UTMS and WLAN - convergence, competition or co-
The mission we embark on with this paper, is trying to make some sensible
comments about the current and future relationship between UMTS and WLAN. We
will divide our analysis in two sections. The first section discusses general
convergence between the two technologies and the industries surrounding them. We
will investigate some common views on the relationship between UMTS and WLAN,
and explore what convergence in this setting could be. We then take a look at the
UMTS WLAN relationship from different theoretical points of views. This is followed
by a study of the different factors working for and against convergence between
UMTS and WLAN.
The second section will study specific points of convergence. That is limited
convergence within specific areas of the WLAN UMTS domain. We look at UMTS
handsets as a convergence between cellphones and PDAs. We will also look at how
WLAN could serve as a load off for UMTS in crowded areas.
Four views on the UMTS WLAN relationship
In a Proxim presentation concerning the implementation of wireless LANs in public
hot spots, Rob Janson presents the following four quoted views on the relationship
between UMTS and WLAN .
WLANs will canibalize 3G
"With 802.11 and its 54-Mbit/s capacity on the horizon, there's additional potential for
3G to be effectivively cut out of a huge chink of wireless broadband business over
the next few years, dramatically changing the value propositions, business models
and fundamental assumtions about many 3G installations."
With the large-scale emergence of WLANs, a chunk of the imagined UMTS market is
being covered. This is illustrated on the figure below.
Original UTMS market UMTS market reduced by WLAN
The Low Mobility High Data Rate user scenario is being taken care of by WLANs.
This can be and is often perceived as a threat to the development of UMTS. However
this perspective ignores that WLAN usage probably prepares and accustoms users
to mobile high data rate application usage. As Anders Lindqvist from Northstream
puts it: "Do not focus on ‘lost traffic’ - focus on total usage."  WLAN means an
opportunity to stimulate the market for increased consumption of wireless bandwidth.
WLANs will enhance 3G
"Wi-Fi offers instant wireless broadband capacity now, unlike long-awaited 3G
technology from wireless carriers, although the reach of wireless LAN network is
measured in feet, not miles. Still, with wireless carriers already questioning potential
market for 3G services as they face
multimillion-dollar bids for limited spectrum at auction, many have looked closely at
Wi-Fi not just as competitor but as potential technology to enhance their future 3G
networks." (Unknown source)
WLANs will complement to 3G
"...wireless LANs will probe to be complementary for wireless LANs and will not
cannibalize 3G usage. Wireless LANs, in our view are geared for spots within a 3G
network that may not be reached by traditional 3G networks."
"...wireless LANs are not a threat to 3G. Instead the will, in our view, economically fill
in coverage gaps not addressed by 3G." (Unknown source)
WLANs will co-exist with 3G
"A year ago, no one even thought of these two technologies as competing," IDC
analyst Alex Slawsby told Wireless NewsFactor. "I would tend to agree, still, that they
are of complementary nature." 
What is UMTS WLAN convergence?
UMTS WLAN convergence in specific areas can be understood as convergence of
bills, authentication, handsets or services. Before we start our discussion of general
convergence between WLAN and UMTS it is necessary to, if not define, then at least
suggest a likely understanding of the term "general WLAN UMTS convergence". This
general convergence can be seen in different ways. The most complete convergence
would be the complete melting of WLAN and UMTS standards and industries. A
more likely and less demanding understanding would be that WLAN and UMTS
together provide a uniform wireless fabric traversing applications and environments.
This second definition describes a converged wireless internet service. It does not
imply a complete melting of neither the industries or technologies. WLANs in offices
or homes may still continue as separate networks, or may of course be integrated as
We can obviously talk about convergence between WLAN and UMTS without
meaning a general convergence. We are already seeing convergence in several
areas. This will be dealt with in the second part of this paper. This section is
supposed to look into the possibility general convergence between the two
technologies (WLAN) wireless local area network and (UMTS) Universal Mobile
The view on these two technologies has been that they are two competing
technologies, and that they pose as a threat to one another, another view is that
UMTS will be complementary to other wireless technologies . The interesting
question that rises is how these technologies will co-exist in the modern world.
That is what we intend to take a closer look into.
As WLAN with its 802.11b standard supports bandwidth of 5.mbps, and 32.mbps with
the hyperlan2 / 802.11a standards there is a large difference between the two
technologies transfer rates, as UMTS is set to deliver at best 2.mbps . And it is
still uncertain when the UMTS technology will be launched at large. On the other
hand there is also a great difference in coverage range, the two technologies are
delivering. UMTS is set to deliver up to 5 km of range area, while the WLAN range is
about 20-300 meters. This is a major setback for the WLAN service. The other major
setback is that the frequency is unregulated which enhances the risk of interference
There is also a difference in the inscription of the two technologies. Inscription
according to Ciborra  intends to describe how the concrete anticipations and
restrictions of future patterns of use are involved in the development and use of a
technology. The UMTS standard was from the start designed for roaming, hand over
between operators and with a high level of security. The standard also has
mechanisms for billing and settling of accounts between operators. 802.11 more
popularly called WLAN, on the other hand was not designed for roaming and hand
over, and also lack billing mechanisms and has a much weaker security .
One of the major differences between the technologies from our point of view is the
focus on control. UMTS intends to have a great deal of control over the
telecommunication industry by setting a standard that should be applied universally,
hence the name. By the looks of things it appears that UMTS is using a Top Down
approach on the development and launching of this technology. The standardization
organizations or the managing organizations involved have set down a set of rules
that are to be followed by the service developers. In this sense there is no mention of
a de-facto standard.
The WLAN industry, or actually the local area network industry, on the other hand is
in this sense not as strict as the former. The strategy has been more or less bottom-
up, there has been a variety of different service providers and different organizations
competing. The standards have been more or less de-facto, the 802.11b standard,
which is the most used standard in Europe today, was introduced as a de-facto
standard by the Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) . This standard was
set due to the path dependence of the standard, the technology had started up early
and users had adapted to the technology. This way this technology became the
natural selection for the technology, much like the establishment of Microsoft
Another difference of interest is addressed by the question “do I really need this
technology?”. When it comes to WLAN the technology evolved from old offices where
the LAN was hard to implement so they set up access points to the LAN, so a
wireless connection could be made. The technology seems to be evolving with the
needs that are presented by the user.
When it comes to UMTS, it is still not certain whether there is a demand for the
product out there. It might be as Giddens puts it (referring to Jacques Ellul) that
technology generates needs and solutions to problems we never know we had .
According to the research done by group 1 in the course , UMTS and its
introduction in Norway has been set back due to the major costs of the development
of the technology. And their research subject doesn’t expect the new technology to
make any money until 2007.
There is an interest in the field, for these two technologies, not only co-exist but also
complement each other. Ericsson and Telenor began a joint project in Norway in
march 2001 to evaluate and test the practical and commercial aspects of integrating
Wireless LAN and UMTS as complementary radio access technologies. Seamlessly
accessing WLAN in local areas will provide UMTS users with added capacity as they
enter crowded hotspots such as airports or conference areas . We didn’t find out
how this project proceeded, as all the news to be found was from march / April 2001.
The project, dubbed H2U, focused on the technical and commercial aspects of
connecting a HiperLAN2 network to the surrounding UMTS network with seamless
mobility between the two. A merger of the two platforms combines the merits of both
access technologies; UMTS for most environments and applications in wide area
coverage and the greater bandwidth of HiperLAN2 for crowded hotspots .
UMTS and Universalism
Certain views and attitudes in the UMTS industry can be identified as universalist.
UMTS is promoted as a complete solution encompassing both wireless telephony
and wireless data communication. WLAN is by many seen as a threat to this
universal solution, even though comments about WLAN often include degrading
words or meanings. An example is how supposedly “WLAN is operating in the trash
band (“søppelbåndet”), meaning frequencies already having some traffic and
possible distortions. These comments of course ignore the fact that WLAN is divided
into different standards operating in different frequency spectrums.
Even though public industry attitudes communicate universalist ideas, the UMTS
standard and the deployment of UMTS networks and services, cannot and does not
ignore the infrastructure UTMS networks will form a part of. An obvious example is
how UMTS users will be able to access the internet. UTMS will probably also need
some sort of integration with GSM technology in the early stages of UMTS
development, to give users increased coverage. This demands communication
between user-administration and billing mechanism of the two networks, as well as
handsets able to access both networks. A third example of UMTS cooperating with
other technologies is dealt with in the second section of this report – the use of
WLAN to take some load of UMTS base stations in busy areas.
The UMTS standard allows and includes gateways to other networks and
technologies. The few examples above illustrate how this eases the introduction of
UMTS by integrating existing infrastructure. The openness of UTMS technology is
increased through these gateways.
WLAN UMTS roaming
It is very likely that we will see roaming between WLANs and UMTS networks in the
future. Ian Beeby describes two scenarios for this kind of roaming 
1. WLAN user roaming to 3G network.
This would typically happen when a user walks out of an WLAN hotspot at
home, at work or in some public place, and connects to a 3G network. This
can be done seamlessly today. Birdstep’s Mobile IP technology enables
seamless roaming between many different types of networks.
2. 3G user roaming to WLAN network.
One example of this is a user leaving a 3G network when entering a public
WLAN hotspot. A user leaving a 3G network when entering his office WLAN is
a similar scenario. Another scenario often mentioned is 3G operators using
WLANs to take some load off it’s base stations in busy areas. This is
described in more detail later.
Flexibilities and rigidities
By drawing on actor network theory, we make use of a powerful tool for analyzing
information infrastructures in general, as well as special characteristics like
openness, flexibility and rigidity.
WLAN is, strictly speaking, not one standard but a grouping of several standards for
Wireless LAN technologies. This diversity provide flexibility in itself, but in this section
we will analyze WLAN as one technology to simplify the theoretical analysis. The
rationale for simplifying is the high degree of similarity among the different standards.
WLANs has been deployed for many years in a variety of settings, and it is only
recently that we can talk about WLAN becoming one global infrastructure (even
though we are not there yet). This development has not been specified by a
standards comitee. It has evolved over time. As the scale and uniformity demands
increase, WLAN as a communication infrastructure becomes more than a technology
or local technical solution to local networking challenges. The flexibility is decreasing
as global solutions emerge. Specific characteristics are inscribed into these global
solutions. Global WLAN infrastructure consists of many different networks, different
WLANs, but also different LANs and internet infrastructure. This forces global
solutions to allow heterogeneity, and is clearly different from the way UMTS has been
The openness and flexibilities inscribed in the global WLAN infrastructure is
addressing real existing needs. It is a functional openness, as opposed to the
planned openness of a standard written before deployment. One of the important
characteristics of information infrastructures is the impossible challenge of providing
all the correct gateways and flexibility mechanisms when writing a standard before
instalment. The global WLAN infrastructures will if or when they become one, have
many inscriptions that might hamper its future development and success. Still, in the
shaping of global solutions a lot of the important existing flexibility needs are
addressed. UMTS however, is a predefined answer to a question we are not yet fully
familiar with. The creation of the UMTS standard depended on the translation of the
interests of heavy industry players and governments. The inscriptions are many and
UMTS and WLAN target markets share a desire for wireless data communication.
The form and amount of this data communication are often seen as different for the
the typical WLAN and typical UMTS user. Ian Beeby has listed typical WLAN and 3G
user requirements in the following way WLAN user req:
o Access to public internet
o Access to office VPN
o Very limited desire for 3G services
• 3G user req:
o 3G apps
o Location based sevices
o Content services
o WLAN user requirements existing but less important
The current perceived difference between the WLAN and 3G user requirements can
be used to defend a coexistence scenario and criticize a convergence scenario. It
also suggests that one should be careful with building on the user feedbacks and
experiences of the typical WLAN users, Techies and Business Road Warriors, to
shape 3G services. WLAN services, with their cheap and flexible nature, might
survive by addressing a market consisting mainly of these two kinds of users. UMTS
strategists however, see the business market segment only as UMTS’s initial market;
it is necessary to reach GSM like proliferation to make it profitable. A converged
UMTS WLAN network will benefit from addressing both user requirements. The
crucial question is then if this benefit is necessary to make profits.
Other factors working for and against convergence
There is no single standard for integrating WLAN and UMTS today. WFI consulting
states: “We feel that Standards developments are already being overtaken by events
in the market in both Europe and North America.”  The preferred way of
convergence between 3G and WLAN is SIM based WLAN cards. WFI believes this is
likely to lag the development of 3G terminals .
A often stated barrier to convergence is the lack of roaming agreements between
WLAN and cellular operators. Another is the lack of security of WLAN networks.
Convergence on the device side is hampered by the power drain of running different
communication technologies at the same time.
After listing some challenges to convergence, Northstream concludes that “Key
issues are business related, not technical” and they believe “Current vigorous market
experimentation will discover the right model” for convergence .
Specific Points of Convergence
This section will go through some specific points of convergence between WLAN and
UMTS. Specific points of convergence could for example be convergence of the bills,
authentication or management. We will put our main focus on the convergence of
handsets, and how WLAN can become a complement to UMTS through taking load
off zones with heavy bandwidth usage. We also take a look at how WLAN could
prepare users for mobile internet, and create early revenues for the telecoms.
As we see it, the chances of a complete convergence between the two technologies,
UMTS and WLAN, are very low. There are on the other hand chances of
convergence in different types of mediums, for instance user terminals. The question
we ask is will it be possible to access both the WLAN net and the UMTS net from the
same terminals? In this section we will try to answer this question, by pointing out
some of the driving forces behind this and look at some of the obstacles.
There are terminals today that provide the best of both worlds, terminals that are both
a pocket pc, or PDA (Personnel Digital Assistant) and a mobile phone . There are
two ways of doing this; one can either make a mobile phone, with the functionality of
a pocket pc, or the other way around, as illustrated in the article . The 02 XDA is
an example of the latter. The 02 XDA is a feature-packed Pocket PC that combines
the benefits of a GPRS mobile phone with the power of a PDA. The 02 XDA allows
you to :
• Access the Internet.
• Make phone calls.
• Send e-mail.
• Organize your diary.
• Listen to music.
• Play games.
The 02 XDA: .
As we have now seen, there already exist integrated phones and PDAs. And more
technology like this is being produced. Our opinion is that a PDA, might be a medium
where convergence between the technologies in question might happen.
One of the important obstacles in this case, is the difference between UMTS
terminals and the existing WLAN terminals. The UMTS terminals are small, their
power consumption is low, and they have long standby time, are wearable, and
support both voice and data at high speed. WLAN terminals on the other hand have
high power consumption; they are large and have low talk time. The question that
arises is, if we combine the functionality of these two terminals, will the consumer of
the product be satisfied?
The power usage of the 02 XDA  was high and it had to be charged every second
day. And another thing that is important in the mobile marked today is the size of the
device at hand. Does the consumer want an extensive increase in size to support the
functionality of the device; we have to keep in mind that the user has become used
and quite fond I might add, to small size mobile phones.
The user terminals are a very important issue in the development of WLAN and
UMTS, especially when the topic of service development is regarded. Josef Noll at
Telenor  believes that the functionality will increase on all devises. His opinion is
that, the gathering of functionality into one devise is not only hard but cannot happen.
This due to the fact that this is quite hard, due to the dependence of screen size etc.
and different needs demand different types of devices. He thinks that the terminals of
the technologies will converge and play together a great deal, but one can’t look
away from the fact that special devices will be made for special needs. This is also
our opinion, as mentioned above, today the user is used to small devices, at least
when it comes to the mobile phone, and all users do not need or demand the
functionality that the future devices will provide. A user may simply demand a mobile
phone that makes calls, and nothing else.
From user investigations: If you have technology that overrides you, you won’t use it,
«Too smart terminals won’t be used ».
Another thing that has to be takes into consideration in the discussion is the
involvement of the Internet. What kind of services will be offered in the future?
According to Per Hjalmar Lehme at Telenor  the future of Internet will be a super
broadband multimedia network, with wide use of real time functionality.
He also thinks that the user of the Internet, will in the future require the same
functionalities from his or her mobile terminals, as he or she gets from the wired
network at home, or the office.
The future mobile terminals will according to him be powerful computers which may
communicate with the surrounding world over different types of access technologies,
cover every thing from advanced multimedia use, to ordinary telephone calls. The
format will be adjusted to the specific user area, but the small pocket device will be
important due to its ability to enhance mobility.
Lehme doesn’t say anything about how the power requirement the future terminals
will require will be met, keeping in mind that the consumption of power will be high,
and the requirement of small size is wished to be met.
Lap tops and hand held devices can today use the WLAN, and PDAs and mobile
phones are getting more and more similar functionality. There is also no problem in
making mobile phones WLAN compatible . One obstacle here is the operators.
They hope that this will not happen. According to ARC chart up to 64 percent of the
3G-revenue will be taken by alternative technology. This might be what the operators
fear. Best case scenario is that only 12 percent of the revenue will be taken.
Some say that there will be distinct terminals used in spare time and at work .
Perhaps this is something that will prevent the possibility of convergence between
the user terminals. The service provided by UMTS and WLAN is quite different and
some say that they apply to different user groups. We think that UMTS needs to get
the masses to survive, due to the high cost of the development, while WLAN can
survive with the business market, and does not need the mass to survive.
Another thing that might be of interest is, since the service provided by the different
technologies is different, this might also be a driving force towards convergence.
Accessing both networks from one terminal, instead of two, is a functionality many
might find to their liking, at least in some specific domains. In this case the transport
domain can be taken as an example. When looking for a specific address, the UMTS
service can be consulted, to help the driver navigate. It is also useful for them to have
access to their company intranet or the home domain of the office. For this the WLAN
can be used.
Another functionality that can support the mobile worker, is the ability to use the net
that is providing the service regardless of service quality, when the person is in the
WLAN hotspot, he or she may use the net. If the person leaves the hotspot he can
connect to the UMTS network and get the same service regardless of the provider.
To sum up this section we believe in convergence of user terminals in some user
areas. We do not think that all user terminals will use both WLAN and UMTS, but we
believe in pocket PCs which uses the UMTS and also support WLAN. We think PDAs
and mobile phones will converge and that terminals will be much better adjusted to
the use and the user.
WLAN as a complement to UMTS
Here we will explore the ways in which WLAN can serve as a complement to
UMTS.As has been the case before in the wireless industry, coverage is one of the
most important factor for making a new wireless technology a success. WLAN is
being used more and more in homes, offices and indoor public areas. UMTS is
designed in such a way that users are able to connect to data services like the
Internet with the same coverage and convenience as their voice services. 3G
enables users to always remain connected to the "mobile Internet". If such a network
as UMTS can offer global coverage, mobility and guaranteed bandwidth on demand,
what is the need for WLAN?
We believe that WLAN could serve as a complement to UMTS in 3 ways.
1. Educating users and application developers about the "mobile Internet"
Since WLAN is being used today and the deployment of UMTS is still
anticipated, WLAN can stimulate and catalyze the 3G markets by educating
users and application developers about the "mobile Internet". WLAN would
essentially make users more comfortable with accepting "mobile Internet"
access. Once users become comfortable with the mobile internet in their day
to day lives, there will be a spillover or an increase in the overall take-up of
other types of mobile access offered by the operator such as 3G. This
education process will also help stimulate application development and
uptake. WLAN can deliver cost-effective wireless access to the mobile internet
today, with a migration to 3G networks in the future.
2. WLAN as load off
WLAN is typically installed in areas that are frequently populated by people
such as airports, train stations, shopping centres, coffee shops, hotels and
convention centres. In such areas the number of users wanting to access both
voice and data services is high. Operators of 3G could add WLAN as an
additional service thus taking some of the pressure off the 3G network. This
will also enable the operators to provide their customers with the broadest
coverage and access possibilities for voice, data and multimedia services in
the areas where there is a high density of users.
WLAN in such areas could be used to deliver best-effort quality of service,
enabling users to access their corporate applications and the Internet. WLAN
users could use their 3G devices to access high quality services such as
voice, video streaming and video conferencing. In the end users can choose
the best available connection for the application they are using at that time.
3. Generating revenues earlier
Generating revenues earlier for UMTS is one of the outcomes of deploying
WLAN with UMTS. Since the cost of building the infrastructure and the
licensing is so expensive WLAN could be a source of revenue. Building a
WLAN infrastructure is cheap and the deployment of WLAN already exists
today even though not to such a large scale. With little additional investment
mobile operators can add WLAN access to their present service offers.
WLAN as a complement to UMTS.
WLAN could become a complement to UMTS and together they could provide a
greater flexibility, choice and convenience for end users.
Roaming between UMTS and WLAN
A possible roaming scenario:
“A user is in a taxi on the way to the airport. His mobile device
with functionality for both UMTS and WLAN has detected and is already
logged onto the 3G network.
The device does not detect any available WLAN network as
the user is not within range of a hot spot. The user then decides to
click the web browser on his PDA to check if his flight is on time. On
doing this, the device automatically uses the 3G network for
Internet access. This action is transparent to the user. As the taxi
approaches the terminal, he turns off the PDA.
As the user walks towards the terminal and sits down, he decides to
check his email before he boards the plane. He turns on his PDA and
clicks the Outlook13 icon. The device detects the presence of both a
3G and WLAN network.
The PDA connects to the user's corporate intranet using a secure VPN14
connection over the WLAN network. Once this is done, the Outlook
application opens and the user can check his email. The user reads a
message requesting a quick chat with a colleague regarding an
inventory issue. On clicking the icon, the PDA establishes a
Netmeeting15 Video and Data session with his colleague, and at the
same time, establishes a voice session using the 3G network. In
this case the network is using WLAN for best-effort video and data
sharing, and the 3G network for guaranteed quality of service
voice. His colleague is currently out of the office and working from a
remote location. In this instance, the colleague's mobile device only
has access to 3G service, and she is not within a WLAN hot spot.
Therefore, the colleague establishes the video, data sharing and voice
session using the 3G network.”
Roaming between UMTS and WLAN is probably going to be an area of special
interest in the future. With more wireless devices around today the
need for a global roaming is increasing. Roaming agreements exist
today between WISPS but one cannot truly say that this is global
roaming like the one in the GSM network. With the introduction of
UMTS one might begin to think of true global roaming. The lack of
a standard in management system for billing, authentication and
subscriber handling has been one of the obstacles to true global
roaming in the WLAN industry today. Mobile operators which will
deploy UMTS in the possible near future have standards in management
system for billing, authentication and subscriber handling in this
way should the mobile operators add WLAN services it will be easier
to make standards for the WLAN industry too. The mobile operators
also have a very large base of mobile subscribers who would be prime
targets for a high-speed data service. With these possibilities
roaming between UMTS and WLAN is something that could serve both the
operators and customers. Along with this development also arises the
need for standards between the two technologies.
Roaming between UMTS and WLAN
In the conclusion of this paper we inevitably face expectations of predicting the future
of WLAN and UMTS. Convergence, coexistence or competition until the end of one
of the technologies? To answer this we start quoting the views of some industry
Rob Jansen of Proxim will not conclude strongly, but tries to say something about the
nature of the coexistence or convergence between UMTS and WLAN . He
believes coexistence will be similar to today’s situation with WLANs in homes,
offices,hotels, airports, etc. Convergence will, if it comes, only be from a customer
point of view. Protocols are unlikely to converge but service offerings from carriers
are very likely to converge.
“WLAN in hotspots – 3G everywhere” is the opinion of Anders Lindqvist of
Northstream . He focuses on the complementing usage models. He puts also
points out that non standard proprietary security solutions are needed. Northstream
agrees with the view that “WLAN could increase 3G revenue”, but states that public
WLAN is still an immature business.
WFI consulting suggests that the next generation of UMTS, normally called 4G,
will further convergence . They believe it will become a “collection of technologies
and protocols, combining to provide high troughput” and have an “integrated
authentication for m-commerce applications”.
One would instantly identify WLAN’s global installed base as a great advantage
compared to UMTS’s non-existing installed base. But it is also possible to see WLAN
as an installed base for UMTS, in the sense that WLAN are preparing users for
We think WLAN can be a complement to UMTS and together they can provide a
greater flexibility, choice and convenience for end users.
We think that a converged UMTS WLAN network will benefit from addressing the
different user requirements of both UTMS and WLAN users. This demands flexibility
in the converged solution. The competion perspective so often pushed by WLAN and
UMTS evangelists gets little support from all the analysts above.
As a final comment we would like to point out that even if we get a converged mobile
internet, the battle for how it happens will be extremely fierce. The market is huge
and large parts of the communication and data industry will draw arms for a share of
1: Rob Jansen, "Implementing wireless LANs in public hotspots", Proxim,
2: Craig Mathias, "WLANs a new threat to 3G", http://www.eetimes.com/, May 20,
3: Anders Lindqvist, "WLAN and 3G, competing or complementary?", Northstream,
presentation at WLAN workshop London, September 2002
4: Dan McDonough, Jr., Study: "Wireless Hot Spots No Threat to 3G", Wireless
NewsFactor July 1, 2002
5 : W-LAN challenger of UMTS Opportunity Accenture presentation 1.7.2002 by
7: Gruppe I: Service development: http://www.ifi.uio.no/inis/grupper/Grp1-p1.htm
8: Strategies for deployment and diffusion of public accessible WLANs
9: By Kirsti Berg and Endre Grøtnes. Group 2. INIS
10: From control to drift. Claudio U. Ciborra.
13 Ian Beeby, "Standards Required for Integrating WLAN with 3G", WFI consulting,
presentation, September 10th 2002
14 : http://www.dagbladet.no/dinside/2002/11/05/353094.html, 07/11-02.
16: Service development for UMTS: collected material, INIS report group 3.
18: http://www.telecom.no/art/4675.html, 08/11-02.
19: Tjenesteutvikling innen UMTS, group 1.