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  • 1. Contributions from: Edouard Bugnion, Jack Lo, and Parthas Ranganathan Presented at the First Workshop on Computer Architecture Evaluation Using Commercial Workloads (held with HPCA-4, Las Vegas, February 1, 1998) 3G :The Next Generation Sridhar Rajagopal
  • 2. Outline <ul><li>3G Wireless </li></ul><ul><li>The World of Mobile Multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction - 3G Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation Issues </li></ul><ul><li>My idea of the future </li></ul>
  • 3. 3G Wireless <ul><li>1G </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analog voice communications (AMPS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2G </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low to Medium rate (9.6 kbps) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DAMPS, GSM, IS-95 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3G </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate Multimedia Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Data Rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptability of mobile device to the environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unite different communication platforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different standards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different means of communication </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 4. Mobile Multimedia Services
  • 5. Mobile Multimedia Services
  • 6. The World of Mobile Multimedia <ul><li>Take Part in a Video Conference from a Remote Location </li></ul><ul><li>Share Information to Feel Closer </li></ul><ul><li>Get What You Want When You Want It! </li></ul><ul><li>Explore your Intellectual Curiosity in a Mobile Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Various Security Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Account Settlement in a Mobile Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.nttdocomo.com/…. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 7. Modes Of Operation <ul><li>Packet Data Services </li></ul><ul><li>Real Time Services </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports variable rates of transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different QoS requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different rates for different environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 Mbps : Indoor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>384 kbps : Pedestrian </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>144 kbps : Vehicular </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 8. Adaptability of the Mobile <ul><li>Communication : Anytime, Anywhere…….. </li></ul><ul><li>A ‘Single Appliance’ that can work at </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indoor : Wireless /(Wired Ethernet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outdoor : Wireless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home : Cable Modem / DSL / Wireless </li></ul></ul><ul><li>REASON for Adaptability : driven by COST </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wires are here to stay! </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. United we Stand <ul><li>Different 2G standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GSM, IS-95. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work in the African Jungles, the Sahara Desert, Antartica? </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonization : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UMTS/IMT-2000 : ETSI,ARIB,3GPP,ANSI,ITU </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goal : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Communication </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. 3G Layer Structure http://www.itu.int/imt/2-radio-dev/index.html Physical Layer Signaling Services PPP Packet Data Application TCP UDP Voice Services OSI Layers 3-7 OSI Layer 2 OSI Layer 1 Circuit Data Application High Speed Circuit Network Layer Services Medium Access Control (MAC) Link Access Control (LAC) LAC Protocol Null LAC MAC Control States Best Effort Delivery (RLP) Multiplexing IP QoS Control
  • 11. Wireless Network Configuration http://www1a.mesh.ne.jp/...
  • 12. Mobile Communication Network
  • 13. 3G Standards - Radio Access Network <ul><li>Improved Capacity (3 dB) </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage &amp; Link Budget Improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Power, the Common Resource </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjust Power to limit interference &amp; get QoS. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple Parallel Services on a single connection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OVSF </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Link Improvements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiuser Detection, Transmit Diversity, Adaptive Antennas…. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Asynchronous Base Station operation </li></ul>
  • 14. 3G Standards - Radio Access Network <ul><li>Interfrequency Handover </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS) [ Macro &amp; Micro Overlap] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Hot Spots’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SCR’s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Support for Adaptive Antenna Arrays </li></ul><ul><li>TDD Mode </li></ul>
  • 15. The Air Interface <ul><li>5 MHz Bandwidth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolve more multipaths, capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basic Chip Rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4.096 Mcps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basic Frame Length </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10ms </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. Transport Channels <ul><li>Unidirectional </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated / Common </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcast Control (DL) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forward Access (DL) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paging (DL) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Random Access (UL) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicated (UL/DL) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 17. Channel Structure 1 Frame = 16 slots Pilot N pilot bits TPC N TPC bits Data N data bits T slot = 2560 chips, 10*2 k bits (k= 0 . . 6) DPDCH DPCCH FBI N FBI bits TFCI N TFCI bits FDD UPLINK TPC N TPC bits T slot = 2560 chips, 10*2 k bits (k=0..7) Data2 N data2 bits DPDCH TFCI N TFCI bits Pilot N pilot bits Data1 N data1 bits DPCCH DPDCH DPCCH DPCCH FDD DOWNLINK TPC N TPC bits Data2 N data2 bits DPDCH TFCI N TFCI bits Pilot N pilot bits Data1 N data1 bits DPCCH DPDCH DPCCH DPCCH FDD DOWNLINK
  • 18. Spreading and Modulation <ul><li>QPSK Modulated </li></ul><ul><li>Scrambling Code Length = 1 Frame (40960 chips) </li></ul><ul><li>Truncated Complex Gold Code (2 18 -1 ) for Scrambling </li></ul><ul><li>Uplink </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users distinguished by Scrambling Codes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Downlink </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users distinguished by their Walsh codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrambling code to distinguish cells. </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. Channel Coding <ul><li>Rate 1/3 Convolutional Code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Delay , Moderate Error (10 -3 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concatenated Rate 1/3 + Outer RS + Interleaving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High Quality (10 -6 BER) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Turbo Codes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High Rate, High Quality </li></ul></ul>
  • 20. Random Access Channel <ul><li>For Acquisition of a Dedicated Channel </li></ul><ul><li>MS selects spreading codes for preamble/message </li></ul><ul><li>MS selects spreading factor for message </li></ul><ul><li>Randomly selects signature &amp; access slot for burst </li></ul><ul><li>MS - Closed Loop Power Control </li></ul><ul><li>Transmits </li></ul><ul><li>If no ACK, repeat! </li></ul>
  • 21. Implementation Issues <ul><li>‘ Single Appliance’ </li></ul><ul><li>How should the hardware look? </li></ul><ul><li>Current Application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nokia 9110 Communicator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Embedded AMD 486 processor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 Mb user data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 Mb memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GEOS Operating System (ver 3.0) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dimensions: 158 x 56 x 27 mm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weight: 253 g </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data speed :14,400 bps </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 22. Implementation Issues <ul><li>Various applications have different needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desired Bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Error Rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All applications can use the same memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Make it Software- reconfigurable. </li></ul><ul><li>MIT Oxygen Project : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microchip wiring that can be automatically reprogrammed for different tasks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software controlled Logic Operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software controlled wire routing. </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. Implementation Issues <ul><li>Adaptation to different environments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seamless handover </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reconfigurability issues </li></ul><ul><li>WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) Support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet services on Mobile appliances. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Directions : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamically Reconfigurable FPGA’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mNIC </li></ul></ul>
  • 24. My Idea of the Wireless Future <ul><li>A laptop 5 times lighter </li></ul><ul><li>Have a mobile phone attached </li></ul><ul><li>Ear plug for hands-free talking </li></ul><ul><li>Size adjustable </li></ul><ul><li>Low Power </li></ul><ul><li>Can be attached in front of you </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless access, anytime, anywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Can be folded &amp; kept in your pocket! </li></ul><ul><li>Low COST! </li></ul><ul><li>Reusable Paper Printer at the Bottom </li></ul>
  • 25. The Past ……….
  • 26. The Future is here …….

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