging as the technology of choice for roaming between different access technologies (i.e. WLAN to Cellular to WiMAX). Picture above shows WLAN to cellular application. Mobile IP also relevant in inter- PDSN or GGSN environments.
CDMA2000 network: introduction of an IP Domain for Packet Switched Services 1X to 1X-EV migration: only the BTS is required to upgrade A Reference Point: --> defined by 3G IOS A.S0014 spec --> goal was to have an open, standardized interface between switch and BSC to support multi-vendor environment A1: Signaling interface A2: Ater Reference Point: --> 2G: BSC and BTS had proprietary interface for the Ater Reference Point --> 3G: Standardized interface (3G IOS A.S0015 spec) BSC: Base Station Controller --> Allocates and manages radio resources PCF: Packet Control Function --> Converts user data frames (fixed-length) to variable-length packets --> NOTE: BSC and PCF are most often implemented in one physical until called a R-P Interface: Only interface mandated to be IP-based (others have IP as option) Pi: Equivalent to the Gi Inteface in GPRS/UMTS ========== From: A.S0011-A v1.0 2.0 Interface Model The logical reference model used for this standard is the Network Reference Model as 2 shown in . 3 2.1 Reference Points A, A ter , A quinter , and A quater 4 The Network Reference Model contains reference points A, Ater, Aquinter, and Aquater that 5 are implemented by the protocols and interfaces of this standard. 6 • The A reference point is implemented by the A1, A2 and A5 interfaces. 7 • The Ater reference point is implemented by the A3 and A7 interfaces. 8 • The Aquater reference point is implemented by the A10 and A11 interfaces. 9 • The Aquinter reference point is implemented by the A8 and A9 interfaces. 10 2.2 Interface Reference Model 11 The interfaces defined in this standard are described below. 12 A1 The A1 interface carries signaling information between the Call 13 Control (CC) and Mobility Management (MM) functions of the MSC 14 and the call control component of the BS (BSC). 15 A2 The A2 interface carries 64/56 kbps PCM (encoded voice) information or 64 kbps 16 Unrestricted Digital Information (UDI, for ISDN) between the Switch 17 component of the MSC and the Selection/Distribution Unit (SDU) 18 function of the BS. 19 A3 The A3 interface carries coded user information (voice/data) and 20 signaling information between the source BS SDU function and the 21 channel element component (BTS) of the target BS. This is a logical 22 description of the endpoints of the A3 interface. The physical endpoints 23 are beyond the scope of this specification. The A3 interface is 24 composed of two parts: signaling and user traffic. The signaling 25 information is carried across a separate logical channel from the user 26 traffic channel, and controls the allocation and use of channels for 27 transporting user traffic. 28 A5 The A5 interface carries a full duplex stream of bytes between the 29 switch component of the MSC and the SDU function of the BS. 30 A7 The A7 interface carries signaling information between a source BS 31 and a target BS. A7 is used primarily for handover signaling between two BSC 32 A8 The A8 interface carries user traffic between the BS and the PCF. 33 A9 The A9 interface carries signaling information between the BS and the 34 PCF. 35 A10 The A10 interface carries user traffic between the PCF and the PDSN. 36 A11 The A11 interface carries signaling information between the PCF and 37 the PDSN. 38 This is a logical architecture that does not imply any particular physical implementation. 39 Figure 2.2-1 shows the relationship among network components in support of mobile 40 originations, mobile terminations, and direct BS-to-BS soft/softer handoff operations. 41
SGSN Functionality The SGSN provides packet routing to and from an SGSN service area. It serves all GPRS subscribers that are physically located within the SGSN service area. A GPRS subscriber may be served by any SGSN in the network depending on its location. The Ericsson SGSN includes the following functionality: Routing. The SGSN has a built-in IP router, supporting RIP v2, and OSPF v2 and BGP v4. Security . The SGSN uses the new ETSI standard of ciphering to encrypt the communication to and from the mobile station. With GPRS, ciphering is not terminated in the BSC (as with GSM) but in the SGSN. IPsec is also supported for enhanced security. Mobility management . The mobility management protocols enable the network to support moving subscribers. The SGSN performs Routing Area updates and is able to hand over sessions between BSCs and to other SGSNs. Session Management . The SGSN supports address resolution using DNS. To speed up DNS resolution, Ericsson’s GPRS solution integrates a cacheing DNS resolver in the SGSN. Charging Functions. The SGSN produces Call Detail Records (CDRs) according to GSM12.15, to bill based on volume (IP payload data volume, SMS volume) and session duration. The SGSN stores CDRs on a hard disk and keeps up to 72 hours of charging data, to minimise risk of data loss. SMS . The SGSN supports the standard Gd interface towards the SMS-GMSC and the SMS-IWMSC. This will allow the sending of SMSs over GPRS without impacting the SMS centres currently in operation. GGSN functionality The GGSN provides the interface towards other GPRS networks and towards the external IP networks, including ISPs and corporate LANs. The GGSN performs the following functions: Routing. The GGSN has a built-in IP router, supporting RIP v2, OSPF v2, BGP v4 and static routing. Simple Firewall. The GGSN connects to external IP networks. Various packet filtering options are built in to protect the GGSN from intrusion or denial of service attacks, including source IP address, destination IP address, protocol (ex. GTP), port number, source routing, etc. Border Gateway. The Ericsson GGSN has an integrated Border Gateway function. It allows the operator to securely connect their network to other GPRS networks and to external IP networks. The Border Gateway operates as a network entry point for the Autonomous Internal IP backbone network between the SGSNs and GGSNs and the external connections to other PLMNs. Security . For enhanced security to the IP backbone, the Ericsson GGSN can have an IPsec function integrated in the internal router. This function also enhances the security of management traffic that goes between the GGSN and the management systems. Mobility management . The mobility management protocols enable the network to support moving subscribers. The GGSN makes sure packets are tunnelled to the right SGSN. Session management. During the set-up of a session, the GGSN assigns an IP address to the mobile station. The GGSN supports dynamic and static IP address allocation. For dynamic IP addressing, the IP addresses are provided by the GGSN or by a RADIUS server located at an ISP or a company’s Intranet. Charging Functions. The GGSN produces Call Detail Records (CDRs) as the SGSN.
Wireless Access in 2006 and Beyond Matt Kolon Mobility Architect [email_address]
Intranets/ Internet WiFi/WiMax Base Switching Station (GSM/EDGE) UTRAN (WCDMA) Mobile Packet Backbone Network IP Multimedia Subsystem Access Point Site Router Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Base Station Controller (BSC) Service Domain Host Subscriber Server (HSS) Emergency Alert System (EAS) Call Session Control Function (CSCF) Media Resource Function (MRF) Transit Switching Center (TSC) Mobile Switching Center (MSC) Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Multimedia Gateway WLAN Access Server Gateway GSN Media Gateway Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Radio Network Controller (RNC) Mobile Packet Networks PSTN/ ISDN
GSM evolution to 3G GSM 9.6kbps (one timeslot) GSM Data Also called CSD GSM General Packet Radio Services Data rates up to ~ 115 kbps Max: 8 timeslots used as any one time Packet switched; resources not tied up all the time Contention based. Efficient, but variable delays GSM / GPRS core network re-used by WCDMA (3G) GPRS HSCSD High Speed Circuit Switched Data Dedicate up to 4 timeslots for data connection ~ 50 kbps Good for real-time applications c.w. GPRS Inefficient -> ties up resources, even when nothing sent Not as popular as GPRS (many skipping HSCSD) EDGE Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution Uses 8PSK modulation 3x improvement in data rate on short distances Can fall back to GMSK for greater distances Combine with GPRS (EGPRS) ~ 384 kbps Can also be combined with HSCSD WCDMA
CDMA2000 evolution to 3G CDMA IS-95A IS-95A 14.4 kbps Core network re-used in CDMA2000 1xRTT CDMA2000 1xRTT: single carrier RTT First phase in CDMA2000 evolution Easy co-existence with IS-95A air interface Release 0 - max 144 kbps Release A – max 384 kbps Same core network as IS-95 1xEV-DO CDMA2000 1xEV-DO: Evolved Data Optimised Third phase in CDMA2000 evolution Standardised version of Qualcomm High Data Rate (HDR) Adds TDMA components beneath code components Good for highly asymmetric high speed data apps Speeds to 2Mbps +, classed as a “3G” system Use new or existing spectrum 1xEV-DV CDMA2000 3xRTT CDMA2000 1x Evolved DV Fourth phase in CDMA2000 evolution Still under development Speeds to 5Mbps+ (more than 3xRTT!) Possible end game. IS-95B IS-95B Uses multiple code channels Data rates up to 64kbps Many operators gone direct to 1xRTT
3G Release 99 Packet switched TDM PSTN IP Internet Corporate IP/AAL5 AUC HLR SCP USIM NodeB RNC 3G MSC AAL2 3G SGSN Packet transfer to & from serving area Registration, authentication Mobility management logical links to RNC, tunnel to GGSN QoS 3G GGSN Multiple PDP contexts QoS (GPRS extensions for real time traffic classes etc) Iu b Iu ps Iu cs Iu r Gn Gi
3G Release 4 PSTN Internet Corporate IP/AAL5 USIM NodeB Media Gateway BICC H.248 MEGACO TDM ATM IP Nb Split MSC into bearer and control Bearer independent CS New MGCP, new CS call control Streaming MMS service using PS streaming service 26.233 TS 23.205 Split TS 29.414 Bearer Mc Media Gateway (CS-MGW) Circuit switched call control server (MSC Server)
3G Release 5 PSTN Internet Corporate IP/AAL5 USIM NodeB BICC H.248 TDM ATM IP SIP IP Multimedia CSCF Call Session Control Function IP multimedia control sub system (IMS) – IPv6, SIP based Native IP UTRAN option UDP/IP or AAL2 Iu b Iu ps Iu cs RTP or AAL2 23.228 IMS 25.933 IP UTRAN QoS enhancements (end-to-end) Circuit switched call control server SIP STACK
High Level IMS Architecture BTS BSC SCIM (Service Broker Platform) RAN TRANSPORT PLANE CONTROL PLANE SERVICE PLANE SCIM : Service Capability Interaction Manager MRFC : Multimedia Resource Function Controller CSCF : Call Session Control Function HSS : Home Subscriber Server HLR : Home Location Register PDF : Policy Decision Function BGCF : Breakout Gateway Control Function MGCF : Media Gateway Control Function MGW : Media Gateway GGSN : Gateway PGPRS Support Node SGSN : Serving GPRS Support Node HLR PDF SGSN Intranet/ Internet WLAN MGW Node B RNC MRFC S-CSCF I-CSCF P-CSCF BGCF MGCF HSS MGW MRFP ABBREVIATIONS GGSN PSTN PLMN
3GPP2 Reference Architecture Ref: 3GPP2 A.S0011 Source BSC MSC/VLR PDSN PCF Source BTS External IP Network Pi Target BSC HLR SS7 Ref: 3GPP2 A.S0011 Radio Network (RN) A 9 A 8 A quinter Reference Point A quater Reference Point (R-P Interface) A 11 A 10 A 1 A 5 A 2 A Reference Point A 3 A 7 Ater Reference Point
GPRS: General Packet Radio Service TDM PSTN AUC HLR SCP SIM BTS BSC Packet Control Unit (PCU) Forward data frames from TDM BSS to packet core New hardware in BSC Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Packet transfer to, from serving area Registration, authentication, mobility management / handover, CDRs logical links to BTS, tunnel to GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) Gateway to external IP networks (VPN/ISP etc) IP network security GPRS session mgmt, AAAA CDRs for charging Um Abis A Packet Switched Core Circuit Switched & PCU IP Network Internet Corporate FR Gb Gn Gi