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  1. 1. Government, Industry & R&D
  2. 2. Government/Industry Roles <ul><li>Traditionally Japanese Government has been proactive in identifying and strengthening specific growth industries </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile in Japan in the 1990’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PDC developed in isolation – an export failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3G (WCDMA) – an IPR and global standards success, and the first commercial rollout (FOMA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>i-Mode – 75% of all phone users have Internet access, (and use it, because it provides services they want) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing relationships with the introduction of a competitive marketplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 operators – NTT DoCoMo, J-Phone, KDDI </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. ‘e-Japan’ <ul><li>Government Initiative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘IT Strategy HQ’ established – July 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘IT Strategy Conference’ – 20 industry experts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘IT Basic Strategy’ – established November 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘IT Basic Law’ – January 2001 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘e-Japan’ Strategy established – January 2001 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“The most advanced high speed wireless Internet-connection will be achieved in which the wireless access network will be efficiently connected with the Internet (IPv6)…” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Role of Mobile within ‘e-Japan’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Generation Mobile (industry) Committee established to produce report for the Telecommunications Council </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Report to the Telecoms Council June 2001 - Exec Summary <ul><li>Mobile IT… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“… requires global support” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“… a mountain of treasures of IPR” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“… early realisation is a key to IT industry” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“… a driving force behind new service & business” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ An action plan for realisation of the mobile IT environment” </li></ul><ul><li>“ We strongly expect that comprehensive promotion of the mobile IT is planned quickly and strongly based on this report” </li></ul><ul><li>mITF – Mobile IT Forum – first action step </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mobile IT Forum - mITF <ul><li>mITF – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created June 2001 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>120 companies, 10 individuals (academics), 1 ‘special’ (ARIB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ARIB provide the secretariat for mITF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure: </li></ul></ul>General Assembly Fourth Generation Mobile Comms Committee Steering Committee Mobile Commerce Committee WAP Committee System Sub-committee Application Sub-Committee Technical Sub-Committee Business Promotion Sub-Committee
  6. 6. Scope of the ‘4G subcommittee’ 4G 3G, Nomadic, W-LAN, ITS, Digital TV, etc. System Technology 0. Application & Vision <ul><li>1. System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System architecture, Security, Required function, etc. </li></ul></ul>Interactive Feedback Application Sub-Committee <ul><li>2. Core and Radio Access Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All-IP Network, Mobility control, Wireless QoS, Radio cell planning, Radio network control, Radio transmission, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Terminal Equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-band/ Multi-mode terminal, Human machine interface, Mobile platform, etc. </li></ul></ul>Scope of work of System Sub-Committee Seamless Service & Network with other systems
  7. 7. Government - MPHPT <ul><li>Created April 2001 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Ministry of Public Management, Home Affairs, Posts & Telecommunications” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes known as MGA (Ministry of General Affairs) or Soumosho </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(The old MPT was subsumed into the new MPHPT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities in regard to Future Mobile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Ensuring the Foundation of R&D” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spectrum management & Future Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-ordinating Japanese Vision and Input to ITU-R </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. R&D Foundation (1) <ul><li>The Key Players </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NTT DoCoMo – major R&D capability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most 3G research staff moved to FOMA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remainder active on ‘4G’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other industry players beginning ‘4G’ research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many have begun in last year, relatively small numbers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on technologies identified in TC report and described earlier </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>480 in Japan, only just begun ranking exercise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Key mobile players active as individuals in mITF </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CRL (Central Research Laboratories) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Funded by MPHPT, now an ‘independent administrative institution’ and perhaps playing a diminishing role ? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yokosuka Research Park – a national focus </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. R&D Foundation (2) <ul><li>Yokosuka Research Park </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conceived in 1987, opened in 1997 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>£1bn invested in the YRP site & facilities to date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>50% of which by NTT DoCoMo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National and local government support and investment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actively promoted, both nationally and internationally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapidly established itself as the national centre for mobile communications research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most mobile R&D consolidated at YRP - 6000 staff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now seeking to attract companies in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcasting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>… in order to develop the service and business synergies with mobile communications </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. R&D Foundation (3) <ul><li>R&D Requirements for Future Mobile Evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mITF focussing on the ‘giant step’, whilst companies themselves fund earlier 3G evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding expected from both industry & government, but no assessments of cost yet undertaken </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NB Korean MIC $100m investment announcement Feb 2002 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government funding is expected for some areas of research – examples given were - SDR, propagation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Companies need to understand the importance in participation in such activities’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Future Interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government and industry appeared keen to build on May 2001 MoU with UK Government </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Spectrum Management (1) <ul><li>Spectrum Allocation & Trading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spectrum viewed as a ‘public good’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophical objection to ‘selling’ spectrum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rather leasing, and returned if not used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auctions being considered (in & out of favour) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regulation of Software Radio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actively engaged on SDR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(SDR Forum are working hard on MPHPT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study committee to report March 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Followed by public consultation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(These dates are later than those believed by SDRF) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Spectrum Management (2) <ul><li>Service Convergence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comms-Broadcast boundaries blurring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio Law covers Cellular Operators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcast Law covers Broadcasters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Law covers satellite based broadcasters and comms operators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nothing yet for terrestrial overlap situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional ITU categories still relevant for interference analyses </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Standards - ITU-R Vision <ul><li>ITU-R WP8F </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International body responsible for future mobile radio systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led the IMT-2000 activity (3G), begun in 1987 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now looking at ‘Systems beyond 3G’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presently developing its ‘Vision’ document </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Japanese Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very actively inputting over the past year or more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally a limited view of ‘4G is a new air interface, 100 Mb/s’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interworking with WLANs and other networks is now acknowledged as important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In this “public” forum, the date of 2010 for the 100 Mb/s air interface was quoted as being a … “working assumption for the introduction of service for the purposes of R&D” </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Standards - ITU-R Vision <ul><li>Spectrum Availability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese TC report anticipates a need for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.2-1.7 GHz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in the region 3-5 GHz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>with channels of 50-100 MHz bandwidth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese desire to put on the WRC2006 agenda </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current Issues… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some antagonism to the Japanese position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MPHPT noted that 3G took 10 years to deployment from spectrum allocation at WRC ’92, but think a quicker timescale could be achieved locally in Japan </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Standards - Networks <ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Japanese vision is for a convergence of Internet and mobile core infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If mobile / Internet convergence is to happen it must involve the IETF, but… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to influence IETF ? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It doesn’t operate in the ‘traditional’ telecom manner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This issue, essential if true mobile/Internet core convergence to happen, is recognised to a limited degree </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Concluding Remarks
  17. 18. Final Remarks <ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There exists a shared belief in the importance of mobile communications to future national wealth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learnt from the past </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competition with wireline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Competition with Korea ?) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government and industry are beginning to invest in the future of the industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Still at an early stage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No obvious technological lead yet exists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Currently more ‘goals’ than ‘technology’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many standards issues unclear – eg IETF </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>International collaboration will be needed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Final Remarks <ul><li>Further Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Mission Team Report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>YRP Telecom Summit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 th YRP Symposium on Cooperation between Industry, Academia and Government in Mobile Communications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10-11 th July 2002 at YRP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EC Training Grants available – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Funding available to develop staff who may have to work in or deal with Japan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>120,000 Euros to fund 12 months of language training and basic living allowance in Japan to learn the language and culture, followed by 6 month local placement of an employee in a selected organisation </li></ul></ul></ul>