Toffler has been popular ever since he argued about the rate of change affecting humanity. Through his highly popular book, Third Wave, he argued that humanity was affected by Agricultural (first), Industrial (second) and Information (third) wave. He has then argued how the first wave took a few thousand years, the second a few hundred years and the third merely a few decades to overwhelm us. Based on Toffler’s logic of ever increasing rate of change, it can be argued that the Fourth Wave is just round the corner, and may take a handful of years to overwhelm us. What is that wave? It is that wave that will be influencing the careers we plan and the careers we enjoy. Mobile technology appears to own that mandate. Web-services joins in. The ‘one time’ professional career that used to last a person her entire lifetime is falling rapidly by the way side, if not already. It is also important to note that Work Breakdown Structure, as mandated by Fredrick Taylor, is out of sync with the information age. Information Technology and Engineering is more like Painting or Cooking – it has a process of its own, but the outcome is still unique.
Gartner Group produced this graph to represent what they have seen happening, and to present a future view. During the first wave, many old-economy companies paid dearly for their poorly planned entries into e-Business. Too often they hired expensive web-designers to build flashy brochure-ware sites that had little e-commerce functionality. Or worse, they thought they were buying “real” e-commerce functionality only to learn that it couldn’t scale to meet highly unpredictable e-business volumes. Almost all underestimated the challenge of truly integrating back office business processes with their new customer facing systems. We need to avoid similar scenarios from unfolding in the mobile business world. We need to look at the value that mobility offers to business; however, this mobility will be in addition to and on top of the existing functionalities existing due to the e-Business / Internet era.
The handbook of research is mobile business resulted from our understanding that mobility is immensely important to business.
With mobility, business can provide information to its clients. Ensuring that it is not SPAM, information provided in a ‘broadcast’ fashion can be of great value to business in communicating to clients and potential clients – specific to their location – what they would want to know. This is likely to be in a ‘push’ format, and, if care is not taken, can degenerate into brochureware or its equivalent. A new dictionary to provide information is ‘SMS’ language is coming up – with a priest providing his version to enable his Sunday mass to be broadcast on mobile phones. Two-way transactions, and three-way transactions are now increasingly possible with mobility. So, we find that it is possible to do m-commerce using hand-held devices. Internal operations of the business, notably timesheets and inventories, are increasingly benefitting by Operational aspect of mobility. RFID technologies can also play immense role in inventory management. Collaboration is the biggest challenge in terms of mobility – as we will see shortly – because of the specific and personal nature of mobility.
We will see the three dimensions of mobile transformation later. But here we see the mapping of the three dimensions to the four layers.
The individual nature of mobility provides one of the biggest challenges in terms of its usage in business. The blue squares indicate the connectivity between businesses B2B. This connectivity results from the technologies of mainframe (green screens type), client-server (CORBA), web-based (standard Internet) and XML-based (moving towards web services). However, when it comes to mobility, we seem to have a paradigm shift. It is no longer faster or higher connectivity between applications that represent business. It is in fact, connectivity between businesses and individuals.
This uniqueness of mobile business leads to interesting opportunities in terms of their applications. For example, when it comes to Customer Relationship Management – CRM – systems, we have discovered that there are four major areas for mobile business application to grow within the CRM space. They are: Real-time interaction which enable initiation and response between the business and the client immediately; spot-based, which changes the initiation and response between the business and the client depending on the location of the client; Dynamic organizational processes, which change depending on the location of the client as well as of the employees and what the employees are offering; and Dynamic customer groups, which change from time to time. Note that these functionalities are ‘in addition to’ the existing e-CRM and CRM functionalities.
There is now a major push to deploy and market Third Generation (3G) mobile telephony services. These networks provide the ability to deliver new multi-media content services, as well as support a variety of mobile data services. The 3G platforms offer data rates of multiple megabits per second that will support a variety of new multi-media advanced applications including video and location based services.
In August 1981 Telecom launched the first public automatic mobile phone system PAMTS in Melbourne (Sydney followed in November). Abbreviated to MTS or just 007 (after the telephone number prefix used) this service was fully automatic but not cellular. The boot-mounted radios had a handset and cradle in the cabin and cost about $5,000 . The connection fee was $350.00 and the annual access fee was $800.00 !! In 1987 Telecom launched Australia’s first cellular network based on the USA AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) – or analogue standard. 25 years on the mobile telephone has flourished. There are now several mobile telephone networks (Telstra: GSM & CDMA, Optus: GSM, Vodaphone: GSM, Hutchinson: 3G), a variety of mobile telephone service providers selling services on these networks and a multi-tude of handsets. Costs of many handsets are now under $100, connection charges are nil and call costs are continuing to reduce. Mobile phone subscribers now almost outnumber fixed line subscriptions, with Fixed to Mobile Subsitution on the increase. IDC predicts that by 2008 there will be a 100% penetration of Mobile phones in the Australian community!!
The mobile telephone service was traditionally used to make/receive telephone calls. However it is increasingly being used for a variety of other features and services such as: SMS (Short Message Service) Push to Talk Mobile Data services for connection of advanced handsets or linked computers/laptops New & Other services such as content services (ring tones, wallpapers), location based services and multi-mode handsets.
The two main public mobile telephony service platforms currently in use are the: Global System for Mobile Communications ( GSM ) standard; and Code Division Multiple Access ( CDMA ) one standard. Both these platforms use digital technology for speech and signalling . This ‘group’ of digital mobile phone technology is referred to as 2nd-generation (2G) mobile technology; which superseded first generation analog mobile phone technology (1G). GSM/CDMA now also support basic data capabilities : General Packet Radio Service ( GPRS ) for GSM; and 1xRTT (Radio Transmission Technology) for CDMA . This technology lies between the second generation (2G) and third generation (3G) digital mobile phone systems; and as such is often referred to as 2.5G. GPRS Effect GPRS enables a wide array of services for mobile users: mobility, immediacy and location. The combination of these characteristics provides a wide spectrum for seamless access in communication, value added services, e-commerce, location based services, vertical applications and advertising.
Marmaridis, I., (2006) – HRMB; M-transformation requirements for SMEs System requirements: Solutions easy to deploy; secure and trustworthy; robust; extensible and standards compliant; well understood; Easy to use; Uniqueness of Mobile content DB. Business requirements for M-transformation (as identified by Marmaridis and extended further by Unhelkar): Minimise risks by changing non-core processes, gradual introduction of mobile processes which should be reversible; ROI apparent; permeate change throughout the organization slowly. Balance between ICT and business process changes. Continuous feedback during the process of MET, and ongoing too.
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Presenter Profile – Bhuvan Unhelkar <ul><li>Bhuvan UNHELKAR (BE, MBA, PhD, FACS) </li></ul><ul><li>24 years ICT: Development, Consulting and Academic Roles. </li></ul><ul><li>PhD “...Granularity of OO Design…” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with Prof.. Brian Henderson-Sellers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Author: 10 Books </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting Mobile Internet Research and Applications Group (MIRAG) at Uni. of Western Sydney </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervising 4 PhDs in this area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fellow of ACS; Life member Comp.Soc.India </li></ul><ul><li>Rotarian, St.Ives; TiE ex-Mentor Director; </li></ul><ul><li>www.unhelkar.com ; www.methodscience.com </li></ul>
Mobile Business Arguing for Phenomenal Importance of Mobility in Today’s Business
Revisiting the Third Wave of the Future Shock (Alvin Toffler) <ul><li>Agricultural (1000s) </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial (100s) </li></ul><ul><li>Informative (10s) </li></ul>Not Just Change But RATE of Change Comms Quantum
Time Mobile Business Adoption (Based on E-Business adoption Cycle by Gartner, Nov, 1999) 1990-96 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Technology Trigger Peak of Inflated Expectations Trough of Disillusionment Slope of Enlightenment Plateau of Profitability Internet Web Dot.com begins U.S. IPOs 1997/1998 U.S. Christmas 1998 European IPOs 1999 “ e” is Everywhere Dot.com share fallout Investor disillusionment “ Bricks & Mortar” failures Dot.com shakeout Publicised e-Failures Business disillusionment “ True” E-Business emerges Optimised E-Business Post-Net Businesses 2006-2008 e-Business ends Source: Gartner, Nov. 1999 Extrapolating for the “m” Curve “ True” Mobile Business emerges
Background to this Presentation <ul><li>Handbook of Research in Mobile Business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IDEAS publishing Group; IGI Hershey, PA, USA; due Jan 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreword by Dr Elaine Lawrence, UTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology-Methodology-Sociology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Architects-BAs-Managers-Researchers) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ An Initial Three Dimensional Framework </li></ul><ul><li>for Mobile Enterprise Transitions”, </li></ul><ul><li>Cutter IT Journal, August, 2005 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.cutter.com </li></ul></ul>
Mobile Themes & Spread of Researchers Some were pure researchers Most were Practitioners & industrial researchers All keen to apply Mobility to Business Themes Researchers 12 Case study 5 Social 3 Customer 4 Method 5 Application 6 Strategy 4 Security 5 Network 10 Technical 5 Health 4 Location Number of Chapters Theme 110 17 USA 12 UK 2 UAE 3 Taiwan 1 Switzerland 2 Spain 2 Singapore 2 Italy 22 India 2 Hong Kong 6 Germany 8 France 4 Finland 2 China 25 Australia Authors Country
Mobile Business Processes Impact of Mobility on Business Processes
Business Utilizing the Internet – Mobile Superimposition Informative Collaborative Transactive Operative e-Information c-Commerce e-Commerce e-Business Mobility
Mobility Considerations in Mobile Internet Usage by Business Security, Trust, socio-cultural issues Security, Trust , Workplace Regulations; Ethics; Security , Confidence; Convenience; Privacy; Access Sociology (Who) Industrial Process Reengineering; Business Collaboration Organizational Policies; BPR Business Process Engineering (BPR) Personal Process Methodology (How) Portals; Groupware ; Standards ; Intranet; Extranet; Groupware; Reliability Networking – Internet connectivity; Reliability Device Availability and Access Technology (What) M-Collaborative M-Operative M-Transactive M-Informative
Considering Nature of Mobile “wireless connectivity” and Mobile Devices ( Based on Cutter IT Journal publication, Unhelkar, 2005) Increasingly Loose Connectivity Centralized (Mainframe) Connectivity Client/server Connectivity Web-based Connectivity XML-Based Connectivity Wireless (WML)-Based Connectivity Individuals; (Mobile Devices) Enterprises, Functional units; Fixed Devices and connectivity
Mobile Customer Relationship Management (An Example of MET Output: CRM-eCRM-mCRM) <ul><li>One-touch access for Users through hand-held devices </li></ul><ul><li>Personalization of location-based services </li></ul><ul><li>Field-workers – including sales reps/road runners – well equipped through mobile CRM - accessing real-time information </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Grouping – providing time-based opportunities to market/sell/serve changing groups of customers </li></ul>Real-time Interaction Dynamic Organizational Processes Acquisition Retention Growth C R M e-C R M Customer-Customer Customer-Employee Business-Employee Business-Business m-C R M Spot-based Dynamic Customer Groups
Contents: Providers & Consumers M-Business depends on Contents. Some actually get Delivered; Others Support. Mobile Contents M-Business Providers Consumers Push vs Pull
Content Providers <ul><li>M-Business depends on Quality of Contents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Timeliness; Accuracy; Context (Location, Relevance); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All of which changes rapidly in M-Business </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Informative-Transactive-Operative-Collaborative contents are Provided </li></ul><ul><li>Method – Push preferred; don’t m-SPAM </li></ul><ul><li>Business Strategies – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>M-coupons; M-payments; M-alerts; M-adverts; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M-CRM (data acquisition & analysis) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobility of Providers needs to be considered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although usually they need not be Mobile </li></ul></ul>
Content Users <ul><li>Are Mobile – changing their location continuously </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand for Contents keeps changing, depending on the context (location-time-group) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Demand for Personalisation </li></ul><ul><li>Have small-screen devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usability vital; WML to strip unwanted contents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Content types no longer restricted to Voice & Data – multi-media demanded </li></ul><ul><li>Method of Usage – Pull preferred </li></ul>
Enabling Technologies Leading to Mobile Internet Enabling Information And Communication Technologies Mobile Business + Extranet Middleware + Web Services + Groupware + IT Architecture + Mobility <ul><li>Mobile Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Satellite Communications </li></ul><ul><li>Infrared / Bluetooth </li></ul><ul><li>Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) </li></ul>
Mobile Technology Generations <ul><li>1G – 1980s; Analog; Voice only; 25 MHz; Poor quality and Insecure; </li></ul><ul><li>2G – 1980s-1990s; 900 MHz spectrum; Global System Mobile (GSM), Time & Code Division Multiple Access (TDMA, CDMA); Improved quality & security; Voice and Short Messaging Service (SMS) </li></ul><ul><li>2.5G – WAP enabled & Supporting Higher data rates; Facilitate Emails and Web browsing on Mobile devices; </li></ul>
3G Technology (2000s) <ul><li>Third generation (3G) mobile telephony, 2000MHz range; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicated 3G platforms using Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution of the 2.5G platforms to 3G by addition of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) technology to GSM; and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EV-DO (Evolution-Data Optimized)/CDMA 2000 capability to CDMA one. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time-Division Synchronous CDMA (TD-SCDMA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Wide bandwidth; High speed Transmission; Huge network capacity; Global roaming. </li></ul><ul><li>VoIP, Fax, Email, Audio & Video Streaming, Multimedia services on demand, News & Sports </li></ul>
4G – the Future Directions <ul><li>2010s; 2-8 GHz; 20-100 Mbps target; </li></ul><ul><li>Users themselves moving fast (200+ KMPH) </li></ul><ul><li>4G will be highly integrated; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth, RFIDs, Personal Area Networks will all Converge; Extreme Personalisation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phenomenal Research Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperability; security; QoS; Costs; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5G? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anybody’s Guess!! May handle users travelling at Jet speeds? </li></ul></ul>
Next G! - Telstra <ul><li>The NEXT G network (claims Telstra) is up to 50 times faster than dial-up and up to five times faster than existing 3GSM networks </li></ul><ul><li>New network would boost the coverage and speed of Telstra's existing 3G mobile phone services (Independent telecommunications analyst Paul Budde, SMH, 6 Oct’06) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not a substitute for a national high-speed broadband network. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He said about 90 per cent of mobile phone users used their phones for voice or SMS, compared with only 3 per cent currently using mobile networks to send data. (SMH, 6 Oct’06) </li></ul></ul>
Mobile Convergence <ul><li>Converged Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile handsets that are telephones, mobile PCs with various applications (PDAs), MP3 players, radios, cameras, data storage devices, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates Personalization; Security vital; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C onverged devices are expected to be the main mobile growth driver (as per IDC) </li></ul></ul>
Evolution to Mobile Telephony <ul><li>First Public Mobile Telephone Service in Australia was launched in early 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>25 years on, mobile phone subscribers now almost outnumber fixed line subscriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed-to-Mobile Substitution increasing </li></ul><ul><li>Australian mobile phone users will grow by 7.4 percent to 19.2 million this year, with 100% penetration by 2008 (Source: IDC) </li></ul>
Mobile Telephony Capabilities <ul><li>Plain Telephony </li></ul><ul><li>SMS (Short Message Service) </li></ul><ul><li>Push to Talk (PTT) </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Data – various forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WAP, Mobile Internet, Corporate IP connectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New & Other Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Services (ring tones, wallpapers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location based services (LBS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-mode handsets – integration with enterprise & home networks </li></ul></ul>
Mobile Telephony Technology <ul><li>The two main public mobile telephony service platforms currently in use are the: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global System for Mobile Communications ( GSM ) standard; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Code Division Multiple Access ( CDMA ) one standard. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GSM/CDMA also support basic data capabilities : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General Packet Radio Service ( GPRS ) for GSM; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1xRTT (Radio Transmission Technology) for CDMA . </li></ul></ul>
Mobile Enterprise Transitions A 3-Dimensional Framework
Defining M-Transformation (Marmaridis, I., and Unhelkar, B., M-Business 2005) <ul><li>Mobile Transformation is: </li></ul><ul><li>“ the evolution of business practices via the adoption of suitable processes and technologies that enable mobility and pervasiveness.” </li></ul>
Factors Impacting Mobile Enterprise Transitions Business Human Resources End Users Cultural Environmental Technology Proactive Reactive Transition!! Extending Global Enterprise Transitions (Lan and Unhelkar, 2005) to Mobile Enterprise Transitions Mobile Organization Land-Based Organization
The Three Dimensions of a Mobile Enterprise Transition Framework Mobile Enterprise Transformation Devices; Networking; Security; Users; Employees; Privacy; Health; Trust; Convenience; Business Processes; Organizational Structures What How Who Technology Methodology Sociology
M-Transformation Advantages <ul><li>Personalization of customer service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve projected image of Business </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynamic customization of products and services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>depending on the location and density of potential customers at a particular time and place. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flexibility in the workplace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential for Telework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential for Improved Employee Morale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased internal business process efficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HR; Supply Chains; etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Better information flow between systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decisions can be taken quicker by making the necessary information available between systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential for Integrated decision Making by Bringing decision makers Together </li></ul></ul>
Mobility: Emerging Sociological Issues Security, Privacy, Ethics, Mobile Customers
A Conceptual Framework and Propositions for the Acceptance of Mobile Services (Godbole, N., IMB2006 Conference 13-16 Feb’06, Sydney)
The Personal Communicator <ul><li>Move from a telephone per household to a telephone per person </li></ul><ul><li>The Personal Communicator will be a mobile device; not a fixed phone </li></ul><ul><li>The telephone will not only be a converged multimedia communicator (voice, data and video), but also an entertainment and PDA device </li></ul>
Mobile Cultural Variations (Das, Wang and Lei, HRMB, 2006) <ul><li>Attitude: Killing vs Saving time </li></ul><ul><li>Movement: Public transport vs Car </li></ul><ul><li>Role: Lifestyle vs Business </li></ul><ul><li>Peer group: Teens vs Fire brigade </li></ul><ul><li>Pricing: Free connects vs Paid calls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Party responsible for payments (self – parents) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Isolation vs ‘m’ Community </li></ul>
Security & Privacy <ul><li>Policies to deter Mobile phones in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secured areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social areas where large number of people gather (such as sports and entertainment venues) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobile Phones Camera Policy – ACS initiative (Abood, C., HRMB) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy laws need redefinitions. </li></ul></ul>
Conclusions <ul><li>Mobility influences Informative, Transactive, Operative and Collaborative aspects of Business </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Enterprise Transition requires careful execution of an “MET” Process </li></ul><ul><li>“ Mobilization” has 3 dimensions: Technology, Methodology and Sociology </li></ul><ul><li>Social dimension may prove Most Challenging. </li></ul>Do you see what I see?
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