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  • 1. Application Note Flexible Multiservice Ethernet for 3G Mobile Backhaul Growing Profitable 3G Services While Reducing OPEX INTRODUCTION The growth of third-generation (3G) wireless services and network bandwidth places FEATURES & BENEFITS significant strain on mobile operators’ capital and operational budgets. Achieving profit margins and Ciena FlexSelect Architecture long-term scalability requires a cost-effective Radio Access Network (RAN) architecture that carries all for mobile backhaul advantages services efficiently. High-speed mobile data, video, multimedia messaging, and enhanced location-based and benefits: services enable important new revenue sources but demand robust network performance, putting Better Economics profitability gains at risk if the network is not optimally designed to meet the new bandwidth requirements » Reduce RAN OPEX by as and maintain the high level of reliability required for critical voice revenue. much as 50 percent » Grow 3G mobile subscriber Mobile operators face the fiscal and operational challenges of increased Operating Expenses (OPEX) base and increase ARPU associated with the multiple technologies deployed in the RAN, driven by forecasts of 3G subscriber and » Converge 2G and 3G RANs deployment growth and the combination of new 3G standards and bandwidth requirements with existing » Reduce dependency on 2G networks. The large quantity of E1/T1 leased lines connecting mobile base stations to switching leased-line contracts centers for backhaul of voice and data traffic creates significant OPEX and no longer scales to meet 3G » Scale easily to accommodate customer growth needs. Operators must determine the most cost-effective architectural model to evolve existing 2G Better Flexibility networks, which continue to deliver a large percentage of current wireless voice revenue. As voice services » Support all bandwidth and are commoditized, operators must deliver a practical approach that allows a transition to new revenues service needs with a single and higher margins with advanced 3G wireless data services, while maximizing existing 2G revenue sources. RAN infrastructure » Meet current and future needs Ciena provides mobile and fixed-line operators flexible and cost-effective network solutions for expanding in light of evolving standards, 3G backhaul capacity without jeopardizing existing 2G revenues. The practical FlexSelect™ Architecture infrastructure requirements, unifies IP/Ethernet, Optical Transport Network (OTN), and Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) with and aggregation methods intelligent software technologies to meet all capacity, performance, and service-mix requirements within » Complementary to existing a converged backhaul infrastructure. This approach significantly reduces recurring operating costs in the backhaul methods such as RAN and enables a seamless infrastructure migration path to fixed/mobile convergence. Ciena’s backhaul microwave and TDM Better Performance solutions provide mobile operators economical, flexible, reliable, and future-ready RANs. » High reliability to ensure voice C I E N A 3 G M U LT I S E R V I C E W I R E L E S S B A C K H A U L Operators deploying the Ethernet elements of Ciena’s services that continue to FlexSelect Architecture for multiservice RAN backhaul of 3G services maximize their long-term profits and dominate today’s mobile revenue » Six-9s availability, Ethernet realize the following three key benefits: pseudowire scale, Better Economics: Obtaining higher service margins through lower costs QoS/SLA guarantees » Manage Ethernet as easily as Leveraging cost-effective Ethernet and integrated transport technologies reduces OPEX up to 50 percent, TDM with comprehensive makes RAN backhaul links more efficient, decreases the volume of and dependency on E1/T1 leased-line provisioning, OAM, and performance monitoring
  • 2. contracts, and consolidates 2G/3G access networks. Mobile Ciena enables a future-ready approach to 3G and fixed/mobile operators can realize these savings with either continued convergence through integrated backhaul architectures for any transmission leased lines or independently built networks. Ciena’s mobile and fixed-line service mix. solutions maximize efficiency by allowing bandwidth savings closest MARKET DYNAMICS IN THE RAN The coexistence of multiple RAN to the access edge of the RAN architecture with cost-effective base technologies and protocols during simultaneous delivery of new and station colocated equipment. Extending the reach of Ethernet existing services presents mobile operators with the challenge of access to base stations and deploying scalable bandwidth solutions containing OPEX growth and managing network complexities. Figure 1 accommodates further 3G mobile service and subscriber growth and highlights the generalized mobile architecture and changing market directly increases Average Revenue per User (ARPU). Additionally, dynamics in the RAN. operators can build their own transport to further reduce OPEX Historically, 2G mobile operators provisioned significant quantities of through bandwidth ownership and control of strategic RAN resources. E1/T1 TDM connections in the RAN for backhaul between Base Better Flexibility: Accommodating evolving requirements Transceiver Stations (BTSs) and Base Station Controllers (BSCs), consistent with and appropriate for the predominant GSM voice and The FlexSelect Architecture provides mobile operators with the most low-speed GPRS/EDGE data services. These access facilities are practical method to migrate and transition to new technologies and carried across microwave and terrestrial networks and, in the latter standards smoothly, rather than with flash cutover of an entire case, frequently leased from local fixed-line service providers, network. Ciena’s backhaul solutions provide future-proof investment accounting for up to 30 percent1 of overall OPEX of the entire protection for changing networks while supporting all bandwidth and mobile service offering. service needs in a single RAN infrastructure, regardless of evolving standards (3G Partnership Project [3GPP] Release 5, 6, and beyond), This TDM-based backhaul model has been utilized in initial 3G infrastructure requirements (leased E1/T1, Carrier Ethernet, or self- deployments, but several market and technology factors are built transport), or packet aggregation methods (Ethernet, IP/MPLS, increasing the overall OPEX percentage attributed to RAN or ATM). Finally, FlexSelect Architecture solutions continue to transmission. These factors include: complement all existing backhaul methods, including microwave, • Growing bandwidth requirements: Due to the increased use of mobile TDM/PDH, and SDH/SONET. data and multimedia applications, bandwidth requirements per 3G base Better Performance: Achieving service differentiation station are forecast to grow more than twice the typical 1-4 E1/T1s per 2G base station. Ciena’s backhaul solutions introduce cost-effective, high-performance • Changing packet protocols: As base stations evolve from 3GPP Release Ethernet into the RAN where and when necessary to eliminate 99 to Releases 5 and 6, mobile operators must evolve RAN packet bandwidth limitations and further enable flexibility and more aggregation and switching from ATM to Ethernet and IP. Multiple advanced 3G services. FlexSelect for Ethernet allows operators standards also add operational and management complexity. to manage packet aggregation and transport using existing • Increased number of 3G base stations: With the smaller radius of TDM methods with comprehensive provisioning, Operations the 3G spectrum, twice as many 2G base stations are required for the Administration and Maintenance (OAM), and performance same coverage. monitoring. The FlexSelect for Ethernet solution also provides industry-leading scaling of pseudowire and Ethernet connections in • Independent 2G and 3G RANs: Although some 2G and 3G base stations are colocated, RAN backhaul connectivity is frequently the RAN; strong QoS functionality to guarantee all voice, video, and independent, with separate infrastructure for each network type. data services; and increased reliability for critical voice and new data services via industry-leading six 9s (99.9999%) system availability. Initial 3GPP Release 99 deployments of 3G services utilized the legacy 2G TDM backhaul model in conjunction with early-generation 1. Yankee Group, 2005 2
  • 3. Customer Air Interface Radio Access Network (RAN) Core Network(s) Circuits: E1/T1 TDM 2G BTS Base Stations Core Voice BSC Mobile Users Voice, Data, Video Packets: MSC/SGSN IP, Ethernet, ATM Core Data 3G Node B Base Stations RNC Highest Percentage of OPEX Increasing Bandwidth Requirements Changing Standards More Base Stations Figure 1. Evolving RAN environments ATM-based switching platforms, located at the switching center, for CIENA SOLUTIONS AND ARCHITECTURAL OPTIONS Ciena offers aggregation of the multiple E1/T1 ATM/IMA streams onto a single cost-effective and high-performance solutions for the 3G backhaul interface — typically STM-1/OC-3 — to the Radio Network Controller challenge that meet the needs of diverse mobile operator (RNC). However, this approach neither saves costs nor brings requirements and architectural scenarios. Ciena’s products are efficiency to E1/T1 leased lines transiting the RAN. In addition, designed to deliver deterministic, Quality of Service (QoS)-based legacy ATM equipment does not support Ethernet and IP in a cost- network transport, aggregation, and migration for both wireless and effective or scalable manner and requires a forklift upgrade, wireline service providers. resulting in increased Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) to evolve the As illustrated in Figure 2, Ciena’s FlexSelect Architecture — with RAN to Releases 5 and 6. advanced multiservice Ethernet access, transport, and aggregation Mobile operators must select a network architecture that can scale elements — enables the industry’s most robust and deterministic reliably and enable deployment of current and future revenue- solution for the backhaul of mobile voice, data, and video in generating services. The historical methods of E1/T1 leased lines are converged 2G and 3G RANs. This flexible architecture offers mobile expensive and do not scale to the needs of UMTS/W-CDMA 3G operators and wholesale service providers (such as PTTs, LECs, and advanced services. New packet-centric methods are required to Multiple Service Operators [MSOs] ) utilizing leased line-based RAN deploy modern 2G and 3G RANs cost-effectively as the need to infrastructures a choice of the most appropriate or available transport expand services and coverage locations drives the growth of methodology for cost-effective transition. Ciena’s backhaul solution bandwidth and connections. enables the extension of Ethernet backhaul to locations where it was 3
  • 4. nxE1/T1 TDM nxT1/E1 STM-1/OC-3 3G PDH/SDH Node B lub 10/100 Ethernet IP/Ethernet Ethernet RNC 3G nxE1/T1 (over copper or fiber) Ethernet Node B ATM/IMA Carrier Ethernet STM-1/OC-3 TDM 10/100 Ethernet Ethernet over Microwave 3G A.bis Node B BCS Metro Optical nxE1/T1 TDM OTN Ethernet Ethernet 2G BTS SDH/SONET SDH/SONET Base Station Colocation RAN Transport Switching Center Figure 2. Ciena FlexSelect Architecture for 2G/3G Wireless Backhaul not previously available, while continuing to utilize the PDH or and IP traffic from 3G Node B base stations. Ethernet often does not SDH/SONET infrastructure where necessary. Where fiber-, copper- or reach the vast majority of base station locations where facilities microwave-based Ethernet is available to base stations, carrier metro remain dominated by copper-based local loops. Although radio Ethernet services can transport both 2G and 3G traffic. Finally, Ciena’s vendors make Releases 5 and 6 base station equipment available market leadership in metro optical and OTN-based solutions enables with Ethernet and IP RAN interfaces, 3G may not be deployable in operators or wholesale carriers to build a private transmission many locations. network to gain control of bandwidth management and further Ciena’s 3000 Ethernet Access Series solves this deployment problem reduce RAN OPEX. with Ethernet-over-TDM or PDH solutions, as shown in Figure 3. The The three backhaul methods are defined and described in further cost-effective and reliable 3000 Series platforms are colocated in detail below. base stations and accept Ethernet interfaces for transport via circuit bonding within legacy E1/T1 PDH infrastructures to meet increasing ETHERNET/IP OVER TDM/PDH Mobile operators face the bandwidth demands. With this solution, market coverage as well as simultaneous challenges of increasing bandwidth to base stations, the ability to upgrade to the latest 3GPP standards extends to every reducing RAN operations costs, and transporting emerging Ethernet geographic area. 3G Node B Ch STM-1/OC-3 10/100 PDH/SDH Ch DS3 Ethernet Ethernet nxE1/T1 Leased Lines 3G Node B RNC Figure 3. IP/Ethernet over TDM RAN 4
  • 5. This mobile backhaul solution is based on Layer 2 Ethernet switching (channelized to DS0-level granularity) over Ethernet (known as in the RAN while leveraging existing or legacy Layer 1 transport. The CESoPSN; “draft-ietf-pwe3-cesopn”). The multiservice devices must use of IP/PPP over E1/T1 that some vendors advocate requires either maintain clock synchronization for TDM circuits. Various techniques in Layer 3 IP routers in the RAN — adding unnecessary cost and the circuit and packet domains accomplish this functionality, complexity while compromising voice - grade reliability — or the including external synchronous clock distribution (BITS- or GPS- continued use of expensive and independent TDM backhaul links based), Real-Time Protocol (RTP), or the emerging G.8261 indefinitely, which does not reduce OPEX. Synchronous Ethernet and IEEE-1588. M U LT I S E R V I C E O V E R E T H E R N E T RAN operational costs can be Ciena’s multiservice solution for packet RANs is shown in Figure 4. reduced significantly in two steps: fully packetizing the radio access Mobile operators can deploy the 3000 Series in conjunction with the backhaul network with Ethernet and IP, and converging 2G and 3G CN 5060™ Multiservice Carrier Ethernet Platform near or colocated services onto the packet RAN. These methods provide the most with the mobile switching center. This flexible solution allows efficient means of transport without cost and infrastructure duplication. operators to use carrier metro Ethernet services and accommodates Ethernet and TDM pseudowires and MPLS-based RAN architectures. Since legacy E1/T1 TDM links rarely are utilized entirely from every For operators still requiring 3GPP Release 99 ATM/IMA backhaul, this base station, a packet aggregation network leverages the proven solution supports its transport via E1/T1 at the base station, ATM concepts of statistical multiplexing and QoS to assure efficient, cost- pseudowires, and/or via high-density aggregation at the RNC via effective, and prioritized RAN connectivity for all services. Packet- channelized STM-1 ATM/IMA. based networks groom and aggregate traffic closer to the base station onto a carrier metro Ethernet service, where available, or even For mobile operators employing microwave access facilities Ethernet over SDH/SONET (i.e. STM-1/OC-3). This solution is less from access base stations, these Ethernet-based solutions are expensive than the aggregate cost of hundreds of legacy low-speed complementary and can also serve to aggregate traffic at the TDM links transiting the RAN and groomed into the switching center appropriate hub locations. (BSC or RNC). M U LT I S E R V I C E E T H E R N E T T R A N S P O R T Some mobile operators To collapse 2G TDM backhaul into the packet RAN effectively, may choose to reduce or eliminate dependency on leased-line multiservice devices are required at the base station and switching contracts from local fixed incumbents (PTTs, LECs) or competitive centers to handle the conversion of TDM on and off the Ethernet providers. This “in-sourcing” decision drives the most significant network. This conversion method requires the deployment of TDM- improvement to operational costs while increasing control and over-Packet (TDMoP) standards, defined by the Internet Engineering ownership over bandwidth growth and provisioning speed. Mobile Task Force (IETF), that carry either unstructured, full E1/T1s over operators with access to fiber can build metro optical transport networks Ethernet (known as SAToP, RFC 4553), or structured E1/T1s to future-proof RAN backhaul bandwidth requirements and support IP/Ethernet 3G Node B lub 10/100 Ethernet RNC Ethernet Carrier Ethernet Ethernet Services CN 5060 A.bis nxE1/T1 TDM 2G BTS Ch STM-1/OC-3 TDM Colocated 2G/3G BSC Base Stations Figure 4. Multiservice-over-Ethernet RAN 5
  • 6. Optical Ethernet Transport IP/Ethernet 3G Node B lub 10/100 Ethernet RNC Ethernet Ethernet OTN CN 5060 A.bis nxE1/T1 TDM 2G BTS Ch STM-1/OC-3 TDM Colocated 2G/3G BSC Base Stations Figure 5. Multiservice Ethernet Transport RAN converged service delivery architectures for fixed/mobile convergence SUMMARY The mobility revolution continues with the implementation and quadruple-play services (voice, Internet, video, and mobile). of 3G networks around the world. Each network deployment creates opportunities and challenges for the mobile operator. A cost- Figure 5 depicts Ciena’s Ethernet transport solution for RAN effective, flexible access aggregation architecture is extremely backhaul. The CN 4200™ FlexSelect Advanced Services Platform important for new service deployment, efficient operations, and delivers highly flexible, high-performance Ethernet over OTN/WDM increased profitability. while leveraging all the flexibility, cost, and aggregation benefits of the 3000 Series and CN 5060. Ciena’s OTN implementation enables The access network is only one element of the mobile network right-sizing of deterministic Ethernet aggregation and transport with infrastructure, but one of the most expensive elements to build and physical layer protection such as 50 millisecond switchovers, operate. However, Ciena’s FlexSelect Architecture enables an software-programmable ports to evolve easily from legacy economical, fully resilient mobile access network that provides SDH/SONET to Ethernet, and cost-effective wavelength sharing for operational efficiency and scalability critical to the delivery of new 3G all services. services, flexibility vital to long-term profitability, and resiliency demanded by today’s subscribers. In addition, this architecture is an ideal solution for landline providers intending to wholesale a complete wireless backhaul solution to In a world where customer satisfaction and retention are critical to mobile operators who prefer a managed service contract. success, Ciena’s mobile solutions ensure operators have the flexibility to create and deliver new 3G services with scale, reliability, and maximum return on investment. 1201 Winterson Road Linthicum, MD 21090 Specialists in enabling new p: 1.800.207.3714 (US) p: 1.410.865.8671 (outside US) application-driven possibilities over p: +353.1.2436711 (international) high-performance networks. www.ciena.com Ciena may from time to time make changes to the products or specifications contained herein without notice. © 2007 Ciena Corporation. All rights reserved. AN029 3.2007