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  • 1. LTS Wireless Data Vijay K. Varma Telcordia Technologies (732) 758-2811 May 6, 2002 An SAIC Company © Telcordia Technologies, Inc. . Slide 1
  • 2. Outline Ÿ Markets and applications Ÿ Paging networks Ÿ Mobile data networks Ÿ Data over cellular Ÿ Data over 2.5G and 3G wireless Ÿ Wireless LANs Ÿ Future directions LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 2
  • 3. Mobile Data Applications Traffic control/ Utility metering Mobile office messaging Wireless Data Network Alarm monitoring Remote Vending Machine Control Wireless messaging Financial Transactions Train Control Credit card Mobile Fleet Verification Management Location Tracking LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 3
  • 4. Wireless Data Market Ÿ Vertical services – Field service and sale – Package delivery services – Dispatch fleet management – Point-of-sale services – Public safety Ÿ Horizontal services – Fax – E-mail – Data base access – Virtual office – Driven by the availability of laptop/palmtop computers/PDAs LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 4
  • 5. Wireless Data Networks Ÿ Paging networks – One-way numeric and alphanumeric messages Ÿ Mobile data networks – Two-way store and forward messaging and data Ÿ Analog and 2G digital cellular networks – Low-speed data Ÿ 2.5 G cellular networks – Low-to-medium speed data Ÿ 3G cellular networks – Medium speed-data Ÿ Wireless LANs – High-speed data Ÿ Satellite Networks – Global or Wide area coverage LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 5
  • 6. Wireless Data – Speed/Technology/Transport Wireless data option Low-speed Medium-speed High-speed Wide-area Local-area Speed-Mobility Wide-area characteristic Data over Data over Mobile data Data over Data over Wireless Analog cellular Digital cellular networks 2.5 G 3G cellular LANs Technology Circuit-switched Packet switched Transport LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 6
  • 7. Paging Ÿ Low cost service Ÿ Small, lightweight terminals Ÿ Excellent coverage – High transmit power, high antennas – One way (in most cases) Ÿ Service – Local, Regional, Nationwide, Even international Ÿ Limited messaging capabilities – Began as a “one-bit” messaging system – Numeric to ASCII alphanumeric messages (512 b/s - 2400 b/s) – Does not support computer data Ÿ Delay - several seconds LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 7
  • 8. Paging - Evolution Ÿ Higher data rates Ÿ Longer messages Ÿ Computer data Ÿ Sleep mode for long battery life Ÿ Voice paging Ÿ Narrowband PCS – 3 MHz spectrum allocated by the FCC (901-902, 930-931 MHz) – Advanced messaging services Ÿ 2-way messaging Ÿ Email, Fax Ÿ Transfer of computer data Ÿ Voice paging LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 8
  • 9. Mobile Data Networks Ÿ General characteristics – Two-way capabilities Ÿ Originate and receive messages Ÿ Interactive applications Ÿ Confirmation of messages (acknowledgment, retransmission) – Packet transport – Store and forward – Automatic delivery Ÿ Store if user cannot be reached Ÿ Alert the user when message is delivered – Lower transmit power Ÿ Less penetration compared to paging Ÿ More base stations required Ÿ Examples – Mobitex (RAM), ARDIS, CDPD LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 9
  • 10. Mobitex Ÿ Developed by Swedish Telecom – Continued development by Ericsson Mobile Communications Ÿ In operation in Sweden, Norway, Finland, Canada, UK, etc Ÿ Introduced in the US by RAM Mobile Data – Covers over 90% of US’s urban business population – Automatic seamless roaming Ÿ Supports TCP/IP, X.25 Ÿ System description – Cellular layout – 12.5 KHz channel – 8 kbps data rate – 935-940 MHz downlink, 896-901 MHz uplink (in the US and Canada, 450 MHz most other countries) Ÿ Capacity to support millions of users Ÿ Other features – Switching occurs at the lowest level – Multicasting LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 10
  • 11. Mobitex Architecture Network Control Other Center Regional switches Main Exchange Other Server Regional switches Regional Regional Switch Switch Local Local Local Switch Switch Switch Regional Switch Local Local Local Switch Switch Switch Server LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 11
  • 12. Advanced Radio Data Information Service (ARDIS) Ÿ Joint venture between IBM and Motorola – Acquired by American Mobile Satellite Corporation in 1998 Ÿ Introduced to serve IBM field engineers Ÿ Operating frequency - 800 MHz Ÿ Raw rates 4.8 kb/s, 19.2 kb/s in some markets Ÿ High overhead and contention reduce the throughput Ÿ Not suitable for interactive applications (latency) Ÿ Targeted for vertical markets Ÿ Coverage – Over 10,000 cities in 50 states in the US, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands – Serves 90% of the business centers LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 12
  • 13. Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) Ÿ Introduced by IBM as a packet switching overlay to AMPS Ÿ Creates a standard by a consortium of cellular carriers Ÿ Designed to take advantage of idle voice channels in AMPS Ÿ Short packets sent in idle voice channels – Voice always higher priority – Hops among available cellular frequencies Ÿ Raw data rates of 19.2 kb/s Ÿ Mobility management follows Mobile-IP model Ÿ Shares the cellular infrastructure – Only towers and frequencies – Different radio technologies and protocols – Different network switching equipment LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 13
  • 14. CDPD Network Architecture Backbone Internet Intermediate System IS IS Another CDPD IS Network Fixed End System IS MD-IS MD-IS MD-BS Mobile Mobile End System LTS End System ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 14
  • 15. CDPD Ÿ Pros – Widespread coverage – Suitable for bursty data – Broad industry support - standard – May be able to use same handset – Support of Internet and OSI protocols Ÿ Cons – Delay Ÿ Not suitable for interactive applications – Effective throughput is lower – Slower than expected growth – May lose out as 2.5 G and 3G cellular with packet data capability expands LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 15
  • 16. Data Over Analog and 2G Cellular Systems Ÿ Analog cellular – Low-speed data using special voiceband modems Ÿ 2 G digital cellular – Direct digital data Ÿ No voiceband data support – Requires interworking functions at the network Ÿ Converts the radio-specific protocols to wireline protocols – All of them provide short message service – EIA/TIA-136 Ÿ Up to 9.6 kb/s on one timeslot – EIA/TIA-95 Ÿ Data rate up to 14.4 kb/s – GSM Ÿ Data rates up to 9.6 kb/s LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 16
  • 17. 2.5 G Wireless Ÿ What is missing in 2G? – Packet data support – Higher speed circuit-switched data Ÿ 2.5 G approaches – GPRS overlay for GSM – EIA/TIA-136+ with GPRS overlay – EIA/TIA-95B LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 17
  • 18. What is GPRS? Ÿ General packet radio service – A new packet data service in GSM consisting of packet wireless access network and IP-based backbone – Provides an access to packet data networks (PDN) – Radio resources shared dynamically between speech and data services Ÿ Allows subscriber to send and receive data in an end-to-end packet transfer mode without using network resources in the circuit-switched mode Ÿ Data rates – 43.2 – 115 kbps Ÿ Benefits – Users – charging based on traffic volume, not hold time – Operators – efficient use of spectrum Ÿ Applications – Web surfing, messaging, telnet, – News, weather, traffic reports, dispatch services Ref. 3GPP TS 22.060 V4.0.0 LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 18
  • 19. GPRS Logical Architecture VLR PSTN BTS BSC MSC IWF BTS HLR BTS BSC Packet Data GGSN SGSN BTS Network SGSN Other GPRS SGSN Network LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 19
  • 20. Example of Packet Routing in GPRS BTS BTS BSC SGSN Inter-PLMN BSC GPRS Backbone SGSN Intra-PLMN GPRS Backbone BG BG Intra-PLMN GPRS Backbone GGSN SGSN GGSN PDN (Internet) LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 20
  • 21. Example of Packet Routing in GPRS BTS BTS BSC SGSN Inter-PLMN BSC GPRS Backbone SGSN Intra-PLMN GPRS Backbone BG BG Intra-PLMN GPRS Backbone GGSN SGSN GGSN PDN (Internet) LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 21
  • 22. Example of Packet Routing in GPRS BTS BTS BSC SGSN Inter-PLMN BSC GPRS Backbone SGSN Intra-PLMN GPRS Backbone BG BG Intra-PLMN GPRS Backbone GGSN SGSN GGSN PDN (Internet) LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 22
  • 23. North American TDMA and CDMA Ÿ EIA/TIA-136+ – Introduces GPRS overlay – Up to 43.2 kb/s Ÿ EIA/TIA-95B – Support of multicodes – Data rates up to 64 kbps (115.2 kbps also quoted) Ÿ HDR – 1.25 MHz channel – Peak rate up to 2.4 Mbps forward link and 307 kbps on the reverse link – Separate rf channels from low-data rate (voice) services – Decentralized architecture based on IP protocols LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 23
  • 24. 3G Wireless Ÿ Collectively known as IMT 2000 Ÿ Promise – All kinds of information available to anytime, anywhere, to a large population, at a low cost Ÿ Transport requirements – Circuit-switched transport – Packet-switched transport Ÿ Data rate requirements – 144 kb/s at vehicular speed – 384 kb/s outdoor to indoor and pedestrian – 2 Mb/s indoor Ÿ Systems – Universal Mobile Telecommunications Systems (UMTS) or WCDMA – CDMA2000 LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 24
  • 25. 3G Wireless Ÿ UMTS – Uses GPRS infrastructure – Uses WCDMA air interface Ÿ CDMA2000 – Uses the packet data model – Uses Mobile IP LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 25
  • 26. Cdma2000 Packet Data Architecture PSTN cdma2000 EIA/TIA-95 BTS BSC MSC IWF BS VLR HLR INTERNET Managed BTS BSC PDSN GR Packet Network BS FA AAA: Authentication, Authorization and Accounting HA/ FA: Foreign Agent AAA GR: Gateway Router HA: Home Agent PDSN: Packet Data Serving Node LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 26
  • 27. Mobile IP Subnet 134.5.12 Internet 128.6.13.a Subnet 128.6.13 CN 128.6.13.z 128.6.13.x 128.6.13.y LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 27
  • 28. Mobile IP Subnet 134.5.12 HA/FA Internet Internet Subnet 128.6.13 HA/FA 128.6.13.z 128.6.13.y 128.6.13.x LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 28
  • 29. Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) Ÿ This category includes high-speed short range wireless technologies for home, public access, and enterprise solutions Ÿ Support for roaming subscribers is limited to pedestrian speeds Ÿ Operate in unlicensed (or licensed-exempt) frequency bands over distances of 10’s to a few 100’s of meters Ÿ Four types of systems in this category – IEEE 802.11 systems (802.11, 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11xx(20 MHz version)) – ETSI Broadband Radio Access Network (BRAN) High Performance Radio LAN 2 (HIPERLAN/2) – Bluetooth – IEEE 802.15 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 29
  • 30. IEEE 802.11 Systems Ÿ 802.11 Network Configurations Independent BSS BSS BSS STA STA STA STA STA STA STA AP AP Distribution Ad Hoc Mode System (DS) – One Basic Service Set (BSS) – No APs Infrastructure Mode Servers – Direct communications among Stations (STAs) – Multiple BSS (and APs) connected to – Limited coverage form Extended Service Set (ESS) – STAs can access fixed resources – Extends wireless coverage – IAPP to allow interoperability LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 30
  • 31. An Example of WLAN Application Office A Office B LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 31
  • 32. Satellite Networks GEOs MEOs LEOs LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 32
  • 33. North American Mobile Data Subscriber Market Share in 2000 and Forecast for 2005 Cellular/PCS Two-way Data Circuit-switched Data 26% 38% 2000 SMS 17% Cellular/PCS Cellular/PCS Packet-switched Data Circuit-switched Data 19% Two-way Data 3% 18% SMS 8% 2005 Source – Gartner Dataquest (May 2001) Cellular/PCS Packet-switched Data 71% LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 33
  • 34. Future Directions Services & Applications Fixed WLAN Wireless Access Sys Type Media tem Cellular IP-Based Packet-Based (2G) Core Network (2.5G) IMT-2000 New Radio (3G) Interface Services & Applications LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 34
  • 35. Summary Ÿ Wireless data networks started to support vertical markets Ÿ Low cost computer terminals and wireless technologies are driving the market for wireless data in horizontal markets Ÿ 2.5 G and 3G cellular networks are capable of providing low to medium-speed data over wide area and high mobility Ÿ WLANs and its derivatives will offer high-speed data in low mobility indoor areas and outdoor areas Ÿ Seamless interworking among various access technologies will provide the best of all worlds Ÿ Future direction seems to be core IP networks supporting different access technologies in a seamless fashion Ÿ Significant growth expected in wireless data subscribers and revenues LTS ©Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Slide 35