Estimating end-to-end performance in 3G Long-Term Evolution ...


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Estimating end-to-end performance in 3G Long-Term Evolution ...

  1. 1. Estimating end-to-end performance in 3G Long-Term Evolution compared to HSDPA Thesis work seminar presentation 18.10.2005 Mari-Jaana Pelkonen 51529B
  2. 2. Acknowledgement <ul><li>Supervisor: Prof. Heikki Hämmäinen </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor: Jani Kokkonen M.Sc </li></ul><ul><li>Nokia Networks, System Technologies </li></ul>
  3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>Thesis introduction </li></ul><ul><li>HSDPA overview </li></ul><ul><li>3G LTE overview </li></ul><ul><li>Estimation work </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
  4. 4. Thesis introduction <ul><li>3G Long-Term Evolution standardization effort started in late 2004 in 3GPP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3G networks are implemented at very slow phase. One major reason for the operators low investment willingness is the low capacity it offers to the operator and to the customer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE is standardizing mobile WiMAX => Threat for loosing competitive edge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Japan the telecom technology is one step forward: DoCoMo is driving the standardization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why not 4G? 4G will be a system that connects all the existing and future networks seamlessly together. The technology is not yet ready for that. 3G LTE is a evolution step towards the 4G, enabling the operators to use the existing infrastructure longer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target to standardize simple, IP optimize network, offering mobile DSL type connections. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Thesis introduction <ul><li>The scope of the thesis work was to prove that the performance in presented 3G LTE architecture is better than in the current available systems. </li></ul><ul><li>3G HSDPA was selected to the reference architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>We were not only interested whether the new system is better, but why and why not. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How much of the improvement could be achieved only improving capacity of the legacy systems? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the impact of the new architecture solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different applications have different requirements for the network, performance is application specific. Therefore delay and throughput impact estimations were done for three applications: Web browsing, streaming video and VoIP. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Thesis introduction <ul><li>This thesis work was written in 3G Long-Term Evolution architecture project </li></ul><ul><li>One part was literature study about 3G HSDPA performance and performance in general. </li></ul><ul><li>3G LTE specific part is taken from the architecture project and standardization contributions. The 3G LTE architecture presented in this work is DRAFT architecture. It will not be standardized as presented here. </li></ul><ul><li>The estimation work is done using a Service performance Excel tool created to calculate delays in 3G networks. The tool consists of signaling flows for different applications. For that work, the 3G LTE specific parts were added to the tool. </li></ul><ul><li>Values used in the tool are for 3G networks measured or estimated. To get 3G LTE values, I consulted several experts working with that area. Some of the values are targets, other derived from 3G values and the rest are educated guesses. </li></ul>
  7. 7. HSDPA <ul><li>High-Speed Downlink Packet Access is 3G performance enhancement technology. It does not change the core network, but only the radio interface in the downlink direction. </li></ul><ul><li>HSDPA offers theoretical DL bit rates up to 14.4 Mbps. </li></ul><ul><li>Only test networks implemented, not yet in commercial use. The effective bit rate offered to users is assumed to be around 800 kbps. </li></ul>
  8. 8. HSDPA: 3G architecture UE = User Equipment Node B = base station RNC = Radio Network Controller RNS = Radio Network System CN = Core Network UTRAN = Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network SGSN = Service Gateway Supporting Node GGSN = Gateway GGSN Supporting Node UE Node B Node B RNC SGSN GGSN UTRAN CN PS domain HLR AuC EIR Registers CN Uu Iu RNS Iub Iub Gn Gi
  9. 9. HSDPA: 3G QoS bearer architecture End-to-end Service Local Bearer Service Backbone Bearer Service CN Bearer Service External Bearer Service Iu Bearer Service Radio Bearer Service UTRA Service Physical Bearer Service UMTS Bearer Service Radio Access Bearer Service TE MT UTRAN CN Iu edge CN Gateway TE
  10. 10. HSDPA: Protocol stack (user plane) GGSN 3G-SGSN RNC UE Server HLR BS MAC-hs HS-DSCH FP L2 L1 Radio L1 Radio L1 MAC PDCP IPv6/v4 u Application TCP/UDP RLC-U IP UDP GTP-U L2 L1 L1 L2 HS-DSCH FP MAC-D RLC-U PDCP L1 L2 IPv6/v4 IP UDP GTP-U L2 L1 IP UDP GTP-U L2 L1 IP UDP GTP-U L2 L1 IPv6/v4 TCP/UDP Application L1 L2 L1 L2 U Iub IuPs Gn Gr
  11. 11. HSDPA: WCDMA RRC and PMM states Mobile is allowed to send data in CELL_FACH and CELL_DCH states. DCH channel is dedicated channel for end user data. CELL_PCH and URA_PCH (not shown in the figure) are used for paging. In idle mode mobile has no radio connection. CELL_PCH CELL_FACH CELL_DCH RRC state change DCH channel allocation time 2-5 s timer 2-5 s timer If DL activated, paging causes delay IDLE PMM Detached PMM Connected RRC Connection establishment time GPRS Attach
  12. 12. 3G LTE <ul><li>IP optimized network architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Target is to solve the performance problems that current 3G architecture has and offer DSL type mobile internet connection. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Short user plane RTT </li></ul><ul><li>Cell capacity up to 100 Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>In between 3G and 4G, interworking with existing and future network technologies inbuilt in the architecture. </li></ul>
  13. 13. 3G LTE: Goodbye circuit switched voice! <ul><li>The evolution of packet switched network technology has made possible to transmit voice over IP network with acceptable end-user performance. </li></ul><ul><li>The SKYPE is one of the most popular example of that. </li></ul><ul><li>Current 3G and 2G networks are optimized for circuit switched voice, that makes them complex and not best possible for data traffic. </li></ul><ul><li>Operators need to invest in and maintain two parallel networks: CS and PS. </li></ul><ul><li>The all-IP architecture will be simple and cheap! </li></ul><ul><li>Of course operators are not willing to cannibalize their CS voice business by offering VoIP. The success of SKYPE shows, that former or later customers are changing to the VoIP. To ensure not to loose the future profit, operators need to be inside the VoIP business. </li></ul>
  14. 14. 3G LTE reference architecture UE = User Equipment BS = Base Station SN-C = Serving Node (Control plane) SN-U = Serving Node (User plane) SGW = Service Gateway RNC functionalities moved in the base station. Access Network BS BS Serving Node - C Serving Node - U Service Gateway Subscription Operator service network AAA Registers Internet Inter - connection HA
  15. 15. 3G LTE: QoS bearer architecture Note: this is called bearerless compared to current 3G bearer architecture. Air interface connection establishment and modification is simplified by reducing the number of air-interface bearers. Instead of four radio bearers, only one radio bearer has to be established. This leads to the significantly reduced radio connection setup time. BS SN User - IP Tunneling or forwarding Transport Radio UE Transport
  16. 16. 3G LTE: Mobility Management States <ul><li>The number of channels reduced. Only one channel for user data. That channel is associated, if UE is in Active state. </li></ul><ul><li>That allows to reduce the number of states to three. If user is connected to the network, it is Idle or Active, whether it has data to send or receive. </li></ul>Idle Active Associate RLID Release RLID Detached Connectio n Failure , UE local release Assign UE_LLA, Associate RLID Release UE_LLA & RLID Idle Active Associate RLID Release RLID Detached Connection Failure , UE local release Assign UE_LLA, Associate RLID Release UE_LLA & RLID Idle Active Associate RLID Rele ase RLID Detached Connection Failure , UE local release Assign UE_LLA, Associate RLID Release UE_LLA & RLID
  17. 17. 3G LTE: Protocol stack (User plane) All-IP protocol architecture, one continuous IP layer through all the network elements.
  18. 18. Estimation work <ul><li>Throughputs, link utilizations and transfer delays for TCP is estimated for different file sizes. </li></ul><ul><li>Studied applications were VoIP, web browsing and streaming. </li></ul><ul><li>For VoIP call, the most critical Key Performance Identifiers are session setup delay, end-to-end delay and delay variation. Session setup delay and end-to-end delay were estimated. </li></ul><ul><li>For web browsing, the KPI studied is the click-to-content time, i.e. the time that takes after user selects page until it is loaded to his computer. </li></ul><ul><li>KPIs for streaming are session setup delay and the throughput. Because throughput is studied separately, only session setup delay is estimated. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Estimation work: TCP throughputs <ul><li>TCP throughput for 3G LTE (800 kbps) is better with all file sizes than HSDPA </li></ul><ul><li>Due the TCP slow start effect, the TCP throughput is worse with small files than the large ones. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Estimation work: TCP Link utilizations and delays 3G LTE link utilization with same bit rate is notable better.
  21. 21. Estimation work: Streaming session setup time 9843 9073 5406 Total 5000 5000 5000 Buffering 4843 4073 406 Delay before buffering 1974 1975 - Secondary PDP context with RAB 1408 1408 RAB establishment 769 - - Primary PDP context without RAB 156 156 77 TCP connection establishment 535 535 329 RTSP signaling HSDPA delay (ms) HSDPA with always on PDP context (ms) 3G LTE delay (ms) Phase
  22. 22. Estimation work: VoIP call with Internet Multimedia Subsystem <ul><li>For 3G LTE the SIP session setup delay is less than the circuit switch PSTN call setup delay. </li></ul><ul><li>The difference ín session setup delay is 5.5 second. Most of the difference is caused by the secondary PDP context activation and RAB procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>End-to-end delay for 3G LTE 30 ms is not notable for user. HSDPA 71 ms end-to-end delay is not notable with echo cancellation. </li></ul><ul><li>External network delay not calculated </li></ul><ul><li>Both end-users are connected to their own IMSs. </li></ul>126 63 5509 Difference 194 97 7894 HSDPA with always on PDP context 68 34 2385 3G LTE RTT UE1-UE2-UE1 (ms) End-to-end delay (ms) (for 210 bytes VoIP packet) SIP session setup delay (ms) System
  23. 23. Estimation work: VoIP End-toEnd Delay 3G <ul><li>End-to-end delay consists of processing delays in UEs and in every network node in between them and transition delays between nodes. </li></ul>RNC 3G-SGSN GGSN IP/MPLS/IPoATM-backbone Node B UE IMS 1 RNC 3G-SGSN GGSN IP/MPLS/IPoATM-backbone Node B UE IMS 2
  24. 24. Estimation work: Web browsing <ul><li>Estimation is done for HSDPA with and without always-on PDP context. </li></ul><ul><li>First page delay includes radio connection establishment, PDP context activation and DNS query </li></ul><ul><li>Second page delay consists only HTTP signaling. </li></ul>
  25. 25. First page delay divided into parts
  26. 26. Summary <ul><li>Performance advantage of presented 3G LTE is clear for investigated applications. </li></ul><ul><li>The session setup delay (PDP context and radio connection establishment) in 3G affects worst in short living applications, or applications that transfers only small amount of data. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced air- interface effect is notable only with applications that transmit large files </li></ul><ul><li>The capacity increase or RTT decrease is not the only way to the better performance. The IP connectivity added with bearerless model presented here is needed to reduce the session setup latencies. </li></ul>