'HLR in 2G, 2.5G


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'HLR in 2G, 2.5G

  1. 1. EngD seminar: HLR in 2G, 2.5G & 3G Mehdi Khorasani Lucent Technologies UCL-EE EngD student UCL-EE Supervisor: Dr Lionel Sacks Lucent Supervisor: Paul Donnelly 22 June 2001
  2. 2. <ul><li>GSM network, the role of HLR in it. </li></ul><ul><li>HLR hardware and software configuration. </li></ul><ul><li>HLR testing, with focus on the integration & performance testing. </li></ul><ul><li>Evolvement of HLR from 2G to 2.5 and 3G. </li></ul>Agenda ...
  4. 4. HLR, ... <ul><li>What is it? It is a database, which holds information about </li></ul><ul><ul><li>all subscribers, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>locations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is it for? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>keeping track of mobile subscribers and their status, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>routing calls, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enabling roaming, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>providing information about subscribed services. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. HLR: scenario1 mobility management ... BSC BTS VLR2 HLR BTS MSC BSC MSC VLR1 CancelLocationRsp SAI SAI Rsp LocationUpdate CancelLocation ISD ISD Rsp LocationUpdate Rsp
  6. 6. HLR: scenario2 call handling ... BSC BTS VLR2 HLR BTS GMSC BSC MSC VLR1 SRI PRN PRN Rsp (RN) SRI Rsp (RN) Calling Party Called Party
  7. 7. HLR: Architecture ... <ul><li>STOP: sorry that I cannot disclose confidential information. </li></ul><ul><li>But can give you a very high level overview: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>totally distributed architecture, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>omnipresent, scalable, resilient system, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>modularised, layered architecture, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>based on X.500, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fault-tolerant hardware, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4GB RAM, </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. HLR: Architecture ... <ul><ul><li>RAM based database, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unix based, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supports MAP Phase1, Phase2 and Phase2+, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LDAP/DAP interfaces, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>over 100MB WAN/LAN, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 millions subscribers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>uses Lucent’s SS7 stack. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. HLR: hardware ...
  10. 10. X.500, Directory Services <ul><li>The Directory Information Base (DIB): The collection of information held by the directory. </li></ul><ul><li>The Directory Information Tree (DIT): the logical hierarchical structure of the directory information, objects, attributes. </li></ul><ul><li>The Directory System Agent (DSA): provides the directory functionality. </li></ul><ul><li>The Directory User Agent (DUA): represents a user in accessing the directory. </li></ul>
  11. 11. X.500, Characteristics ... <ul><li>The location of data is transparent . </li></ul><ul><li>Information partition  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replication: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Master/Shadow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronisation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Propagation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Consistency. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. X.500, Characteristics ... <ul><li>Distribution behaviour: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chaining </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Referrals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multicasting. </li></ul></ul></ul>X.500 Interface Protocols ... <ul><li>DAP- Directory Access Protocol. </li></ul><ul><li>LDAP – Lightweight DAP. </li></ul><ul><li>DOP- Directory Operational Binding Protocol. </li></ul><ul><li>DSP – Directory Services Protocol. </li></ul>
  13. 13. X.500, DIT root A B H E D C I F G
  14. 14. X.500, DIT, DSAs root DSA1 DSA2 DSA3 A B H E D C I F G
  15. 15. X.500 ... DSA 1 DSP DSA 2 Node1 Node2 DSA 3 DUA DAP, LDAP Directory Node1 Node2 Node3 Node3 Node1 Node2 Node3
  16. 16. HLR testing <ul><li>Test areas include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Call Handling, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility Management, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Retrieval, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplementary Services, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>... . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functional, Performance & Resilience tests? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thousands of functional tests, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>complex performance tests & 48 hours resilience test runs. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. HLR: performance requirements <ul><li>Response Time: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>95%: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transaction Capacity: </li></ul>
  18. 18. HLR: Test Environment HLR 100 MB LAN SS7 Links Message Generator Traffic Simulator (MGTS from Tekelec)
  19. 19. HLR Testing, MGTS <ul><li>16 intel-486 cards, 32 MB RAM each, </li></ul><ul><li>Software on Sun Sparc server, </li></ul><ul><li>Wide range of protocol support </li></ul><ul><li>Very flexible Design, many bugs in the implementaion </li></ul>
  20. 20. HLR Testing, MGTS: Main Window
  21. 21. HLR Testing, MGTS: Tools
  22. 22. HLR Testing, MGTS: Message Editor
  23. 23. HLR Testing, MGTS: State Machine Editor
  24. 24. HLR Testing, MGTS, SME 2
  25. 25. HLR Testing, MGTS, SME 3
  26. 26. HLR Testing, MGTS, Database Editor
  27. 27. HLR Testing, MGTS: Sequence Group Editor
  28. 28. HLR Testing, MGTS: N/W Map Editor
  29. 29. HLR Testing, MGTS, NME 2
  30. 30. HLR Testing, MGTS, NME 3
  31. 31. HLR Testing, MGTS: Shelf Configuration
  32. 32. HLR Testing, MGTS, SC 2
  33. 33. HLR Testing, MGTS, N/W Shelf Assignment
  34. 34. HLR Testing, MGTS, NSA 2
  35. 35. HLR Testing, MGTS: Run Time Window
  36. 36. HLR Testing, MGTS, RTW 2
  37. 37. HLR Testing, MGTS, RTW 3
  38. 38. HLR Testing, Studies & Results <ul><li>Response Time measurements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Propagation Delay Compensation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CPU, Memory, log files: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>top </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>syslog </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. HLR Testing, Studies & Results
  40. 40. HLR Testing, Studies & Results
  41. 41. Future <ul><li>GPRS, 2.5 G </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HLR, FrameRelay, max theory rate 171.2 Kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3G UMTS Release’99 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HLR, ATM, 2Mbps??? (Urban, indoor), 384 Kbps? (Urban, limited mobility), ~144 Kbps (most likely, national, full mobility). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3G UMTS R4 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HSS, radically different (CN) from R’99 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3G UMTS R5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R4 + IP Multimedia (IM) </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. GPRS Network GSM Abis A D Frame Relay SGSN B-GGSN GGSN Gn Gn Gn PS Gp Gs Gr PSTN Gc Gi GPRS F/W BSC MSC VLR HLR AuC IWF Internet TCP/IP
  43. 43. 3GPP R5 TE MT BSS GERAN SGSN GGSN CSCF MGCF MRF MGW* T-SGW CSCF HSS R-SGW EIR R Um Gb Gn Gf CAP Gi TE MT UTRAN R Uu MGW* Iu Iu <ul><li>Call Session Control Function (CSCF) </li></ul><ul><li>Incoming Call Gateway function </li></ul><ul><li>Call Control function </li></ul><ul><li>Serving Profile Database function, </li></ul><ul><li>Address Handling function. </li></ul><ul><li>SIP Proxy/B2BUA Server </li></ul>A Taken from another Lucent presentation. PSTN / Legacy/ External Legacy Mobile Signaling Network IP Multimedia Domain * Gi Gi Gi Mr Cx Mh Mg Mm Mw Mc Gc Gr Ms Applications & Services SCP * Indicates Identical Elements Signaling Link Signaling and Data Link Access Network Elements Access Equipment Core Network Elements Nb IP Multimedia Domain *
  44. 44. HLR: Future <ul><li>GPRS, R’99 Compliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>migration to 64 bit OS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gr Interface defined. D interface improved: LU for GPRS supported. No SRI for GPRS, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AuC of GPRS supported. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAMEL3 Supported CSI including: GPRS – CSI, U – CSI, UG – CSI, SS – CSI, SMS-CS, O-CSI, T-CSI, G – CSI. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SS7 Over TCP/IP. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 G RAM. </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Useful Links ... <ul><li>www.3gpp.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.3gpp2.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.imagicom.co.uk </li></ul><ul><li>www.3gip.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.arib.or.jp/arib/english </li></ul><ul><li>www.itu.int </li></ul><ul><li>www.uwcc.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.wapforum.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.ietf.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.ipv6forum.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.itu.int/imt/ </li></ul>(3G Glossary) (WAP Forum) (Universal Wireless Communications) (ITU IMT 2000) (3G Partnership Project)
  46. 46. Abbreviations Media Gateway Control Function MGCF Equipment Identity Register EIR Mobile Application Part MAP Enhanced Data Rate for GSM Evolution EDGE Lightweight Directory Access Protocol LDAP Directory Access Protocol DAP Interworking Function IWF Call Session Control Function CSCF (MAP) Insert Subscriber Data ISD Circuit Switched CS Internet Protocol IP Core Network CN IP Multimedia IM Customised Application for Mobile network Enhanced Logic CAMEL Home Subscriber Server HSS Base Transceiver Station BTS General Packet Radio Service GPRS Base Station System BSS Gateway GPRS Support Node GGSN Base Station Controller BSC GPRS/EDGE Radio Access Network GERAN Boarder GGSN B-GGSN Firewall F/W Authentication Centre AuC
  47. 47. Abbreviations Visiting Location Register VLR Radio Network System RNS UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network UTRAN Radio Network Controller RNC Universal Mobile Telecommunications System UMTS Radio Access Network RAN Transport Signalling Gateway T-SGW Public Switched Telephone Network PSTN Terminal Equipment TE Packet Switched PS (ETSI) Technical Committee of Special Mobile Group TC-SMG (MAP) Provide Roaming Number PRN (MAP) Send Routing Information SRI Other Licensed Operator OLO Session Initiation Protocol SIP Mobile Termination (GSM 04.04) MT Serving GPRS Support Node SGSN Mobile-services Switching Centre MSC Service Control Point SCP Mobile Station MS (MAP) Send Authentication Information SAI Media Resource Function MRF Roaming Signalling Gateway R-SGW Media Gateway MGW
  48. 48. The mobile station consists of the physical equipment used by a PLMN subscriber; it comprises the Mobile Equipment (ME) and the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM), called UMTS Subscriber Identity Module (USIM) for Release 99 and following. The ME comprises the Mobile Termination (MT) which, depending on the application and services, may support various combinations of Terminal Adapter (TA) and Terminal Equipment (TE) functional groups. These functional groups are described in GSM 04.02. From 3G TS 23.002 For my clarification use only