Broadband 2005 - Current Status

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  • EDGE is an enhanced modulation for GSM and will offer higher bit rates than GPRS per timeslot for both packet and circuit switched services, attaining throughput rates of 384 kbps
  • WiMax (Wireless International Microwave Access Standard)
  • Everyone is assuming OFDMA for the downlink, but for the uplink?
  • Broadband 2005 - Current Status

    1. 1. Broadband 2005 Current Status & Future Trends 3G and Beyond Jannie van Zyl 1 st November 2005
    2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Vodacom Current Status </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GPRS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EDGE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UMTS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless Network Trends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HSDPA / HSUPA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WiMax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OFDM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UMA / Mesh Networks </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Where are we Today?
    4. 4. First Mobile Phone ? No Ringtones or SMS
    5. 5. First Mobile Car Phone ? 1924 1952
    6. 6. First Portable Mobile Phone ? 1973
    7. 7. New Terminal Capabilities Mobile Storage Revolution New Ways of Displaying Content Multiplicity of Local Connectivity + + <ul><li>20 GByte is enough for your entire music collection + your entire photo album + 20hrs of home movies + 8 hours of DVD quality movies + a bevy of games </li></ul>Embedded HDD 2GB <<< 50GB Memory Card 128MB <<< 16GB Embedded Flash 6MB <<< 128MB
    8. 8. New Form Factors 2007?
    9. 9. Where are we Today? Current South African Landscape
    10. 10. Vodacom Coverage > 16M Subscribers <ul><li>2G – GPRS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>> 6300 Base Stations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> 70% Land Area Coverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> 97.5% Population Coverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> 99.7% Availability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2G – EDGE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>> 37% Land Area Coverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> 32% Population Coverage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3G – WCDMA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~1500 Node B’s (Base Stations) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> 99.3% Availability </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. EDGE Coverage Aug 2005
    12. 12. 3G Coverage
    13. 13. Vodacom 3G Coverage <ul><li>Major Metros </li></ul><ul><li>Holiday Areas </li></ul><ul><li>All major airports </li></ul><ul><li>Major hotels, conference venues and business centers </li></ul><ul><li>Sites with high GPRS usage </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage for key business partners </li></ul><ul><li>Seamless Integration with 2G </li></ul><ul><li>Target through-put of 300kbits/second avg. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Network Futures Overview
    15. 15. GSM Evolution towards 3G UMTS GSM CSD 2G 2G + 3G 9.6 kb/s HSCSD 57 kb/s GPRS 170 kb/s EDGE 470 kb/s UMTS 1 st Release 2048 kb/s Theoretical maximum data speeds 1992 1999 2000 2002 2003
    16. 16. 3G Evolution towards 4G ? MBWA (Wide Area) UMTS (Dense) HSDPA/ HSUPA 4G OFDM* MIMO 2Mb/s 70 Mb/s 15+ Mb/s 14.4 Mb/s WiFi (Local Area) 50 - 100 Mb/s? UMTS (Wide Area) 2003 2004 2006 2008 384 kb/s 3G 3G + MBWA 4G * OFDM : Orthogonal FDM 11 - 54 Mb/s Theoretical max data rates depend on radio conditions &/or system options eg bandwidth. Time scales are approximate/illustrative. The terms 3G+, Evolved 3G, Super 3G, Beyond 3G, 4G etc are not officially defined. WiMax ?
    17. 17. Network Futures Some Fundamentals
    18. 18. Constraints on Coverage <ul><li>Limit for a non-fading channel was established by Claude Shanon in a classic paper in 1948. Minimum received signal defined by: </li></ul><ul><li>Modern systems are getting closer to this limit, so unless we use bigger antennas or more transmit power, more bits/second means smaller cells, whatever the radio access technology </li></ul><ul><li>Uplink generally more constrained because of batter power and EMF safety limits </li></ul>E b / N o = -1.6dB Energy per Bit Noise Spectral Density <ul><li>Depends on: </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitter Power </li></ul><ul><li>Size of Antennas </li></ul><ul><li>Path Loss (Frequency) </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on: </li></ul><ul><li>A Fundamental Limit (Physics) </li></ul><ul><li>Receiver Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Interference </li></ul>
    19. 19. Constraints on Coverage Range <ul><li>coverage = more sites </li></ul>
    20. 20. Constraints on Coverage Data Rate 3 Sector base station at 25m to outdoor PC card 100kb/s 1.49km 1Mb/s 0.78km 10Mb/s 0.41km 100Mb/s 0.21km Range Site density 1 3.6 15 50 <ul><li>coverage = more sites </li></ul><ul><li>higher data rate = more sites </li></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>higher frequency = more sites </li></ul>Constraints on Coverage Data Rate 3 Sector base station at 25m to outdoor PC card 100kb/s 1.49km 1Mb/s 0.78km 10Mb/s 0.41km 100Mb/s 0.21km Range Site density 1 3.6 15 50 <ul><li>coverage = more sites </li></ul><ul><li>higher data rate = more sites </li></ul>900MHz 2100MHz 4000MHz 3500MHz 2500MHz
    22. 22. <ul><li>higher frequency = more sites </li></ul>Constraints on Coverage Data Rate 3 Sector base station at 25m to outdoor PC card 100kb/s 1.49km 1Mb/s 0.78km 10Mb/s 0.41km 100Mb/s 0.21km Range Site density 1 3.6 15 50 <ul><li>coverage = more sites </li></ul><ul><li>higher data rate = more sites </li></ul><ul><li>downlink efficiency (bps/Hz/site) </li></ul>900MHz 2100MHz 4000MHz 3500MHz 2500MHz 0 2.0 4.0
    23. 23. <ul><li>higher frequency = more sites </li></ul>Constraints on Coverage Data Rate 3 Sector base station at 25m to outdoor PC card 100kb/s 1.49km 1Mb/s 0.78km 10Mb/s 0.41km 100Mb/s 0.21km Range Site density 1 3.6 15 50 Fixed Mobile Chalk Cheese <ul><li>coverage = more sites </li></ul><ul><li>higher data rate = more sites </li></ul>900MHz 2100MHz 4000MHz 3500MHz 2500MHz
    24. 24. Beware Specmanship – “My System is faster than Yours” <ul><li>Modern technologies (EDGE, HSDPA, WiMax, Flarion) ALL maximise use of the spectrum using flexible allocation of resources and adaptive modulation and coding. </li></ul><ul><li>Downlink throughput often shared by all users </li></ul><ul><li>What data rate will it deliver? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How long is a piece of string? </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>Modern technologies are beginning to approach Shannon limit - A new technology is unlikely to provide more than a marginal increase in range for a given data rate. </li></ul><ul><li>The only way to get more coverage is to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmit more power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmit data slower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use bigger/higher antennas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a lower frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get someone else to pass on a message </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uplink transmit power likely to be the limiting factor in range </li></ul><ul><li>Downlink transmit power and peak data rate determine downlink range. Peak data rate then needs to be shared between users </li></ul>Constraints on Coverage - Summary
    26. 26. Mobility vs. Speed User Data Rate Broadband Narrowband Mbps High speed Pedestrian Nomadic Stationary Level of mobility 0,1 1 10 Low speed Indoor M O B I L I Y Speed <ul><li>Mobile </li></ul><ul><li>Nomadic </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed </li></ul>
    27. 27. Mobility vs. Speed <ul><li>Cellular technologies become more and more broadband </li></ul><ul><li>(HSDPA, HSUPA) </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative wireless technologies become </li></ul><ul><li>more and more mobile </li></ul><ul><li>(WiMAX, Flash-OFDM, 802.20) </li></ul><ul><li>Several technologies compete for mobile Broadband: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HSDPA is the most promising candidate </li></ul></ul>3Gplus 802.20 User Data Rate Broadband Narrowband Mbps High speed Flash-OFDM BWA IEEE 802.16 Pedestrian Nomadic Stationary Level of mobility 2G GSM 2.5G GPRS/EDGE 3G W-CDMA HSDPA Bluetooth BWA IEEE 802.16a IEEE 802.16d Wi-Fi IEEE 802.11 WiMAX IEEE 802.16e Cable DSL Dial-Up 0,1 1 10 Low speed Indoor
    28. 28. Technology Landscape NEXT : Ad-hoc Mesh Networks Fixed Walk Vehicle Indoor Pedestrian High Speed Vehicular Rural Personal Area Vehicular Urban Fixed urban Nomadic
    29. 29. Wireless broadband – the landscape Fixed wireless broadband 802.16-2004 (fixed WiMax) Alvarion Navini Aperto Adaptix … Proprietary, but aspiring to WiMax certification and eventually 802.16e Mesh networks (mostly based on 802.11) SkyPilot BelAir Nortel WMN IWICS Mobile broadband Flarion / Qualcomm ArrayComm 802.16e (mobile WiMax) TD-CDMA/FDD IPWireless HSDPA
    30. 30. Network Futures HSDPA / HSUPA
    31. 31. <ul><li>Efficient data traffic delivery mechanism that is fully compatible with the current 3GPP system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HSDPA coverage is as good as UTRAN Rel’99 – No need for new sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice and data on the same carrier – No need for extra spectrum to deploy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilises current Network Infrastructure - Software upgrade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Full mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Improves spectral efficiency of the Rel’99 system about 2-3 times for packet data services </li></ul><ul><li>Significantly higher throughput and lower latency offers peak data rate of up to 14.4Mb/s (Practice 1 ~ 2 Mb/s) </li></ul><ul><li>Specification also supports data rate as high as 384kbps in the uplink </li></ul><ul><li>Requires new Terminals </li></ul>HSDPA Goals When ???
    32. 32. HSUPA Goals <ul><li>Once again only a software upgrade on the Network </li></ul><ul><li>Full mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Improves spectral efficiency of the Rel’99 system in the upload </li></ul><ul><li>Significantly higher uplink throughput and lower latency </li></ul><ul><li>Offers peak data rate of up to 5.76Mb/s, < 100ms </li></ul><ul><li>New Terminals </li></ul><ul><li>Availability 2007? </li></ul>
    33. 33. Network Futures WiMax
    34. 34. <ul><li>Allocations available in the 3.5 – 5.8GHz bands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs more cells than 3G </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high frequencies make migration to full mobile service problematic. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good solution for areas where DSL can’t reach, but shear volume of data traffic makes it hard to compete for the heaviest internet households. </li></ul><ul><li>Possible backhaul technology for WLAN public access points and pico-cells, but range and capacity restricts use as a base station backhaul solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Intel remain bullish on its capabilities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel CEO view: better than DSL (50 – 100Mb/s). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our view: peak rates <10.5Mb/s - need MIMO or other techniques to improve it </li></ul></ul>Fixed WiMax – Fixed Wireless Broadband Intel adds “napa” to Centrino roadmap 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 GBytes /Month /Household 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: IDC 2005 WiMAX hype becomes hysteria ArcChart ( 9 Jun 2005 ) – Intel CEO, Graig Barrett made a bizarre WiMAX claim during a Reuters interview. Barrett suggested that fixed broadband was not fast enough, describing most DSL and cable connections in the home as “half-ass broadband” which is no good for video streaming or other applications. WiMAX, he claimed, should be capable of 50Mbps to 100Mbps, and is therefore &quot;significantly better than what we typically look at with DSL and cable.&quot;
    35. 35. <ul><li>There are no WiMax products available today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial products based on the superseded 802.16a are not WIMAX certified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These products are all focused on fixed wireless access deployments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Site count required for mobile wireless is far greater than fixed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws of physics have not changed, despite press speculation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For 802.16e to offer comparable mobile service, similar densities as 3G needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Too early to know how 802.16e will perform. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulations in a multi-cell deployment urgently needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handover ?? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>802.16 includes variety of modes and intended applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FDD and TDD, licensed and unlicensed spectrum, massive number of options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ 70 Mbps capability and >30 km range” is true for only one mode – not mobile! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical focus on fixed wireless systems and wireless backhaul </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The only completed standard applies to fixed wireless access systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The 802.16e standard for mobility support is incomplete in many important areas </li></ul>WiMax 802.16e (Mobile Wireless Access)
    36. 36. WiMax 802.16e (Mobile Wireless Access) <ul><li>Lack of detailed simulation or test results due to the standards not being finished </li></ul><ul><li>Early results suggest that 802.16e may have a small increase in spectrum efficiency compared to HSDPA </li></ul><ul><li>The exact performance figures for mobile WiMAX cannot be determined yet! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will only be possible once standard is complete and a WiMAX 802.16e profile has been selected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earliest 802.16e deployment likely to be 2007 </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Hype is Fading but Backers are Strong 2004 - hype 2005 – set back 2005 – Strong Backers <ul><li>Intel‘s inclusion in Centrino makes WiMax mobile credible. </li></ul>Competition in US from IPWireless? Wait and See BT ready for WiMax drive ZDNet UK (February 23, 2004) – WiMax is creating quite a stir in tech circles and BT is already using it to bring broadband to four rural locations. Could this be followed by a major rollout? Four radio-broadband trials being conducted by BT in rural parts of the UK could be the prelude to a full-scale deployment of WiMax in Britain. Intel’s High Hopes for WiMAX Wi-Fi networking news (Jan 2004) – During a speech at the Wireless Communications Association conference this week, Intel predicted that the next 10 years would be defined by broadband wireless: Intel has become a big supporter of WiMAX, hoping to see Wi-Fi and WiMAX bundled into computers. Siemens plans to develop WiMAX network solution RCR Wireless News (March 2004) – Siemens Information and Communication Mobile Group said it plans to develop a complete solution for WiMAX radio networks, which will be available in the second half of next year. South Korea questions need for WiBro alongside HSDPA 3G Mobile (11 th May 2005) – Hanaro Telecom's decision to relinquish the South Korean WiBro license it fought so hard for has highlighted what traditional equipment vendors have been long been saying: Ubiquitous, high-speed mobile data networks negate the need for alternative delivery methods. Intel, Nokia Team on Mobile WiMax IDG News Service ( 10 Jun 2005 ) – Intel and Nokia have teamed up to back the development of mobile WiMax technology, and will work together to see that the technology is standardized soon, the companies said this week. Intel and Nokia expect the standard to be finalized next year, they say.
    38. 38. Network Futures OFDM
    39. 39. Discontinuity in radio access technology Today Tomorrow? Uplink evolution is not so clear!! TD-CDMA Code Division Multiple Access CDMA2000 WCDMA Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access 3G evolution? Japan 4G proposals
    40. 40. Flarion’s Flash-OFDM (Qualcomm) <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Fully mobile technology with 7 years development effort </li></ul><ul><li>Requires 2 x 1.25 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>Successful Vodafone field trial </li></ul><ul><li>Peak rates 2.7Mbps DL, 0.8 UL </li></ul><ul><li>Aggregate 1.8Mbps DL, 0.4 UL </li></ul><ul><li><40 ms round trip time (latency) </li></ul><ul><li>Maturity </li></ul><ul><li>No commercial deployments </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure available from Flarion, Siemens and Nortel </li></ul><ul><li>Flarion PCMCIA card </li></ul>Excellent, but handover not as impressive..! No service concept 0 2.0 4.0 0 100 200 300 400 500 Round trip time (ms) Downlink efficiency (bps/Hz/site) Flarion
    41. 41. Network Futures Various Considerations
    42. 42. <ul><li>HSDPA effective for unicast of video clips – and expansion of handset memory will allow non-real time viewing of off-peak download </li></ul><ul><li>Serious adoption of 3G MobileTV will cause capacity problems – then broadcast technologies will be needed </li></ul>Mobile TV - which technology? Channel equivalents (per cell) Concurrent viewers/cell 1 4 MBMS, 200kbit/ch * 20 users 3G capacity limit 3G, 200kbit/ch 5 users 3G capacity limit HSDPA, 200kbit/ch <ul><li>MBMS is more cost effective than streaming LiveTV, but is limited to ~ 4 concurrent TV channels* </li></ul><ul><li>We can expect to see mobile broadcast technologies rolled-out in Europe quite soon: </li></ul>* Assuming a 3G carrier used only for MBMS DVB-H 4 Mbit/s, 250kbit/ch 16 DVB-H Multiplex, 250kbit/ch 38 3G MBMS HSDPA 2005 2006 2007 2008 DVB-H Introductory/transition phases
    43. 43. UMA (Unlicensed Mobile Access) <ul><li>Provides Access to GSM/GPRS services over alternative (potentially any) access methods – current focus on WLAN – targetted for Release 7. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept has the potential to be extended to 3GSM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provides tight coupling and re-use of GSM/GPRS core network. </li></ul><ul><li>Differs from existing 3GPP WLAN integration (I-WLAN) effort as it mainly benefits CS services (Voice, SMS). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UMA primarily suited for extending CS into unlicensed spectrum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I-WLAN primarily suited for extending ‘broadband’ packet services into unlicensed spectrum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BT utilising UMA for its Bluephone product. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Launch has been delayed whilst they wait for commercial UMA solution. </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. <ul><li>• Each node communicates only with closest base station. </li></ul><ul><li>• Base stations connected through high-capacity wires or optical fibers. </li></ul><ul><li>• Base stations do most of the work. </li></ul><ul><li>• Not a truly wireless network (only last hop is wireless) ! </li></ul>Mesh Networks: Cellular Topology
    45. 45. Mesh Networks: Ad-Hoc Topology <ul><li>No base stations, but nodes can talk to each other. </li></ul><ul><li>• Nodes have to get organized without the help of base stations. – This is a much more challenging problem ! </li></ul><ul><li>• A truly wireless network! </li></ul><ul><li>• Another way to think about it: a wireless internet. </li></ul>
    46. 46. Why Ad-Hoc Networks? <ul><li>• They can be build very fast. – No need to establish wired connections. </li></ul><ul><li>• They are very resilient. – No single point of failure, such as a base station. </li></ul><ul><li>• They are spectrally more efficient than cellular networks. – Every node can communicate with any other node, so nodes can make better use of the channel. </li></ul><ul><li>• Placing wires may be impossible, prohibitively expensive, or just not necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>• No need for operators. </li></ul>
    47. 47. Summary <ul><li>HSDPA / HSUPA provides best option for Mobile Wireless Broadband in the Short and Medium Term </li></ul><ul><li>WiMax well suited to Fixed Wireless Broadband </li></ul><ul><li>802.16e not ready and is limited in Mobile Capability – more Nomadic </li></ul><ul><li>OFDM is the future for both Fixed and Mobile Networks – 3 x W-CDMA </li></ul><ul><li>Watch Qualcomm </li></ul><ul><li>UMA and Ad-Hoc Networks holds great promise </li></ul>
    48. 48. Questions Jannie van Zyl [email_address] Vodacom3G
    49. 49. Thank You

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