Generations of wireless networks Chapter 1
1G wireless standards
2G wireless
3G wireless
4G wireless
Where is wireless access going??? <ul><li>Many (maybe too many) wireless technology choices are available today </li></ul>...
Air Interface Technologies
So Many Technology Choices WiBRO 2006 2007 2008 2009 3G+HSDPA 3.9G 2005 WiMAX (fixed) 3GPP2 systems (1X, EV-DO, nxDO, “Pha...
<ul><li>Cellular technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mature – GSM/EDGE, CDMA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voice-only prod...
<ul><li>Wireless broadband </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slowly gaining traction in the West; telecom operators are cautious becau...
Future Wireless System Development <ul><ul><li>Increasing penetration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowering costs of devices...
<ul><li>Low penetration provides some opportunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legacy of cellular circuit-switched services (part...
Devices Voice Advanced Wireless Services (e.g. E-mail) Messaging and Limited Wireless Services High-End Business End-User ...
Wireless Access Mapping <ul><li>Voice-only </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2G (GSM, cdma2000 1X) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Messaging an...
Democratization of Wireless Technologies Example:  Research conducted in Delhi by Nokia Research Center’s Usability Group,...
Karol Bagh market area of Delhi, India 200 + small indoor shops, and 100+ outdoor market stalls
this one building, approx. 60+ small shops spread over 4 stories wholesaling phone accessories and repair equipment small ...
minimal street customer care center = flat surface + screwdriver + new component + knowledge
What can we take away? <ul><li>Huge after market service industry has developed in South Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phone ...
Wide Area Wireless Technology What are the next few years going to bring?
<ul><li>From the Seventies through the Nineties, most cellular systems were developed through consensus and standardizatio...
<ul><li>What makes proprietary technologies attractive? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good ideas are sometimes compromised in the ...
Where does spectrum come into the picture? <ul><li>Spectrum is not as cheap as once thought </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North Am...
<ul><li>These are issues that will influence the evolution of cellular technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New cellular sys...
<ul><li>Wireless broadband (802.16) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slowly gaining traction in the West; telecom operators are cauti...
What about Voice Services? <ul><li>Voice is still the killer app for cellular </li></ul><ul><li>Without a compelling data ...
Quality-of-Service for Internet Applications Should cellular provide the same as broadband? <ul><li>Many internet applicat...
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Introduction slides

  1. 1. Generations of wireless networks Chapter 1
  2. 2. 1G wireless standards
  3. 3. 2G wireless
  4. 4. 3G wireless
  5. 5. 4G wireless
  6. 6. Where is wireless access going??? <ul><li>Many (maybe too many) wireless technology choices are available today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-range (WLAN’s, sensor technologies such as Bluetooth or Ultra Wideband) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-range (Cellular) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadband (WiMAX/WiBRO, Flash-OFDM, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcast (DVB-H, DMB, MediaFLO) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Device segmentation is not universal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can vendors address the needs of the subcontinent while still making a global product? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Democratization of wireless technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales channels in the subcontinent are so varied – do device features have to stop with the original manufacturer? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Air Interface Technologies
  8. 8. So Many Technology Choices WiBRO 2006 2007 2008 2009 3G+HSDPA 3.9G 2005 WiMAX (fixed) 3GPP2 systems (1X, EV-DO, nxDO, “Phase II” Evolution) Flash-OFDM 3G+HSUPA WiMAX (mobile) 802.20 WLAN Hotspots 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
  9. 9. <ul><li>Cellular technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mature – GSM/EDGE, CDMA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voice-only products approaching commodity status </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ongoing rollout – 3G (WCDMA) and 1X-EV-DO (CDMA evolution) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What are the usage scenarios in the subcontinent? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bringing the internet to underserved user segments? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fancy services for a very small, very rich niche? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future – 3.9 G </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extending the high throughput capabilities of WLAN technologies into cellular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Short range technologies (WLAN primarily) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not much good without an internet backbone; goes hand-in-hand with broadband penetration </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Wireless broadband </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slowly gaining traction in the West; telecom operators are cautious because of previous overinvestment in other broadband technologies (DSL, optical) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very clear usage scenario in the subcontinent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strong backbone solution: can bring internet access to remote areas and villages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is there enough business to get a major telecom vendor excited? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Broadcast for wireless (DVB-H, DMB, MediaFLO) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certainly a proven appetite in Asia for TV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard to say if users in the subcontinent will watch TV on small devices </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Future Wireless System Development <ul><ul><li>Increasing penetration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowering costs of devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving return for operators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customizing services for the local population </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There is a quandary with going forward with a regional technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will global vendors support it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If not, is there a local vendor base? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the scale of the technology large enough to drive down cost? </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Low penetration provides some opportunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legacy of cellular circuit-switched services (particularly voice) not insurmountable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rather than develop a new technology for South Asia, subcontinent researchers should try to drive locally enabling technologies through standardization, for example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve cellular technologies for VoIP, enabling lower cost backbone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced cellular receiver design to improve voice capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Driving targeted features in global standardization would be a win-win scenario for South Asia and the global vendor community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global technologies mean large scale – costs can go down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunity for Asian researchers to influence standards that are deployed over the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular is the best choice </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Devices Voice Advanced Wireless Services (e.g. E-mail) Messaging and Limited Wireless Services High-End Business End-User Needs Mobile Device Communicators Voice-centric devices Smartphones & messaging devices
  14. 14. Wireless Access Mapping <ul><li>Voice-only </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2G (GSM, cdma2000 1X) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Messaging and limited data services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2G (GSM, cdma2000 1X) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advanced wireless </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2G (GSM, cdma2000 1X) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3G (WCDMA, cdma2000 1X-EV-DO) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High-end business/multimedia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3G (WCDMA, cdma2000 1X-EV-DO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complimentary access (WLAN a definite, maybe WiMAX) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Democratization of Wireless Technologies Example: Research conducted in Delhi by Nokia Research Center’s Usability Group, Tokyo
  16. 16. Karol Bagh market area of Delhi, India 200 + small indoor shops, and 100+ outdoor market stalls
  17. 17. this one building, approx. 60+ small shops spread over 4 stories wholesaling phone accessories and repair equipment small workshops actively repairing phones, and offering training
  18. 18. minimal street customer care center = flat surface + screwdriver + new component + knowledge
  19. 19. What can we take away? <ul><li>Huge after market service industry has developed in South Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phone repair, re-sale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reconditioned phone sales may be the ticket to providing new cellular service to customer segments, e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic voice to BOP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced multimedia to existing voice-only users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Large proliferation of after-market services may also be able to provide some limited enhancement to cellular devices </li></ul><ul><li>If multinational vendors can tap into this more effectively rather than view it as a threat, then consumer insight could result </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are there low-cost innovations that could better serve an emerging market? </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Wide Area Wireless Technology What are the next few years going to bring?
  21. 21. <ul><li>From the Seventies through the Nineties, most cellular systems were developed through consensus and standardization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AMPS was a technology delayed nearly 20 years due to building consensus! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GSM has proven to be long-lasting and widely-supported – also developed through industry cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the Nineties, proprietary technologies emerged </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IS-95 (“CDMA”), proposed by Qualcomm Inc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Followed by 1X-EV-DO in the late Nineties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nowadays, several more proprietary alternatives to standardized cellular technologies have gained notoriety (not necessarily widespread adoption) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flarion’s “Flash OFDM” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other technologies may be “nearly proprietary”, with a small number of companies driving development </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>What makes proprietary technologies attractive? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good ideas are sometimes compromised in the standardization process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardization process can delay product development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proprietary route has pitfalls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of widespread vendor support for a given technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual property concentrated in the hands of a few players </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is there a middle ground? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes, when a small group of companies who can support a given technology develop it together outside of standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardization can follow, to allow other equipment manufacturers exposure to the technology and ensure interoperability </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Where does spectrum come into the picture? <ul><li>Spectrum is not as cheap as once thought </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North American example: recent consolidation among operators has left winners and losers in spectrum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New 3G spectrum auctions (1.7/2.1 GHz) have not happened fast enough to address this </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Operators want to evolve existing cellular technologies in a manner that continues to leverage their huge investment in 3G equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backwards-compatibility will be a driver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Makes it difficult to find a disruption point for good proprietary technologies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The overlap period becomes a driver – how long does the network operator have to support legacy subscribers while the new technology is being introduced? </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>These are issues that will influence the evolution of cellular technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New cellular systems will leverage as much as they can from legacy systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, reuse of control/overhead mechanisms from legacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Baggage from the legacy systems can reduce the benefits from innovation in evolution systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In response, wireless vendors need to get more creative as to what defines “backwards compatibility” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to be selective in what is actually leveraged from the legacy system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also, need to consider how much evolution in the air interface technology is necessary for improving system performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can improved performance be addressed through software/middleware innovation? </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Wireless broadband (802.16) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slowly gaining traction in the West; telecom operators are cautious because of previous overinvestment in other broadband technologies (DSL, optical) Technology positioning is a problem for cellular operators already deploying 3G </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The target customer base overlaps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Broadcast for wireless (DVB-H, DMB, MediaFLO) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certainly a proven appetite in Asia for TV; bodes well for DMB in East Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European and North American markets unproven yet for handheld digital TV </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. What about Voice Services? <ul><li>Voice is still the killer app for cellular </li></ul><ul><li>Without a compelling data application for 3G, it may be a safe starting point to say that VoIP will be the killer app for 3G evolution </li></ul><ul><li>This profoundly affects cellular evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air interface must be optimized for low rate, low delay service such as voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This could come in conflict with design goal of extending high speed capabilities seen in WLAN to cellular </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As long as voice is perceived as a separate revenue stream rather than just another IP-based service, this could hamper cellular evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In other words, should future cellular systems performance be benchmarked primarily by voice spectral efficiency? </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Quality-of-Service for Internet Applications Should cellular provide the same as broadband? <ul><li>Many internet applications are not designed with a cellular link in mind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Underlying expectation of relatively constant quality of service (QoS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Throughput is assumed to be known during session setup </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Certainly totally different applications can be designed for cellular, but some innovation in the middleware area may improve application performance over cellular without </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Redesigning air interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewriting application </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: online multiplayer gaming (“First person shooter”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Player actions based on other player actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Near real time </li></ul></ul>

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