Cambridge University Press
978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revo...
Cambridge University Press
978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revo...
Cambridge University Press
978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revo...
Cambridge University Press
978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revo...
Cambridge University Press
978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revo...
Cambridge University Press
978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revo...
Cambridge University Press
978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revo...
Cambridge University Press
978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revo...
Cambridge University Press
978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revo...
Cambridge University Press
978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revo...
Cambridge University Press
978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revo...
Cambridge University Press
978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revo...
Cambridge University Press
978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revo...
Cambridge University Press
978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revo...
Cambridge University Press
978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revo...
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  1. 1. Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revolution John D. Cressler Index More information Index 1D doping profile, 178 air deionizers, 257 1D lattice, 103, 104 airbags, 289–291 1G cell phone standard, 56 airplanes, transistors essential for, 8 2D capacitor arrays, 145 Alexanderson, Ernst, 73 2D lattice, 103, 104, 105 Alferov, Zhores, 367 2D system, 252 AlGaAs alloy, 102 2G cellular technology, 56, 57 almanac, in a GPS message, 315, 316 3C mentality, at Bell Labs, 90 alphabets, emergence of modern, 4–5 3D lattice, 103, 104 alternative splicing, of human DNA, 438 3D multigate MOSFET, 399 aluminum (Al), 194, 381 3D packaging, 206–207, 208 AM radio broadcast, 53 3G (third-generation), 465 AM0 (in Earth orbit), 332 3G cell phone AM1 (at sea level), 332 block diagram of, 59 amorphous semiconductors, 103 integrated circuits in, 61–64 amperes, 458 sub-systems, 59–61 amplifier(s), 217, 244 8-bit binary number, 12 amplifier blocks, minimizing, 333 90-nm CMOS, 25 amplitude modulation (AM), 53 90-nm field-effect transistor (MOSFET), 196 AMPS (advanced mobile phone system), 56 analog baseband processing unit, 60 absolute or thermodynamic temperature, 116 analog cellular standard, 56 absolute temperature, measured in Kelvins (K), 45 analog circuitry, 459 absolute zero, 45, 111, 117 Analog Devices ADXL 50, 291, 292 absorbed photon flux, 338 analog signals, 11 absorption, 365–366 analog-to-digital converter (ADC), 60, 459, 465 absorption coefficient, of photons, 338 AND function, 461 accelerated life testing, subjecting ICs to, 209 Andrus, Jules, 191–192 acceleration, sensing, 289 Angstrom, 465 accelerometers, 289–302 animal brain, counting and, 30 acceptor impurity, 120 animals acceptor doping process, 121 cloning of, 439–440 accumulation region, of a MOSFET, 249 number of species as a function of size, 273 Action-Reaction, 445 anisotropic, 183 active photonics, 357 anisotropic wet etching, 284 active pixel, 356 anode, 78 activism, Internet-based, 445–447 anonymity, on the Internet, 428 actuator arm, on a hard disk drive, 143, 144 antenna, in a 3G cell phone, 59 actuators, MEMS as, 275 antibacterial tableware, with silver nanoparticle ADC (analog-to-digital converter), 60, 459, 465 coating, 393 Adults Only (AO), 436 antispoofing mode, on a GPS receiver, 318 advanced mobile phone system (AMPS), 56 application processor, in a 3G cell phone, 64 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), 422 applications, on a 3G cell phone, 61 AFM (atomic force microscope), 31, 33 arc-discharge technique, 404 aggressiveness, link with computer gaming, argon ion beam, 195 434–435 ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency), 422 469 © in this web service Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org
  2. 2. Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revolution John D. Cressler Index More information 470 Index ARPANET, 422 base transit time, for a BJT, 243 arsenic-doped high-temperature silicon epitaxy, base width, for a BJT, 243 170 base-2, 12 ASCII (American Standard Code for Information battery drain, in a cell phone, 61 Interchange), 13 Bayer mask, 354 ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit), 465 beam of light, 329 ATMs (automated teller machines), 10 Becker, Joseph, 85 atomic clocks, 313, 317 Bell, Alexander Graham, 52, 72 atomic force microscope (AFM), 31, 33 Bell Telephone Laboratories, 2, 79, 89, 94 atomic mass unit (amu), 102 Bennet, William, 367 atomic time standard, 316 BEOL (back-end-of-the-line) planarization, atoms 185–186 direct manipulation of individual, 392 Berners-Lee, Tim, 423 electron energies for isolated, 106 BGA (ball-grid array), 203 electrons in, 456 BHF (buffered hydrofluoric acid), 183 manipulating single, 33 bias-independent current gain, 241 viewing, 30–31, 33 BiCMOS (bipolar+CMOS) IC technology, 265 attenuation (loss) BiCMOS circuit, 459 characteristics of silica fiber, 334 binary, 465 of EM radiation, 333 binary alloy, 102 in optical cables, 379 binary arithmetic, 13 audio CD, 384 binary number system, 12 audio CODEC, 60 binary switch, 250 audion, 76 Binnig, Gerd, 33, 387 audion valve, 79 bioapplications of nanotechnology, 395 aurora australis, 184 biocompatible materials, 298 aurora borealis, 184–185 BioMEMS, 271, 298–301 auroras, 184–185, 309 bipolar, 465 automated teller machines (ATMs), 10 bipolar junction transistor. See BJT automotive industry, compared to bipolar transistor digital switch, 243 microelectronics, 18–19 bipolar transistors, 214 automotive sensors, 290. See also cars birefringent polarization-maintaining fibers avalanche multiplication, 232 (PMFs), 376 average drift velocity, 124 bit(s), 465 Avogadro’s number, 102 described, 11–12 awareness-advocacy, 445 encoded on hard disk drives, 144 grouping into bytes, 13 B2B (Business-to-Business) transactions, 430 BJT (bipolar junction transistor), 212, 213, 214, Babinet, Jaques, 379 235–245, 465 back-end-of-the-line (BEOL) planarization, biasing into saturation, 261 185–186 compared to a MOSFET, 215 BACs (bacterial artificial chromosomes), 437 compared with HBTs, 264 ball-grid array (BGA), 203 current proportions in, 240 band spikes, 263 defining transconductance, 244 band structure, 108 delivering large amounts of current, 245 band-bending, 122, 123, 222, 248 image of, 36, 39 bandgap, 107, 108 making a BJT with high current gain, 243 bandgap engineering, 102, 262 mass production of, 89 applied to laser design, 372 morphing into a MOSFET, 254 enabling, 169–170 mutant, 262–265 improving LED efficiency, 359, 361–362 operation of, 237–243 using different semiconductors, 335 patent for, 86–87 band-to-band G/R, 131–132 physics of, 261 bandwidth, 53–54, 465 plotting current-voltage characteristics, 242 Bardeen, John, 2, 81–88, 89 regions of operation of, 242 barriers to carrier transport, 226 removing gain-speed trade-off, 263 base, of a transistor, 82 Shockley’s idea of, 86 base control electrode, 215 simplest conceptual view of, 238 base dopants, 242 speed compared to a MOSFET, 258 base stations, 54, 55–56 types of, 236 base terminal, for a BJT, 235–236 BJT (C-BJT) logic, 261 © in this web service Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org
  3. 3. Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revolution John D. Cressler Index More information 471 Index blanket film deposition, 188 carbon, forms of, 401 blocking voltage, 234 carbon clusters, 402–403 blue LEDs, 359, 360 carbon nanotube tower, 407 Bluetooth, 465 carbon nanotubes. See CNTs (carbon nanotubes) Blu-ray Disc, 383 carburetor, 8 body, of a transistor, 246 Carlyle, Thomas, 68 Bohr model, 121 carrier concentration gradient, 128 Boltzmann’s constant (k), 44 carrier density, 121 book production, 5 carrier diffusion, 123, 127–130 Boole, George, 461 carrier drift, 123, 129. See also drift Boolean algebra, 461–463 carrier effective mass, 115, 116 bottom-up nanotechnology, 394–395 carrier generation-recombination (G/R), 131 boule, of silicon, 165, 166 carrier mobility, 252, 267 Boyle, Willard, 354, 355 carrier populations, 121, 239 Branly, Edouard, 73 carrier transport, mechanisms for, 123 Brattain, Walter, 2, 81–87, 89 cars. See also automotive sensors Braun, Karl Ferdinand, 75, 77 transistors essential for, 8 breakdown, mathematics of, 233–234 cathode, 78 breakdown voltage, of a pn junction, 233 cat’s-whisker diode, 77 Breed, Allen K., 291 CCD(s) (charge-coupled devices), 61 broadband, 465 acting like an analog shift register, 351 broadcast signals, from GPS satellites, 319 history of, 354–355 Brown, R., 84 imager IC, 351 Brownian motion, 130 operational principles of, 352 BTU (British thermal units), 44 uses of, 61, 353–354 bubble memory, 354 CCD imagers, 351–355 Buckley, Oliver, 88–89 block-level diagram of, 353 Buckminsterfullerene. See buckyballs vs. CMOS imagers, 355–357 buckyballs, 401–403, 465 CCD-based camera, 353 buffered hydrofluoric acid (BHF), 183 CCD-based optical imager, 352 building block, for a lattice, 103 CD(s) (compact discs) bulk failures, of ICs, 209 data stored on, 382 bulk micromachining features of generic, 381 compared to surface micromachining, 286, 288 history of, 384–385 described, 285–286, 287 made from polycarbonate plastic, 381 etching techniques, 183, 284 program area on, 381 bundling, fiber, 376, 377 standard audio, 380 bunny-suits, in cleanrooms, 162, 163 surface of, 381 burn-in, 210 types of, 380 Burns, Gerald, 368 CD players, 380, 384, 385 Business-to-Business (B2B) transactions, 430 CD rot, 383 byte(s), 12, 13, 466 CD sampling frequency, 384 CDMA (code-division multiple access), 57, 466 c, as speed of light symbol, 329–330 CDMA cellular phone system, 308 C4 balls, 201 CDMA-2000, 58 CAD (computer-aided design), 466 CD-R (CD-Recordable) Cady, Walter, 321 introduction of, 385 Caf´ Erehwon, xv e lifespan of, 383 calculus, time derivative in, 16 recordable (burnable) CDs, 382–383 calorie, 44 CD-ROM (read-only memory), 385 cameras CD-RWs, 383 CCD-based, 353 cell phones, 50, 51 digital, 152, 153 calling process, 55 SLR (single-lens reflex), 349 carrier frequency, 43 step-and-repeat, 189 challenges for teachers, 14 CAN package, 202 described, 52–53, 56 Canola Active Oil, 393 level of complexity in, 61 cantilever beam, 285 number of, 7 capacitance, 225 transistors essential for, 7 capacitive MEMS accelerometer, 291 cell towers, 50, 51 capacitor, 144–145, 194, 226 cells, overlapping modular, 54 © in this web service Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org
  4. 4. Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revolution John D. Cressler Index More information 472 Index cellular service provider, 55 CNTs (carbon nanotubes), 403 cellular telephony, 53 aligned single-walled, 407 Cerf, Vinton, 423 families of single-walled, 406 CERN (European particle physics consortium), history of, 404–405 423 properties of, 405–406 cesium-133 oscillator, 317 unrolling, 406–407 channel(s) coarse-acquisition (C/A) code, 318 of a GPS receiver, 315 cobalt-based magnetic alloy, 143 for radios, 53 CODEC, 350 channel length modulation, 256 code-division multiple access. See CDMA channel region, in a MOSFET, 247 coherer, 73 charge cold start, for a GPS unit, 316 balance, 248–249 Colladon, Daniel, 379 density, 122 collector, of a transistor, 82 neutrality, 121, 122, 249 collector electrode, in a BJT, 215 in respective bands, 221 collector terminal, in a BJT, 235–236 storage mechanisms, 225 collector-base junction, reverse biasing, 236 types of, 121 color image, setting with a CCD, 354 Charge Bubble Devices, 354 color resolution, in a CCD, 354 charge-coupled device. See CCD(s) commercial electronics, temperature range of, 46 Chatzky, Jean, 432 common logarithm, 15, 16 chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP), 185, communications 186–187 erasing transistors from, 7–8 chemical-vapor deposition system. See CVD evolution of human, 4–7 system meaning of, 4 child exploitation, on the Internet, 428–429 Communications Revolution, 3–4, 11, 19 chip, 466. See also microchip compact disc. See CD(s) (compact discs) chip-on-board (CoB), 205, 207 comparator circuit, 459, 462 chip-scale atomic clock, 317 COMPASS system, of China, 307 circuit compensated semiconductor, 120 in electrical engineering, 457 complement, 462 possibility of making in silicon, 92 complementary, MOSFETs, 259 selecting transistors for, 259 complementary BJT (C-BJT) logic, 261 circuit environment, 219 complementary error function, 175, 176 circuit switching, 422 complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor Citizen’s Band (CB) radio, 53 technology. See CMOS cladding, in optical fibers, 376, 377 compound semiconductors, 101 Clarke, Arthur C., 310, 392 compressive strain, 398 Class I MEMS, 275 computer games, top 25, 434 Class II MEMS, 275 computer industry, evolutionary nanotechnology Class III MEMS, 276 and, 396 Class IV MEMS, 276 computers cleanroom, 160, 161–164, 466 in the classroom, 441–442 cleanliness, from air flow through filtration, extending the life of, 450 161–162 role in effective teaching, 441 Clinton, President Bill, 311, 446 concentration gradient, 229 CME (coronal mass ejection), 309 conduction band, 107–108, 113, 117 CMOS (complementary metal-oxide conductors, 98, 99 semiconductor), 466 conservation of energy, 44, 111 IC, four-layer-metal, 200–201 constant-source diffusion, 175 imagers, 355–357 control segment, of GPS, 312–313, 315 inverter, 259, 261 Cooper, Martin, 50 logic gate, 259–260 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), 316 operational walk-through, 259 copper (CU), 193, 195, 196 technology, 25, 26–27 coronal mass ejection (CME), 309 economic limits on, 401 Coulomb’s law, 456–457 node in semiconductor IC fab, 247 crackers, 428 superstructure residing in interconnects, 201 Cressler’s 1st Law, 212, 246 wafer, 25 Cressler’s 2nd Law, 215 CMP (chemical-mechanical polishing), 185, Cressler’s 3rd Law, 217 186–187 Cressler’s 4th Law, 219 © in this web service Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org
  5. 5. Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revolution John D. Cressler Index More information 473 Index Cressler’s 5th Law, 221 demultiplexing, beams, 376 Cressler’s 6th Law, 229 denial-of-service attacks, 445 Cressler’s 7th Law, 235 Dennard, Bob, 145 Cressler’s 8th Law, 242 density of states function, 117 Cressler’s 9th Law, 248 depletion region, of a MOSFET, 249, 250 Cressler’s 10th Law, 257 derivative structures, 213, 214 Cressler’s 11th Law, 259 design patents, 96 Cressler’s 12th Law, 267 Desurvire, Emmanuel, 379 crystal(s) device physics, 212 3D nature of real, 115 device programmer, 149 defects, 167 devices, 212. See also specific devices exhibiting band structure, 108 smoking, 231 growth technique, 165 DHBT (double heterojunction bipolar transistor), crystal oscillator 265 in a GPS receiver, 321, 322 diabetics, insulin delivery system, 300 in a USB flash drive, 154 diagnostic BioMEMS, 298 crystalline semiconductors, 103, 104–105, 167 diamond(s), 401 Cu (copper), 193, 195, 196 diamond lattice, 103–104, 105 Curie, Jacques and Pierre, 321 diamond saw, 201 Curl, Robert F., Jr., 402–403 diamond structure, 23 current (I), 11, 99, 111, 123, 127 “Diamond Sutra”, 5 current amplifier, 244 Diazonaphthoquinoone (DNQ), 192 current flow die, 18. See also chip direction of, 238 dielectric(s), 24. See also insulators for MOSFETs, 251 dielectric breakdown strength, of air, 256 current gain, 237, 241, 243 dielectric constant, of a semiconductor, 123, current-continuity equations, 134 227 current-voltage characteristics, 230 dielectric relaxation time, 40, 225 current-voltage optimization plane, 348 diffraction, 32 Curtiss, Lawrence E., 379 diffusion, 224. See also carrier diffusion curve tracer, 231 coefficient, 129, 175 cutoff operation, for a BJT, 242 current, 128 CVD (chemical-vapor deposition) system, current density, 128 180 fundamental driving force in, 128 as a growth technique for CNTs, 403, 404 furnace, 173, 174 steps in, 378 length, 229 synthesis process, 407 mathematics of, 175 cyberactivism. See Internet, activism diffusive transport, 127 Cyberporn, 428 diffusivity, 229 CyberTipline, 429 digital 2G phones, 57 cytometry, 298, 299 digital audio revolution, 384 Czochralski process (CZ), 165 digital baseband processing unit, 60 digital baseband processor, 64 DAC (digital-to-analog converter), 60 digital bits. See bit(s) Dalal, Yogen, 423 digital bytes. See byte(s) damage control, in IC fabrication, 159 digital camera, flash-memory card for, 152, 153 dangling bonds, 179 digital cell phones. See cell phones DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects digital divide, 446 Agency), 422 digital images, 350, 351. See also imaging data Digital Light Projection HDTV display. See DLP creative plotting of experimental, 242 HDTV display storing on a CD, 382 digital logic, 462 transfer rate, 54 Digital Micromirror Device (DMD), 292 Davy, Sir Humphry, 405 digital signal processing. See DSP De Forest, Lee, 76, 79 digital signals, 11–12 deacceleration, detecting sudden, 289 digital video revolution, 384 DEC ALPHA 21164 (1997), 3 digital-to-analog converter (DAC), 60 Decca Navigator systems, 311 Dill, Frederick, Jr., 368 decibels (dB), 217, 218 dimensionality Defense Advanced Research Agency (DARPA), of energy, 44 422 of transistors, 99 © in this web service Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org
  6. 6. Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revolution John D. Cressler Index More information 474 Index diode(s), 466. See also pn junctions down-conversion (RF-to-IF), 60 as binary switches, 235 Drain (D), in a MOSFET, 246 creating, 228 drain electrode, in a BJT, 215 diode lasers DRAM (dynamic random-access memory), 466 downside to, 371–372 electrons storing digital bits in, 147 perks of, 371 memory cells, 145, 146 voltage characteristics of, 367 volatile nature of, 148 DIP (dual-inline package), 202, 203 drawing tower, 378 dipole, 224 Drexler, K. Eric, 393 direct bandgap material drift, 125, 126, 224. See also carrier drift compared to indirect, 339–341 drift-diffusion equations, 129, 224 giving most light out, 358 Drude, Paul, 330 direct energy bandgap, 108 drug(s), computers essential for the production of, direct semiconductors, 339 9 directionality dependence, of electron energy, 108 drug sales, illegal or prescription, 428 DiskOnKey (flash drive), 140 drug-delivery system, implantable or transdermal, dislocation, 167 300 dislocation array, 172 Drummond, Thomas, 405 dispersion-shifted fibers (DSFs), 376 dry etching, 182, 184, 286 displays dry oxidation, 180 in a 3G cell phone, 59 dry oxides, 179 DLP, 292, 294–298 DSFs (dispersion-shifted fibers), 376 on a GPS receiver, 321 DSL (digital subscriber line), 466 LCD, 59 DSP (digital signal processing), 57, 321–322, 466 dissolution rate, 192 dual-Damascene process, 196 distance scale, 30 dual-inline package (DIP), 202, 203 micro/nanoelectronics, 35–39 Dumke, William, 368 of the universe, 33–35 DVD player, 380, 384 distribution of charge, in respective bands, 221 DVD-R/W drive, 382 Dizard, Wilson, 6 DVDs (Digital Versatile Discs), 383, 384 DLP (Digital Light Projection) HDTV display, dynamic RAM. See DRAM 292, 294–298 dynamic switching, 260 DMD (Digital Micromirror Device), 292 DynaTA phone, 50 DMD MEMS IC, 295, 297 DNA E (Everyone), 435 successful sequencing of human, 436 E10+ (Everyone 10+), 436 unzipping, 299 e-activism. See Internet, activism DNA chips, 299–300, 301 e-addictions, 430–433 DNQ-novolac resists, 192 Early Childhood (EC), 435 Doi, Toshitada, 384 ears, frequency response of, 42 donor impurity, 120 Earth, pictured from the Moon, 304, 305 donor-doping process, 120 Earth ground, 458 donors (political), emerging role of small, 446 Easton, Roger L., 312 doomsday scenarios, 7–11 e-beam (electron beam), 466 dopant(s) e-beam evaporator, for metal deposition, 195 accelerating, 177 e-beam lith, 191, 466 diffusion mechanisms, 174, 175 EC (Early Childhood), 435 electrically activating impurity, 173 ECE (electrical and computer engineering), 11 ionization energy, 69 e-commerce, 429 redistribution, 173 economics, erasing transistors from, 9–10 dopant diffusion furnace. See diffusion, furnace edge defect, 167 doped semiconductors, 119 edge dislocation, 171 doping, 173–179, 466 edge emission, in diode lasers, 372 described, 119 EDI (electronic data interchange), 429 drawing shapes and patterns of, 173 Edison, Thomas Alva, 74, 76 inverting polarity, 250 Edison Effect, 74 transition, 213, 214 education doping profiles, 173, 179, 220 changing face of, 440–442 double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT), transistors essential for, 10 265 EEPROM (electronically erasable programmable double-gate MOSFETs, 399 read-only memory), 149, 150, 466 © in this web service Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org
  7. 7. Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revolution John D. Cressler Index More information 475 Index effective density of states, 118 electronic data interchange (EDI), 429 effective mass approximation, 115 electronic funds transfer (EFT), 429 effective mobility, 253 electronic memory, 142 efficiency electronic politics, 445 improving for an LED, 359, 361–362 electronic rectifier, 77 of a solar cell, 348, 349 electronics EFM (Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation) scheme, 384 development of the term, 74–75 EFT (electronic funds transfer), 429 temperature realm of conventional, 46 Einstein electrophoresis, 298 switching from V to c, 330 electroplating, 195 Theory of General Relativity (gravity), 329 electrostatic discharge (ESD), 256–257 Theory of Special Relativity, 41, 329 electrostatic force, 456 Einstein relations, 129 electrostatic induction, 256–257 electoplating, Cu to a seed layer, 195 electrostatics, of the pn junction, 225–226 electric current, 458. See also current elemental semiconductors, 101 electric field, 457 EM (electromagnetic) waves associated with a voltage drop, 227 bending of, 32 inducing, 123 discovery of, 74 relating voltage to, 458 frequency domain for, 42, 43 voltage a property of, 457 illustration of, 329 electrical and computer engineering (ECE), 11 visible, 31 electrical communication, 70 EM intensity, of a spherical EM wavefront, 216 electrical engineering (EE), 70, 454 EM radiation, 328, 330–331, 332 electrical ground, 11 EM radio signal, intensity of, 216 electrical potential, 457 EM signals electrical signals, decreasing magnitude of all, decreasing intensity, 216 215–216 transmitting over long distance, 54 electrodes (terminals), of a transistor, 82 EM spectrum, 331 electroluminescence, 358 EM transmission windows, 318 electrolytes, 82 e-mail, dark side of, 431 electromagnetic force, 455 emission spectrum, of a LED, 359 electromagnetic waves. See EM (electromagnetic) emitter waves for a BJT, 243 electromechanical system, miniaturizing, 273–274 of a transistor, 82 electromigration, 209 emitter terminal, of a BJT, 235–236 electron(s) emitter-base junction, 236 boosting from valence band to conduction band, emitter-coupled logic, 261 112 empty electron states, 113 in the conduction band, 117 energy, 454–455 defined, 456 conservation of, 44, 111 manipulation of, 11 at the crux of human civilization, 455 as particle wave, 32 defined, 44, 455 potential energy of, 105–108 described, 111 as quantum particles, 115 equivalence with wavelength, 331–332 ratio to holes, 121 forms of, 44 storing a digital bit in DRAM, 147 optimization of use of, 450 tunneling, 33 units of, 455 as a type of charge, 121 energy band diagrams, 107, 221, 239, 248 electron energy, plotting, 106 energy band model, 105 electron flow, direction of, 238 energy band structure, of silicon, 108, 109 electron states, counting empty, 113 energy bandgap, 46, 100, 170, 343 electron volts (eV), 44, 111, 455, 457 energy bands, 107, 108, 112 electron wave vector, 108 energy exchange, in G/R processes, 132 electron-beam (e-beam) lithography, 191, 466 energy scale, of the universe, 44–47 electron-hole pair, 113 engineering, complementary with science, 70 electronic addictions. See e-addictions ENIAC, tube-based digital computer, 92, 93 electronic banking, 9–10 Enlightenment, 5 electronic circuits ensemble average, 124 building complex systems, 459 entertainment, transistors essential for, 10 noise immunity of, 13 Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB), electronic commerce. See e-commerce 435–436 © in this web service Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org
  8. 8. Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revolution John D. Cressler Index More information 476 Index entropy, 128 face-centered-cubic (fcc) unit cell, 103 environment Fahrenheit scale, 117 cordoning off the IC fab process, 160 failure, accelerating by heating ICs, 210 establishing for an IC fabrication facility, 158 failure mechanisms, thermally activated, 209 environmental conditions, in Earth orbit, 309 Fairchild Semiconductor environmental noise, 13 first to market CCDs, 355 ephemeris, in a GPS message, 315 launch of, 91 ephemeris data, receiving, 316 prospering, 92 epitaxial strained SiGe alloy, nanoscale material Fantastic Voyage (movie), 270–271 in, 172 Faraday, Michael, 70 epitaxy, 169–173 fashion conscious, flash drives for, 138, 139 e-politics, 445 FCC crystal, 103 EPROM (erasable-and-programmable ROM), 149 FDMA (frequency-division multiple access), 57 equations of state, 134, 328 FE Global Electronics, 141 equilibrium feedback mechanism, for a laser, 368–371 in a BJT, 239 Fenner, Gunther, 367 described, 130 Fermi energy parameter, 118, 119 at a pn junction, 222 Fermi levels, 130, 222 preferred by nature, 128 Fermi potential, 251 equilibrium energy-band diagram Fermi-Dirac distribution function, 117 of the nMOS capacitor, 248 fermion, electron as, 456 of a pn junction, 223 ferromagnetic material, magnetizing, 142 erbium-doped fiber amplifier, 379 Fessenden, Reginald Aubrey, 72, 76, 78 error-correction method, improving audio fidelity, FET(s) (field-effect transistors) 384 from a 90-nm CMOS technology, 389 ESD (electrostatic discharge), 256–257 compared to PETs, 247 ESRB (Entertainment Software Rating Board), cross-sectional view of, 27 435–436 described, 25 Essen, Louis, 317 differing from a PET, 214–215 etchants, 286 limiting speed of, 265 etching and polishing, 182–187 types of, 213, 214 etch-stop techniques, for micromachining, Feynman, Richard, 392–393 284–285 FF (fill factor), for a solar cell, 348 Ethernet, 466 fiber optics, 374–379 etiquette, for cell phones, 50 fiber-optic semiflexible gastroscope, 379 Everyone (E), 435 Fick’s first law of diffusion, 128–129, 175 Everyone 10+ (E10+), 436 Fick’s second law of diffusion, 175 evolution, in microelectronics, 396–401 field effect, in semiconductors, 214 evolutionary nanotechnology, 396 field-effect mobility, 253 exabytes (EB), 13, 14 field-effect transistor. See FET(s) exponent, logarithms as, 15 file formats, for digital images, 350 exponential functions, 16 fill-factor (FF), for a solar cell, 348 exponential growth, 15 film deposition, by chemical means, 179 extreme environment electronics, 46 filtration systems, for a cleanroom, 161–162 extrinsic semiconductors, 119 financial transactions, 9 eye surgery, 301 Fin-FETs, 399 eyes, frequency response of, 42 firmware, 468 first-generation (passive) nanomaterials, 391 fab (fabrication facility), 466–467 fixed impurities, 122 fab tools, increasing wafer-size capability of, 169 Flash (software), 433 fabless, 467 flash memory, 150–153, 467 fabricated wafer, 202 Flash ROM, 60 fabrication flash-memory cards, 150–151 art of transistor, 69 flat-band condition, 248 of optical fibers, 378 Fleming, Sir John Ambrose, 75–76, 77, 78 of silicon, 24 Fleming valve, 76 fabrication facility. See fab Fletcher, H., 84 fabrication flow, for a MOSFET, 198–199 Flickr (photo sharing), 443 fabrics, generating electricity, 413 flip-chip packaging, 204–205 Fabry-Perot cavity, 369–370 flip-flop circuit, 92 Facebook, 443 floppy disks, 141 © in this web service Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org
  9. 9. Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revolution John D. Cressler Index More information 477 Index fluorescent bulbs, 362 in a MOSFET, 247 flux of photons, 338 none in HFETs, 266 FM radio broadcast, 53 gate width (W), in a MOSFET, 247 forbidden energy bandgap, 107 gate-all-around MOSFETs, 400 force, 455 Gauss, Carl Fredrich, 70 forward active operation, for a BJT, 242 Gaussian distribution function, 175, 176 forward bias, 228, 229, 230, 239 GDP (Gross Domestic Product), in the U.S. and forward-active bias, in a BJT, 237 Germany, 21 forward-bias current, in a pn junction, 229 Ge, velocity-field characteristics, 125 foundry, 467 gene density, nonrandom patterns of, 438 four-mask process, 199 generation, 131 Fowler-Nordheim tunneling, 152 genetic disorders, 438 FPGA (field-programmable gate array), 467 genetic miswirings, 438 free information, Web-based, 443 genetic testing, 299 free radicals, buckyballs reacting with, 402 genetic variations, 438 free space, permittivity of, 123 GEO (geostationary orbit), 310 free-electron mass, 115, 116 geographical regions French Impressionism, 326–327 global Internet use by, 421 frequency global Internet use compared with population relation to wavelength, 330 data, 422 of a wave, 41, 43 geometric series, 233 frequency domain, for EM waves, 42, 43 geostationary orbit (GEO), 310 frequency modulation (FM), 53 Getting, Ivan, 312 frequency scale, of the universe, 41–43 giant magnetoresistance (GMR), 414 frequency translation electronic circuitry, 60 Gibbs, Willard, 327 frequency-division multiple access (FDMA), Gibney, Robert, 81 57 gigabytes (GB), 13, 14 frequency-translation electronic circuitry, 321 glass, coloring, 343 FSK (frequency-shift keying), 57 global digital divide, 446 full-duplex radio, in cell phones, 53 global information flow, 11–15 Fuller, R. Buckminster, 401 global population, 2 future, foreseeing the, 15 Global Positioning System. See GPS fuzzballs, 423 global system for mobile (GSM), 58 global warming, 447 GaAs (gallium arsenide), 101, 125 GLONASS system, Russian, 306 gain GMR (giant magnetoresistance), 414 defined, 217 GMT (Greenwich Mean Time), 316 degrading maximum voltage, 243 gold, cost of, 196 as key to success, 244 gold contact, passivating crystal surface, 82, 83 not possessed by pn junctions, 234 gold wirebond, on the surface of an IC, 204 gain block, 217 Goldfinger (movie), laser misconceptions, 374 gain-enabled transistors, implementing binary Google Groups, 443 switches, 219 Gould, Gordon, 364, 365, 367 gain-speed trade-off, in BJTs, 263 GPS (Global Positioning System) galaxies, in a Hubble image, 29–30 civilian examples of uses of, 308 GALILEO system, of the European Union, cold start vs. warm start, 316 306–307, 311 described, 306–312 gallium arsenide (GaAs), 101, 125 dual-use (military-civilian) technology, 307 Game Ratings, 435–436 history of, 311–312 gaming, aggressive behavior and, 433–436 implementing on a single piece of silicon, 325 gamma rays, 42, 43 nuts and bolts of, 312–320 GaP, light from, 358 as an official dual-use system, 311 Garmin z¨ mo 550 GPS receiver, 322–325 u satellite constellation, 314 gas lasers, 367 transmission frequencies used by, 318 gastroscope, 379 GPS receivers gate (G) terminal, in a MOSFET, 247 accuracy of, 319 gate array, 467 in cell phones, 61 gate control electrode, in a MOSFET, 215 decoding RF signals, 307 gate length, in a MOSFET, 247 determining location, 319 gate oxide examples of handheld, 315 getting rid of, 265 in howitzer shells, 308 © in this web service Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org
  10. 10. Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revolution John D. Cressler Index More information 478 Index GPS receivers (cont.) Heaviside, Oliver, 327 parts of, 320–325 Heinlein, Robert A., 392 portable, 308, 309 Heisenberg uncertainty relations, 456 GPS RF downconverter, 321 helical microtubules, of graphitic carbon, 404 GPS satellites HEMT (high-electron-mobility transistor), 267 carrying nuclear detonation detectors, 308 Henry, Joseph, 72 continuously transmitting, 307 Herriot, Donald, 367 transmitting navigation message, 318 Hertz, Heinrich, 70, 72, 74 GPS signals, 318 heteroepitaxial growth process, 171 GPS space vehicles (SVs), 312, 313, 314 Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (HBTs), GPS time, relating to UTC, 316 262–265 GPS-enabled GSM/WCDMA handsets, 308 heterojunctions, 213, 214, 263 G/R processes, 131–133 Hetrick, John W., 291 grain boundaries, 103 hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), 188 grains, of crystalline material, 103 HFETs (heterostructure FETs), 265–268 gramophone, 72 HGP (Human Genome Project), 437 graphene, 403, 406 high injection, triggering, 230 graphene FETs, 407–408 high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT), 267 graphite, as a form of pure carbon, 401 high-frequency noise performance, 267 gravitational lensing, 329 high-injection effects, 230, 241 gravitomagnetic trap, 117 Hirschowitz, Basil, 379 gravity, 393, 455 historical foundations, of any technological field, Gray, Elisha, 52, 72 67–68 gray-goo, 389 history greenness, of silicon, 23 of CCD(s) , 354–355 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), 316 of CD(s) , 384–385 Greenwich meridian, as the prime meridian, 306 of CNTs, 404–405 GRINSCH laser, 373 defined by people, 68 Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 21 as fun, 68 ground, in an electronic circuit, 458 of GPS, 311–312 ground state, 113 of Internet, 422–423 grounding straps, 257 of transistors, 70 Group III impurity, 120 of Web, 422–423 Group III-V compound semiconductors, 101 hits (file requests), in a web site, 427 Group II-VI compound semiconductors, 101 Hockham, George A., 379 Group IV-IV compound semiconductors, 101 hole density, 113, 118 Group IV-VI compound semiconductors, 101 holes, 113, 121 Group V impurity, 119 Holonyak, Nick, Jr., 367, 368 GSI (gigascale integration), 467 Homo sapiens, complete genome of, 437 GSM (global system for mobile), 58 homojunction, 220 Gummel, Herman K., 242 Hornbeck, Larry J., 292, 298 Gummel number, 242 hot swapping, 155 Gummel plot, 241, 242 hot-carrier aging, 209 Gutenberg, Goldsmith Johannes, 5 HTML (Hyper-Text Markup Language), 427 Gutenberg Bible, 5, 6 Hubble Telescope, 29 human(s), jaded by numbers, 30 hackers, 428 Human Body Model (HBM), 257 hacktivism, 445 human brain, memory capacity of, 137 half-duplex radios, 53 human communications, 4–7 Hall, Robert N., 367 human ear, frequency range of, 42 handing off, to the next cell, 56 Human Genome Project (HGP), 437 hard disk drives (HDD), 142–144 human sense organs, 42–43 Hayashi, Izuo, 367 hyperlinks, 420, 423 HBM (Human Body Model) ESD event, 257 HBTs (Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors), IBM Corporation 262–265 invention disclosure describing a flash drive, HDTV (high-definition TV), 467 140 head-crash, of a hard disk drive, 144 logo in xenon atoms, 33 health care, erasing transistors from, 9 ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned hearing, frequencies used for, 42 Names and Numbers), 427 heat loss, from a living creature, 273 ICP (inductively coupled plasma) tools, 185 © in this web service Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org
  11. 11. Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revolution John D. Cressler Index More information 479 Index ICs (integrated circuits), 467 Information Processing Technology Office building cheaply through economy of scale, (IPTO), 422 190 inherent gain, 217 chip, SMI of, 448 Inhope (International Association of Internet cleanrooms, 161–164 Hotlines), 429 co-inventors of, 92 innovations, of predecessors, 67–68 connecting leads of a package to, 203 input impedance, of a MOSFET, 258–259 death of, 209 input-output (I/O) circuit, 459 electrically testing, 201 insects, 43, 273 energy breakdown for production and use of, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 449 (IEEE), 75, 467 fabrication insulated gate FETs, 213, 214 entire, 160 insulator-metal interface, 213, 214 production steps, 164–210 insulators types of operations, 158–160 described, 98 in a GPS, 320–325 exhibiting large resistivity, 99 heating up to test for failure, 210 growing on silicon, 24 integrating into electronic systems, 205 large bandgaps, 109 interconnects, 192–196 integrated circuits. See ICs (integrated circuits) manufacturing Intel, future of IC technology, 94 environmental footprint of, 448 Intel 4004, 95 inside a 300-mm, 161 Intel Pentium Centrino Mobile microprocessor, looking over the shoulder of, 450 159 package intellectual property (IP), 95 fabricated wafer through completed, 202 interconnect(s), 27, 195 mounting onto a PCB, 205, 206 interconnect delay limits, 195 utilizing surface-mount packaging interconnect nightmare, 401 technology, 205 interconnect related failures, of ICs, 209 packaging, 201–208 interdigitated fingers, in solar cell design, 347, 348 mandating 100% lead-free, 450 interface circuit, 459 types of, 206 interfaces, prone to damage, 209 production, 449 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reliability of, 208–210 (IPCC), 447 on a single piece of silicon, 92 intermediate frequency (IF), 60 susceptibility of ESD from human contact, 257 Internal Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), 20 in a USB flash drive, 153–155 International Association of Internet Hotlines, 429 wafers, 158, 163 International Atomic Time, 316 IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics International Meridian Conference, 306 Engineers), 75, 467 Internet IF (intermediate frequency), 60 activism, 445–447 Iijima, Sumio, 404 child exploitation, 428–429 imaging. See also digital images described, 419 in a CCD, 351 electronic information flow on, 14 CCDs, applications of, 354 end-to-end structure of, 424 versus seeing, 31–33 history of, 422–423 Immink, Kees, 384 information flow on, 13–14 impact ionization, 233 issues, 428–430 impact-ionized electron, 232 killer app with a dark side, 419–430 impurities, introducing into a crystal, 119 regulation of, 428 impurity scattering, 124 transistors essential for, 8 incandescent bulbs, 362 visualizations of, 419–421 inchworm actuator, 301 Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and incident photon flux, 338 Numbers (ICANN), 427 indentations (pits), on a CD, 382 Internet Protocol (IP) address, 12 indirect bandgap, 108, 339–341 Internet service providers (ISPs). See ISPs indirect semiconductors, 339 (Internet service providers) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) tools, 185 Internet Tax Freedom Act, 430 information, movement of, 4 Internet users, number of, 7 Information Age, 6 interstitial diffusion, 174, 175 information exchange, dominant source of, 13 interstitials, 167 information flow, global, 11–15 intrinsic carrier density, 114, 115 © in this web service Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org
  12. 12. Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revolution John D. Cressler Index More information 480 Index intrinsic semiconductors, 113–114 lab-on-a-chip, 299 invention notebook, 96 LAN (local-area network), 467. See also wireless inventions, patentable, 96 local-area network (WLAN) inverse-square law, 216–217 land animals, working against the force of gravity, inversion, in MOSFETs, 252 272 inversion region, of a MOSFET, 249, 250 lands, between CD pits, 382 inverter, as simplest binary logic gate, 259 Langevin, Paul, 321 I/O circuit, circuit schematic of, 459, 462 laser(s) ion implantation, 90, 177 built from direct bandgap materials, 340 ionization energy, of the dopant, 120 coining of the acronym, 364, 365 ionized acceptor impurities, 121 emitting light in a focused beam, 364 ionized donor impurities, 121 misconceptions about, 374 ionized gas, 184 uses, 364 ions, turning dopants into, 177 laser diodes IP (intellectual property), 95 acting like normal LEDs at low bias, 366 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate described, 43 Change), 447 read/write head, 383 IPTO (Information Processing Technology semiconductor, 363–371 Office), 422 laser light, 375–376 IRNSS system, of India, 307 laser pointer, 363, 364 isotropic etch profile, of wet etching, 183, 184 Laserdisc, 384 isotropic wet etching, of silicon, 284 Lasher, Gordon, 368 ISP backbone, on the Internet, 425 Last.fm (personal music), 443 ISP POP, on the Internet, 425 latch, 148 ISPs (Internet service providers), 423, 467 latitude, 304, 305–306 i-STAT portable clinical analyzer (PCA), 298, lattice, 103 300 lattice channels, 104, 105 ITRS (Internal Roadmap for Semiconductors), 20 lattice constants Iwama, Kazuo, 355 energy bandgap, depending on, 170 of photonic crystals, 414 Java (software), 433 of semiconductor crystal, 335 Javan, Ali, 367 lattice mismatch, between epi and wafer, 170 Jennings, Dennis, 423 lattice scattering, 124 joules (J), 44, 111, 455 law of mass action, 114, 116, 119 JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) files, lawyers, technologically trained, 96 350 layers, adding to a crystal, 179 junction breakdown, 232 L-band, used by GPS, 318 junk DNA, 437 LCC (leadless chip carrier), 203 LCD (Liquid-Crystal Display), 59 Kahn, Robert, 423 leadless chip carrier (LCC), 203 Kao, Charles K., 379 leakage current, under static conditions, 261 Kapany, Narinder Singh, 379 LEDs (light-emitting diodes), 43, 340, kB (kilobyte), 14 357–363 Kelly, Mervin J., 81 coupling into optical fiber, 363 Kelvin scale, 116, 117 efficiency, 359 Kelvins (K), 44, 45, 116 estimated time to failure (ETTF), 362 Kennedy, President John F., 94 indicator light, 154 Kershner, Dr. Richard B., 311 mounting in a metallic, optically reflective cup, keypad, in a 3G cell phone, 59–60 359, 361 Kilby, Jack, 92 packaging of a discrete, 361 kilobyte (kB), 14 performance, 359 kinetic energy, 44, 111, 124 Lee, Admiral Paul, 88 kinetoscope, 76 LEO (low Earth orbit), 310 knowledge explosion, book-based, 5 letters in the alphabet, encoding, 12–13 KODAK Ultima Picture Paper, 393 Licklider, J.C.R., 422 KOH (potassium hydroxide) wet etch, on silicon, light. See visible light 183, 286 Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Kr-F excimer laser, 190 Radiation (LASER). See laser(s) Kroto, Harold, 402–403 light emission spectrum, of a LED, 359 Kuznetsov, V 404 ., light sensor, photodetector as, 341 kW hours (kwh), 44 lightbulb technology, 73–74 © in this web service Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org
  13. 13. Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revolution John D. Cressler Index More information 481 Index light-emitting diodes. See LEDs (light-emitting Maxwell, James Clerk, 72, 327 diodes) Maxwell’s equations, 327–328 limelight, 405 MB (megabyte), 14 limited-source diffusion, 175 MCM (multichip-module), 205–206, 207 linear functions, compared to exponential, 16 mean time between failures. See MTBF liquid resist, spin-coating a wafer, 189 mechanical properties, of CNTs, 405 Liquid-Crystal Display (LCD), 59 mechanical systems, integrated fabrication of, 271 lith. See photolithography mechanical vibration, driving a nanogenerator, lithium ion battery, 393 412 lithography, 467 mechatronics, 287, 289 LNA (low noise amplifier), 320 medical diagnostics, nanotech innovations in, 413 local loop, 425 medium Earth orbit, 306, 310 logarithms, 15–16 megabyte (MB), 14 logic, implementing a Boolean, 463 megapixels, 353 logical “1” or “0”, 11 memory logical-to-physical mapping, 464 in a 3G cell phone, 60 long-channel approximation, 251 in an electronic context, 142 longitude, 304, 306 essential to all electronic objects, 137 LORAN (long-range navigator), 311 memory stick. See USB flash drive Lorentz, Hendrik, 330 MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems), 271 loss, by an attenuating system, 216 accelerometer, embedding in HDD electronics, lossy compression method, in JPEG, 350 144 low-field carrier mobility, 125 advantages over conventional macroscopic low-noise amplifier (LNA) solutions, 275 in a cell phone, 61, 62 building multiple features one layer at a time, in a GPS receiver, 320 287 low-noise RF amplifier, 459, 460 classifications of, 275–276 low-power consumption objects, 155 contraption, 278, 284 LPCVD (low-pressure CVD) tools, 180, 181 electronstatic comb drive, 278, 282 Lukyanovich, 405 indexing motor, 278, 280 lumens of light output, for an LED, 358–359 inductor-capacitor (LC) bandpass filter, 278, lunar white, 363 283 introducing into biomedical market, 298 M (Mature), 436 land of, 274 macroscopic objects, minaturizing commonplace, marrying electrical and mechanical 271 engineering, 275 magnetic field, on a hard disk drive, 144 micromirror assemblies, 278, 281 magnetic nanoparticles, 412 with moving parts and impacting surfaces, 276 magnetoresistance, 414 with moving parts and rubbing and impacting Maiman, Theodore H., 367 surfaces, 276 majority carriers, 121 with moving parts but no rubbing or impacting maps, drawing detailed, 303 surfaces, 275 Marconi, Guglielmo, 73, 75 with no moving parts, 275 masks, using to expose resist, 189–190 operating in vacuum, 276 mass (m) optical-mirror pixels fabricated on silicon of an electron, 115 substrate, 292 linked with energy and the speed of light, 454 ratchet assembly, 278, 279 material parameters, 116 sensors in cars, 289 material systems, superposing onto a wavelength six-fold gear chain, 278, 280 scale, 335 thermal actuator, 278, 279 materials torsional ratcheting actuator (TRA), 278, 282 for bandgap engineering, 335 tour of gadgets, 276–278 finite resistivity of, 216 triple-piston steam engine, 278, 280 in an IC fabrication facility, 159 vibrational (LC) bandpass filter, 278, 283 processing, 364 MEMS and Nanotechnology Exchange mathematical convenience, victims of, 30 Fabrication Network, 278 mathematical models, 110 MEMS micromotor, 278 Mature (M) game rating, 436 MEO (medium Earth orbit), 306, 310 Maurer, Robert D., 379 Metal 1 (M1), 194 maximum average velocity, of carriers, 124 Metal 2 (M2), 194 maximum voltage, for MOSFETs, 255–256 metal gates, in MOSFETs, 247 © in this web service Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org
  14. 14. Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revolution John D. Cressler Index More information 482 Index metal interconnects. See also interconnect(s) mil-spec (military specification) temperature in a 90-nm CMOS technology, 193 range, 46 metalization and interconnects, 192–196 Millikin, R. A., 456 metallic behavior, from CNTs, 405 Mills, David L., 423 metallurgical junction, 220 MIL-STD-883, Method 3015.7, Electrostatic metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors. Discharge Sensitivity Classification, 257 See MOSFET Mini-B plugs and receptacles, 156 metals minority carriers, 121, 133, 229, 230 as efficient absorbers of visible and IR EM mixed-signal class of ICs, 468 radiation, 343 mobile telephone switching office (MTSO), 54, 55 making interconnects from, 194 modeling process, iterative, 110 overlapping conduction and valence bands, 109 models removing from tops of photodetectors and solar of reality, 110–111 cells, 343 for semiconductors, 105 metal-semiconductor interface (Schottky barrier), modem, 468 213, 214 MODFET (modulation-doped FET), 267 metal-to-metal contact point, 194 modulated (altered) carrier frequency, 53 microbots, in literature, 392 mole, 102 microchip (microprocessor integrated circuit), monitoring stations, for GPS, 312 2–3. See also chip Monthioux, M., 404 microcontroller, 467 Moore, Gordon, 17–18, 94–95 microdynamics, 271 Moore’s law, 15–20, 95, 396–397 microelectronics, 20–21, 35, 396–401 Morgan, Stanley, 81 microelectronics industry Morse, Samuel Finley Breese, 52, 70–72 exponential growth trend in, 17 Morse Code, 52, 71 R&D side of, 20 Morse telegraph key, 71 microelectronics technology Morton, Jack, 94 development of, 68–70 MOS (metal-oxide semiconductor) capacitor, 248, handing off science to engineers, 69 249 importance of, 66–67 MOSFET (metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect microfluidic MEMS assembly, 298 transistor), 212–213, 246–262, 468 micro-intuition, 272 building a functional 10-nm, 400–401 micromachines. See MEMS changing fundamental structure of, 399 micromachining, silicon, 278, 281–285 compared to a BJT, 215 micromechanical parts, fabrication of, 282, construction of, 198 284–285 feature size evolution, 397 micrometers, 18, 20–21 as a four-terminal device, 247 micromirror displays, 292, 294–298 inversion in, 252–253 micromotor, 278 morphing into a BJT, 254 micron, 467 operating at very cold temperatures, 401 micro/nano fabrication facility. See fab operation of, 248–258 micro/nanoelectronics pushing conventional into nanometer regime, day-to-day realm of, 34, 35 398–399 defined, 21 regions of operation in, 249 distance scale, 35–39 speed of, 257 evolutionary nanotechnology and, 396 step-by-step fabrication flow for, 198–199 state-of-the-art in, 24–27 structure improving performance with scaling, temperature and energy scales of, 44–47 399 time and frequency scales of, 39–43 switch, leaking charge, 145 as top-down assembly strategy, 395 uses of, 214 micro/nanomachining, 271 movable type, 5 microphone, in a 3G cell phone, 59–60 MP3 digital music player, 61 microprocessor, 3, 460, 467 MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group), 350 microprocessor clock, 43 MQW laser, 373 microprocessor IC, 95 M-Systems, 140, 141 micropump, 300 MTBF (mean time between failures) microsensors, 278, 281–282 for ICs, 209 microsystems. See MEMS (micro-electro- for MEMS micromirrors, 297 mechanical systems) MTSO (mobile telephone switching office), 54, 55 Micro-USB, 156 multichip-module (MCM), 205–206, 207 microwaves, 42, 43 multigate, nonplanar MOSFETs, 400 © in this web service Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org
  15. 15. Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-87939-2 - Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revolution John D. Cressler Index More information 483 Index multimedia platforms, 3G cell phones as, 58 nanowires, 409 multimode fibers, 376 nanoworld, 388 multiple access, in FDMA, TDMA, and CDMA, Nathan, Marshall I., 367, 368 57 national (global) systems, for recycling, multiplexing, beams, 376 449 multiplication factor (M), 234 National Center for Missing and Exploited multiwalled (cylinder within a cylinder) CNTs, Children (NCMEC), 429 403 National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), MySpace, 443 313 National Science Foundation (NSF), 423 n-type region, 224 native oxide, 179 NAND flash, 151–152 natural logarithm, 15–16 NAND flash-memory chip, 141 natural power transducers, 348 NAND flash-memory IC, 154 nature, as a powerful teacher, 272 NAND-type flash-memory data-storage devices, navigation message, broadcast by each GPS 140 satellite, 315 nanites. See nanorobots NAVSTAR GPS, 307 nano, as prefix, 388 n-channel MOSFET. See nFET nanoapps, 408–415 NCMEC (National Center for Missing and nanobelts, of zinc oxide (ZnO), 408 Exploited Children), 429 nanobots, 393. See also nanorobots NDSFs (non-dispersion-shifted fibers), 376 nanocrystals, 390 negative resist, 192 Nano-Electrical-Mechanical Systems (NEMS), NEMSs (Nano-Electrical-Mechanical Systems), 271, 274 271, 274 nanoelectronics, 21, 35, 396, 397 Net. See Internet nanofiltration techniques, producing potable water, NetSmartz, 429 412 network, 468 nanogenerators, based on aligned ZnO nanowire Newton meter, 111 arrays, 411, 412, 413 Newton’s second law, 455 nanogenerators, based on ZnO nanowire arrays, nFET 408 circuit symbols and voltage-current polarities nanogram (ng), 388 for, 247 nano-gray-goo problem, 389 illustration of, 246 nanohelixes, 408, 410 output characteristics for, 251, 252 nanohenry (nH), 388 subthreshold characteristics of, 254–255 nanoids. See nanorobots ng (nanogram), 388 nano-LED, 390 NGA (National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency), nanoliter (nl), 388 313 nanoliterature, 392–393 nH (nanohenry), 388 nanometer (nm), 25, 388, 468 Nicholson, Alexander M., 321 nanometer scale, 394 night-vision systems, 43 nanomole (nmol), 388 NIH mentality (Not Invented Here), 94 nano-oncology, 412 nl (nanoliter), 388 nanoparticles, 409 nm (nanometer), 25, 388, 468 nanopropellers, 408, 410 nmol (nanomole), 388 nanorobots, 389 nMOS capacitor, 248 nanosecond (ns), 388 noise immunity, of electronics circuits, 13 nanosensors, 408, 411 non-dispersion-shifted fibers (NDSFs), nanosized self-assembled structured liquids 376 (NSSL), 393 nonplanar devices, 400 nanotech synthesis idea, 396 nonvolatile memory, 142 nanotechnology nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM), 148 defining, 394–396 nonzero dispersion-shifted fibers (NZDSFs), described, 388–389 376 market share in 2007, 392 NOR flash, 151–152 for the masses, 393 Northern and Southern Lights, 309 present commercial applications, 391 NOT function, Boolean, 462 prospects of, 390 NOT logic gate, 463 nanotubes, 391, 407, 468 northern lights, 184 nanovolt (nV), 388 novolac resin, 192 nanowire arrays, 408, 409 Noyce, Robert, 92 © in this web service Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org

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