"Advanced Wireless Technologies and Products"


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"Advanced Wireless Technologies and Products"

  1. 1. Advanced Wireless Technologies and Products BAD 64046 5 March 2003
  2. 2. Satellites - Orbit Distances <ul><li>Three categories of orbit distances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GEO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geosynchronous earth orbit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite’s speed precisely matches rotational speed of Earth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires an orbit of about 22,300 miles above the Earth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defined by the longitudinal position of the point on the equator over which the satellite is located </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Satellites - Orbit Distance <ul><li>GEO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geostationary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A geosynchronous satellite with a zero angle of inclination (orbit is in the plane of the equator) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appears to hover above the same point on the equator at all times </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See “Dundee Receiving Station” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both types of GEO satellites can be hit by ground stations without the need for tracking equipment </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. A Representative Geostationary Earth Station
  5. 5. Satellites - Orbit Distance <ul><li>LEO - Low Earth Orbit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>180 to 1000 mile high orbit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visible from a spot on the surface for only 10 - 20 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To maintain a connection, equipment must automatically switch from satellite to satellite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moves rapidly with respect to Earth’s surface </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Satellites - Orbit Distance <ul><li>MEO - Medium Earth Orbit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6,250 - 10,000 miles high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate speed of surface translation </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Orbit Characteristics
  8. 8. Advantages and Disadvantages of GEO Satellites <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appear to stand still </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge footprint (3 or 4 cover Earth) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Launch is very expensive and risky </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Round trip latency of 500 ms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power required varies with square of distance, so huge transmitters are needed </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Satellite Subsystems <ul><li>Transponders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some do and some do not process the up-linked data before relaying it back down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Bent pipe” does not process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Received signal amplified without adding noise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retransmitted down on a different frequency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern transponders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 to 30 transponders per satellite, each with bandwidth of 36 - 72 MHz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Onboard error correction is common </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Signal routing to xpdrs is common </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. More About Onboard Processing <ul><li>Demodulation and re-modulation to remove noise </li></ul><ul><li>Spot focusing of downlink using steerable antenna arrays </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consist of many switchable elements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Much switching and routing required, especially for LEO systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iridium and Teledesic are typical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Switch to minimize ground based wireline charges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Onboard processing saps power from the downlink transmitter </li></ul><ul><li>More complex = more failure points </li></ul>
  11. 11. Frequency and Bandwidth <ul><li>Frequency tradeoffs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher frequencies support greater bandwidth with smaller antennas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher frequencies are more easily mitigated by dust, water vapor and even molecules of atmospheric gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More difficult and expensive to design and build transmitters and receivers for higher frequencies </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Crowded Space <ul><li>Orbital proximity is a problem in GEO orbits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellites on same frequency must have significant angular separation so ground stations can discriminate them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Orbital slots and frequencies are limited, so we can run out of physical slots in the sky </li></ul><ul><li>This is happening now over Europe and North America </li></ul>
  13. 13. Challenging Technology <ul><li>Ku-band is highest in present use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10.7 GHz - 18.1 GHz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toshiba introduced first Ku-band capable transistor at the end of 1998 (gallium-arsenide) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It worked in 14 - 14.5 GHz band </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$1100 per transistor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 watt device </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. More Amazing Technology <ul><li>Toshiba (May 1999) introduced high power C-band transistor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5.9 - 6.4 GHz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60 watts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ka band (18 - 31 GHz) is the next development target </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AIL Systems, Globalstar , KaSTAR </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Applications for Satellite Technology <ul><li>Fixed telephony </li></ul><ul><li>Global Mobile personal communications services </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite data transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Broadband satellite </li></ul><ul><li>GPS </li></ul>
  16. 16. Fixed Telephony Services <ul><li>Satellite telephone business was originally targeted at trans-Atlantic bulk </li></ul><ul><li>Submarine fibre is underpricing satellites </li></ul><ul><li>Niche market for satellite phone calls remains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Underserved rural areas and less-developed countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More cost-effective than wireline, especially in inhospitable terrain </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Global Mobile Personal Communications Services <ul><li>Challenge is illuminating a small or handheld terminal that has a very small antenna </li></ul><ul><li>Antenna is moving constantly, and in and out of buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, GEO satellites are infeasible </li></ul><ul><li>GMPCS requires LEO or MEO satellites </li></ul>
  18. 18. GMPCS Devices <ul><li>Most have dual mode or multimode capability for satellite as well as terrestrial wireless system access </li></ul><ul><li>About 0.7 watts transmitted power </li></ul><ul><li>Handset antennas cannot be directional </li></ul><ul><li>There is no universal standard for satellite “phones” yet </li></ul>
  19. 19. GMPCS Providers <ul><li>Ellipso </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two constellations of MEO satellites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ellipso-Borealis constellation covers northern latitudes with 10 satellites in elliptical orbits of two planes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ellipso-Concordia covers tropical and southern latitudes with 6 satellites at 5,031 mile high orbit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial launches were planned for 2002 </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Ellipso Orbital Configuration
  21. 21. Globalstar <ul><li>Joint Loral - Qualcomm venture </li></ul><ul><li>Simple bent pipe satellites </li></ul><ul><li>No inter-satellite communication </li></ul><ul><li>48 LEOs and 4 on-orbit spares </li></ul><ul><li>Service began in October 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>All satellites now in orbit </li></ul><ul><li>Each transmits 16 spot beams simultaneously </li></ul>
  22. 22. ICO <ul><li>MEO-based </li></ul><ul><li>Recently acquired Teledesic </li></ul><ul><li>10 satellites in two orbital planes, 5 each </li></ul><ul><li>6,472 mile high orbit </li></ul><ul><li>8.9 KW per satellite </li></ul><ul><li>Simple system that routes calls to the PSTN </li></ul><ul><li>4,500 simultaneous calls per satellite </li></ul><ul><li>ICO handsets are dual-mode or tri-mode CDMA/AMPS/ICO </li></ul>
  23. 23. Iridium <ul><li>Bankrupt in September 1999, and now resuming service </li></ul><ul><li>LEO system </li></ul><ul><li>Large handhelds </li></ul>
  24. 24. Satellite Data Transmission <ul><li>Data services will be broadly available via satellites </li></ul><ul><li>Designed for fixed users </li></ul><ul><li>Most downlink only, some bi-directional, symmetric or asymmetric </li></ul><ul><li>Broadband data transfer is technically challenging because of latency delay and high bit rate accuracy required (10 -7 ) </li></ul>
  25. 25. VSAT Applications <ul><li>Very Small Aperture Terminal </li></ul><ul><li>High powered Earth station connects via satellite to network of low-powered ground stations with small antennas </li></ul><ul><li>High bandwidth on downlink but not on uplink </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment is an outdoor unit and an indoor interface to user’s data terminal </li></ul><ul><li>Deployed in rural areas and for low-cost credit card verification </li></ul>
  26. 26. DirecPC <ul><li>Data “broadcasting” </li></ul><ul><li>Internet access </li></ul><ul><li>21 inch elliptical antenna, PC adapter card, software </li></ul><ul><li>Downlink only </li></ul><ul><li>Upstream is through an ISP </li></ul><ul><li>400 Kbps data rate </li></ul><ul><li>$69.95 unlimited, without ISP </li></ul>
  27. 27. Other Internet Access via Satellite <ul><li>European Satellite Multimedia Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to DirecPC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downlink up to 38 Mbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uplink is via phone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gilat Satellite Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two way satellite broadband to MSN customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Israeli company </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Cidera </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicasts same content to multiple sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialty is Internet content to ISPs, who then cache it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>45 Mbps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Similar service available from IPPlanet (Irsael) and iBeam, in Sunnyvale </li></ul>Other Internet Access via Satellite
  29. 29. Broadband Satellite Systems <ul><li>Skybridge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planned LEO system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two constellations of 40 satellites each </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covers everything except poles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 Mbps down, 2 Mbps up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fractional bandwidth on demand available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>350,000 users per satellite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No intersatellite connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service in 2003 </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Broadband Satellite Systems <ul><li>Teledesic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partnered with Ellipso </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LEO with 64Mbps downlink rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motorola is prime contractor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boeing does large scale systems integration, software development, and launch services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bill Gates is a key backer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>288 satellites, low, with low latency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each satellite is like a node in a fast packet switching network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30 GHz uplink, 20 GHz downlink </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Global Positioning System <ul><li>Implemented and operated by U.S. Department of Defense </li></ul><ul><li>24 satellites in six MEO orbital planes </li></ul><ul><li>Five to eight satellites available at any time from any point on Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Four signals (minimum) needed by compute position </li></ul>
  32. 34. GPS Add Ons <ul><li>SnapTrack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will track location of cellular phone users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FCC mandated locatability of 911 callers within 1200 meters by October 2001 – was partially achieved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular wireless network will send an estimate of the location of the phone to a server, which then returns the locations of the nearest GPS satellites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phone then calculates and reports its location </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cellular sites already have GPS receivers to provide synchronous timing information </li></ul><ul><li>Qualcomm bought SnapTrack for $1B in January 2000 </li></ul>
  33. 35. Market Overview <ul><li>Wireless growth is exceeding most market projections </li></ul><ul><li>Prices are falling as competition increases </li></ul><ul><li>Data now dominates over voice ! </li></ul>
  34. 36. Wireless Voice Telephony <ul><li>309 M cellular users at end of 1998 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forecast 862 M at end of 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data over mobile and e-commerce expected to account for much of this growth </li></ul><ul><li>303 M cellular/PCS users in 1998 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forecast 1.1 B cellular/PCS by end of 2003 (!) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Approximately half of the above are forecast to be using GSM </li></ul><ul><li>3G services will lag in the U.S. behind Europe, Japan, and Korea </li></ul>
  35. 37. Asia <ul><li>PDC standard dominates in Japan, GSM everywhere else in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Taiwan and south Korea are the fastest growing markets for mobile data </li></ul><ul><li>Motorola is in a joint agreement with Ministry of Information and Industry of China to develop 3G technologies there </li></ul>
  36. 38. Europe <ul><li>GSM dominates overwhelmingly </li></ul><ul><li>Subscriber growth is slowing </li></ul><ul><li>Finland offered the first 3G licenses </li></ul><ul><li>Dataquest predicts that only 4% of subscribers will be using full 3G compliant systems by 2005 </li></ul>
  37. 39. United States <ul><li>18 service providers held most of the market in the U.S. at end of century </li></ul><ul><li>Three use CDMA1900, seven GSM1900, one IS-136, and the rest AMPS, CDMA800, TDMA800. </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidation of providers will continue, with mixes of GSM and CDMA in place </li></ul>
  38. 40. Growth Projections <ul><li>CDMA growth rate of 50.4% </li></ul><ul><li>TDMA growth rate of 39.5 % </li></ul><ul><li>AMPS growth rate of -16.6 % </li></ul>
  39. 41. Latin America <ul><li>Digital subscribers dominate </li></ul><ul><li>Six times as many new subscribers for digital rather than analog </li></ul><ul><li>TDMA = 33.9 %; CDMA 6.6 %; GSM 1.6 % </li></ul><ul><li>Forecast is that 75% of all TDMA handsets in 2003 will go to Latin America </li></ul>
  40. 42. Wireless Data <ul><li>Fierce competition involving: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private data networks (ARDIS, Metricom, and Mobiltex) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular networks (CDPD, SMS, circuit-switched, and 2.5G) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land mobile radio and specialized mobile radio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-way paging </li></ul></ul>
  41. 43. Regional Variations <ul><li>Europe leads the world in adoption of digital cellular service and mobile wireless services </li></ul><ul><li>Asia/Pacific are also tied with or slightly leading U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, regions outside the U.S. make take the lead in adoption of new Internet services </li></ul>
  42. 44. Wireless Data Services (U.S.) <ul><li>Subscribers growing x10 between 1999 and 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>CAGR will be 81.6 % </li></ul><ul><li>Devices and services will drop in price </li></ul><ul><li>SMS (Short Messaging Service) is forecast to be the driver of U.S. growth in wireless data </li></ul>
  43. 45. Wireless SMS Players <ul><li>Blackberry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Service aimed at e-mail users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$ 9.95/month for unlimited e-mail, with $359 price on the device </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ARDIS started two-way paging service in 1999 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Palm VII ($500) supports this </li></ul></ul>
  44. 46. ARDIS Target Markets <ul><li>Vertical markets, normally </li></ul><ul><li>UPS </li></ul><ul><li>Trucking </li></ul><ul><li>Repair and service technicians </li></ul><ul><li>Pricing varies with quantity of data transmitted </li></ul>
  45. 47. CDPD Target Markets (Cellular Digital Packet Data) <ul><li>Available to 53% of the U.S. population </li></ul><ul><li>Especially popular among police agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Growth in Canada is significant </li></ul><ul><li>CDPD is the only packet-switched technology offered on cellular / PCS networks in Canada </li></ul>
  46. 48. Satellites - Markets <ul><li>Broadband satellite industry might be subject to over-capacity if all planned satellite systems deploy </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite launches for mobile service have lagged behind their timetables </li></ul><ul><li>Bankruptcies are slowing down the industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iridium went bankrupt because of high prices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$1,495 handset and $1.59 to $3.99 per minute call charges </li></ul></ul>
  47. 49. Forecast - Terrestrial Mobile Voice <ul><li>AMPS will continue to erode </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. cellular market will remain fragmented among CDMA, TDMA, GSM </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile users in Asia/Pacific, not even counting Japan, may exceed total in U.S. and Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Handset antennas will move away from head via headsets </li></ul>
  48. 50. Forecast - Terrestrial Mobile Data <ul><li>Adoption of interim data technologies (HSCSD, GPRS, EDGE) will lead to market fragmentation in the U.S. and to lesser degree in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>3G deployment will be delayed by lack of demand from mobile applications and lack of a global 3G standard </li></ul><ul><li>SMS will dominate growth in mobile services </li></ul><ul><li>Location-based services will grow rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>Growth in Japan and Europe will exceed U.S. because of unified standards there </li></ul>
  49. 51. Forecast - Terrestrial Stationary Services <ul><li>Services include WLL, point-to-point wireless, LMDS/MMDS, and laser beam </li></ul><ul><li>Demand will be driven by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Demand for high speed data (Internet mostly) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Need for CLECs to bypass the wire local loop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet access is still the driver for bandwidth growth </li></ul>
  50. 52. High Speed Services <ul><li>Will be predominantly wireline through 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite service initiates on a large scale at the end of the forecast period -- jury is out </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless has an advantage in the local loop beyond the reach of fibre from the CO </li></ul><ul><li>Next generation TV channels will include a data sub-band </li></ul>
  51. 53. More Terrestrial Wireless Forecasts <ul><li>802.1, Bluetooth, and HomeRF may interfere with each other in the spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite receivers for direct broadcast TV will continue to integrate with data transport </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite systems will suffer a lack of demand for mobile access because of in-building problems </li></ul>
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