Ericsson Mobile Base Station Cooling Requirements - Se Second Report to Denso 11 August 2006
Project progress <ul><li>Since the last report we have: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contacted and spoken with Ericsson to request an interview. Ericsson’s holiday period will soon becoming to an end and we hope to interview them before the 10 September. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We have cross referenced our previously gathered information with additional information form operators and other base station vendors. This information has confirmed our previous assumptions about the mobile base station market and operator cooling requirements. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Next Steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure interview with Ericsson in order to validate information and obtain the prices of cooling systems item N on spread sheet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact Hunter International AB and IV Produkt to gather additional information on their relationship with Ericsson and if possible price list. </li></ul></ul>
Summary of First Draft Report <ul><li>BTS and Node Bs account for up to 50% of a mobile operator’s power consumption and around 15% to 20% of their running costs. </li></ul><ul><li>The DRUs, and hence the RBSs consume most of the power and generate most of the base station heat. </li></ul><ul><li>Cooling systems are the next largest power consumers and account for 25% the energy consumed by the network. </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile operators want to reduce this power consumption and Ericsson has responded with a new generation of base architectures that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerate higher temperatures up to 55°C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reposition the RBS in outdoor units nearer the antenna. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removing the need for air conditioning. </li></ul></ul>
Ericsson’s Product Range <ul><li>Ericsson’s BTS product portfolio is comprised of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RBS2000, Ericsson’s 2G GSM product, subdivided into the older RBS2x06 and the new RBS2x16, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RBS3000, its WCDMA solution, subdivided into release R1 (2001), R2 (early 2003) and R3 (2005), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RBS1000, its CDMA product range including CDMA2000 and CDMA450. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The range is based on a common set of racks and is designed so that different 2G and 3G services can be run from the same rack. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus cooling requirements can not be segmented into neatly into different product categories. </li></ul>
Market Drivers <ul><li>Both 2G and 3G technologies are now well established and operators are seeking means of reducing their running costs and CO 2 emissions. </li></ul><ul><li>Vodafone provided us with the following statements on their future environmental goals, which have been extended from the trials in Ireland. </li></ul>
Vodafone Environmental Goals <ul><li>“ Our goal is to increase efficiency by 25% compared with current network equipment by March 2008. While it is technically and financially impossible to replace all existing network equipment at once, a 25% improvement in the energy efficiency of all of our current equipment would save around 300,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions, based on current levels. We have identified the following ways to reduce energy use in base stations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relocating the power source closer to the antenna to reduce power loss – this system (known as remote radio heads) reduces power requirements by 20% We will begin to install this technology at our base stations next year and we are encouraging all our network equipment suppliers to offer remote radio heads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More efficient amplifiers – new power amplifiers will be 10% more energy efficient than the previous generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing the energy needed for cooling through a range of design improvements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network cooling helps to extend the life of batteries and reduce the chance of network failure. Cooling accounts for an estimated 25% of energy used in our network. We are working on a number of initiatives to reduce energy used in cooling. Average energy consumption in some units can be cut by more than 10% (depending on the climate conditions on-site) by increasing the ambient temperature of our base stations from 21°C to 25°C. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, Vodafone Germany has installed 1,555 base stations with free cooling which uses fresh air to cool network equipment, reducing the need for energy-intensive air conditioning. The estimated total energy consumption for these free cooling systems since installation is 12.3 MWh, 80% less than the estimated 69.5 MWh if the units were fitted with standard cooling system. However, this can only be done in cooler climates.” </li></ul>
Cooling Requirements <ul><li>Thus the main tend is to remove or replace base station enclosure / cabinet air conditioning with free air cooling. </li></ul><ul><li>The battery backup power supplies, which use lead acid batteries, are now the only base station component that is sensitive to temperatures above 20 °C. Higher temperatures reduce the battery’s operational life and result in them vent acid into the enclosure which then result in damage to other equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>However, the batteries are now being: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmentally separated from the rest of the enclosure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relocated outside the enclosure. Emerson Network Power appears to partner with Ericsson to provide this type of solution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaced by UltraCaps, a type of large capacitor, which do not have the same drawbacks as lead acid batteries. </li></ul></ul>
Ericsson’s Cooling Requirements <ul><li>Ericsson’s base station cooling requirements fall into three major categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enclosure cooling for indoor units, this is normally specified by the mobile operator and is not controlled by Ericsson. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indoor rack cooling requirements made up of hotspot management and rack mounted fans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outdoor cooling requirements, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The relationship between these items is shown on the next slide. </li></ul>
Ericsson’s Cooling Requirements Rack Fans Ericsson Hotspot Management AC/DC Power Supply And Power Backup Free Air Cooling Air Conditioning Outdoor RBS Units Enclosure Ericsson Specified Cooling Operator and/or Enclosure Manufacturer Specified Cooling Requirements Open Air Flow or Heat Exchanger
Ericsson Enclosure Cooling Partners <ul><li>Ericsson partners with Flexenclosure to produce base station enclosures. Flexenclosure recommends either free cooling or active cooling with a performance of between 1 to 13.5 KW. </li></ul><ul><li>IV Produkt is one of the main provides of air conditioning units for these enclosures. Its products are listed in the previous report. </li></ul><ul><li>We have also identified Hunter International AB as an Ericsson partner company providing enclosure cooling solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>It should be noted that both Hunter and IV Produkt are located near to Ericsson in Sweden. </li></ul><ul><li>Hunter resells IV Produkt’s see attached Exhibit 1. </li></ul><ul><li>It also sells the Comb Rack 1630, which is intended to provide mixed free cooling for the enclosure and cooling for batteries. See Exhibit 2. </li></ul>
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