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  • 1. 1 Survey Findings towards Mobile Services Usage and M-Commerce Adoption Iosif Androulidakis Chris Basios* Nikos Androulidakis University of Ioannina NTUA NottinghamTrent Univ. Network Operations Computer Network Lab Nottingham Business Center Heroon Politechneiou 9 School 451-10 Dourouti 151-22 Zografou Fokeas 8, 156-69 Papagou GREECE GREECE GREECE sandro@noc.uoi.gr cbas@telecom.ntua.gr nickan91@otenet.gr * Corresponding author Abstract Despite the fact that diffusion of mobile commerce in Europe has been exceptionally fast during the last years, the adoption of so-called value-added mobile services by Greek consumers has not, yet, been quite successful. In order to investigate this issue, in this paper, we present the results of a survey conducted in the University of Ioannina, Greece according to which 315 participants were asked about quite many key factors concerning various aspects about the usage of their mobile phone. The resultants are very interesting and can be considered as a potential guide by various mobile operators for their future economic and technological investments. Keywords: questionnaire survey, technology penetration, mobile usage, m-commerce, content preference
  • 2. 1. Introduction trends in mobile phone usage among adolescents [NTT DoCoMo Rep. 10, 2001]. Another survey The remarkable growth of mobile services was conducted in April 2001, and it examined the has outperformed experts’ expectations. From a mobile phone usage among elderly [NTT DoCoMo marginal industry in the shadow of other Rep. 11, 2001]. The respondents were 300 men and telecommunications providers (e.g. fixed line and women in their sixties. The survey conducted in the Internet), it has become a leading sector November 2000 involved 1000 subjects and providing commoditized services. investigated the use of mobile phones in every day At the beginning of 2004, there were over urban life [NTT DoCoMo, Rep. 9, 2001]. All of 1.3 billion cell-phone users, while over the next these surveys indicate the growing importance of three years the demand for mobile services is mobile phones in everyday life and the increased predicted to grow at an average annual rate of 9.1% popularity of new features such as email. [Lonergan D. et al., 2004]. However, this growth In a recent survey of mobile users versus mainly stems from the deployment of new shoppers in Finland, Germany and Greece networks in developing countries rather than from [Vrechopoulos A.P. et al., 2002], mobile shoppers an inclining penetration in developed states, where were less focused on price and more on ease of use the market has almost saturated. than mobile users but these differences were not Despite immense expectation, mobile data consistent across countries. Thus the findings may revenues still account for only 12–15% of Western indicate that the early adopters of mobile data European operators’ ARPU [Marcussen C. H., services and adopters of traditional mobile services 2003], and the majority of that (85%) is driven by are not that different. The above remarks were also SMS. On the contrary to the aforementioned verified by some exclusive studies for the Greek numbers, Greece is a rather promising country for mobile market [Androulidakis N. et al., 2004, adopting new mobile services, as - according to Androulidakis N. et al., 2005]. latest statistics - mobile phone owners appear to overtake Greeks owning conventional fixed line 3. Research Analysis and Results telephones. A significant proportion of these mobile users corresponds to young people and thus 3.1 Methodology we decided to survey their opinion and preferences about various issues related to mobile services, Our survey was conducted using in-person ranging from preferences on specific mobile delivery technique [Dillman D.A., 1999], with a operators to their intention on adopting new value- total of 315 respondents participating in this added services on their mobile phone. survey. All the respondents were students in In the rest of this paper, section 2 presents University of Ioannina and were asked for their related work on surveying users’ opinions participation in a questionnaire. Having such a regarding various aspects towards mobile phone supervised survey technique ensures that each usage. In section 3 we analyze the methodology we respondent understands each of the questions and used in our survey. Furthermore, we present - and answers them correctly [Pfleeger S. L. et al., briefly discuss - all the results coming out of the 2001]. survey. Finally, in section 4 concluding remarks are Targeting such a group is due to the fact drawn. that we wanted the participants to form a representative set in a certain age area (18-24), 2. Related Work which corresponds to a major percentage of the overall users in the current mobile Greek market Although there have been quite many and thus have the potential to adopt new services as theoretical studies concerning mobile services, a well. As far as concerning the gender statistics, significant mean for investigating and 34,17% of the participants were men, while 65,83% understanding users’ preferences is asking their were women. We selected ‘gender’ to be our main opinion via specific questioning techniques (i.e. in- variable, as it appears to be a rather significant person delivery or e-mail questionnaires). There factor towards the adoption of mobile services exist several survey studies in this direction [NTT [Ling R., 2001]. DoCoMo, Rep. 9, 2001, NTT DoCoMo Rep. 10, 2001, NTT DoCoMo Rep. 11, 2001]. Some of 3.2 Survey Results these surveys assessed customer’s perspectives on the mobile phone services, while some others Our survey was categorized in two main surveys by NTT DoCoMo - which are briefly parts. In the first one, we are surveying some mentioned in the next lines -examined the way generic issues concerning the preferences of the mobile phone owners use their phone. A survey service operators or the mobile brands, while in the started at the end of year 2000 described the current second one we emphasize on the users’ positions
  • 3. about various factors that aim to enable the fastest possible adoption of new mobile services (i.e. 80 service accessibility factors, factors for adopting 70 multimedia services etc.). 60 50 3.2.1 Generic Queries 40 Men Women 30 3.2.1.1 Mobile Phone Usage 20 10 An interesting query that shows a general 0 reflection of the penetration of mobile industry in Yes No Greek market is, among others, the number of mobile phones that each user owns. The participants were asked to define the number of Figure 2: 2.5G/3G services usage by gender. mobile devices each one own and the results are shown in figure 1. According to the results, 45,26% of the men participants have used (even once) 2.5/3G mobile services and so have done 30,6% of women. 80 This seems to be quite a contradictory result since 70 Cosmote (one of the leading operators in Greece) is 60 one of the first operators in Europe to launch i- 50 mode, while all main Greek mobile operators Men (Cosmote, Vodafone, TIM) have already launched 40 Women 3G services. 30 One logical explanation for this result is 20 the high prices of the services along with the fact 10 that most of the students are not yet self-supported and thus they appear to be quite hesitant to 0 >3 3 2 1 None additional expenses regarding new value-added Number of mobile phones services. In the second figure of this subsection we Figure 1: Number of mobile phones that each present the results that come from the participants’ participant own. answers regarding whether they own a computer or not. As it was expected most of the mobile users own just one device (66,55%), but an 90 interesting portion of the participants (24,46%) holds two devices. In particular, 62,11% of men 80 and 68,85% of women own one mobile phone, 70 while the respective percentages when referring to 60 two devices are 21,05% for men and 26,23% for 50 Men women. Women 40 30 3.2.1.2 Users’ Technology Profile 20 10 In order to have a deeper view of our 0 participants’ ‘technology’ profile, we have asked Yes No them some common questions regarding their ownership of a computer, their 2.5G/3G experience Figure 3: PC usage by gender. and whether or not they have Internet access. In the first figure we present the results As the figure shows, men owning a related with the participants’ responses to our computer are 85,26%, while only 60,11% of question if they have ever used 2.5G or 3G women own one. Considering that all the services. participants are students from 18-24, the overall 68.71% owning a computer is, according to our opinion, quite small, despite the fact that appears to be much over a respective average percentage (27,1%) that derives from another survey -
  • 4. presented in the next paragraph - regarding Greek 2005], the penetration of mobile phones is very users. high in the EU 15 (70 %), probably not far from [GRNet, 2003] survey, surveying 2.802 saturation, while still growing in the New Member individuals detected a widespread use of new States as well as in Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey. technologies across Greece, concluding in an Slightly more than half of the EU 15 important increase of the four-layered indicator of population uses a computer, while only 30 % of the new technologies use in 2003, with a 2.1% increase citizens in New Member States and Candidate of the population using all main new technologies Countries (RO,BG,TR) do so. With respect to (mobile phone, PC, the Internet and bank cash 2001, internet penetration in the EU 15 - when machines) compared to 2002. measured in terms of internet users as percentage of Figure 4 depicts the survey’s results that the total population - has globally increased from aroused from the participants’ responses referring 34,3 % to 43,5 %; this trend has affected all to whether they have Internet access or not. considered age groups and socio-economic categories, although to different extents (see section below). 70 Luxembourg and the UK now join the 60 Nordic countries and Netherlands in scoring an 50 Internet access rate above – or much above - the 50 % threshold. A group of countries – such as Italy, 40 Men Belgium, Austria, Germany are positioned around Women 30 the EU average; Ireland, Spain and France still 20 have a lower than average access rate (~35%), 10 together with Portugal and Greece (~21%). 0 Yes No 3.2.1.3 Mobile Service Operator Originally, in Greece, there were two Figure 4: Internet access by gender. players on the market: Panafon (now Vodafone) and STET (now TIM), but competition intensified According to our survey’s results, only after the fixed telephony incumbent’s subsidiary, 58,95% of men participants and 39,89% of women COSMOTE, entered the market in 1998, followed have Internet access. Despite the gender difference, by a fourth competitor, Q-Telecom. At the end of the total percentage of the participants that have June 2004, Cosmote was the first telecom service accessed Internet is quite small (46,40%), if we operator in number of subscribers (4.1 millions), consider that all 315 participants are University followed by Vodafone (3.7 millions), TIM (2.5 students, a social cluster that should access Internet millions) and Q-Telecom (0.5 millions) [Antoine by greater likelihood for either personal or P. et al., 2005]. educational use. In this first subsection, we present the Internet access has been the objective for distribution of the users’ preference among the 4 another survey conducted among Greek users. existent mobile service operators in Greece: According to this survey being conducted every ‘Cosmote’, ‘Vodafone’, ‘TIM’ and ‘Q-Telecom’. four months by GFK Market Analysis, the number The participants were asked to determine which of Internet users in Greece appears to be stable in operator’s services are currently using either in the the last years [Veglis A., 2004]. According to the form of a contract or in the form of pre-paid cards. survey results, the number of Internet users in Athens, Thessaloniki, and in other major urban 45 areas increased dramatically during 2002. But since 40 November 2003, the number of Internet users 35 appears to be constant. This phenomenon is more 30 25 Men intense in urban areas where the percentage of (%) 20 Women Internet users exhibits a marginal increase from 15 34.5 percent to 34.8 percent. In rural areas we have 10 a marginal decrease. The latest findings indicate 5 that 37 percent of men are Internet users, while the 0 18–24 age group shows the highest rate of Internet Cosmote Vodafone TIM Q-Telecom use at 49 percent. It is interesting to parallel all the above results with those coming up from a European Figure 5: Mobile operators preferences. survey. According to the latest Eurobarometer data [Commission of the European Community,
  • 5. The figure depicts the current status of the of 2003 prepaid users accounted for over 50% of telecommunications market in Greece; Cosmote the install base worldwide [Lonergan D., et al., and Vodafone appear to be the most preferable 2004]. operators among various players, as mobile users Limitations in the back-end systems are seem to trust their developed infrastructure and the often the main reason why operators are unable to favorite “brand name” they have acquired over the launch new services uniformly for pre-paid and last years. In particular, a total of 39,21% of the postpaid customer bases. The two groups of users participants is using Vodafone’s services, while are often managed using separate back-end 38,29% of them are using Cosmote’s services. systems, and not all legacy billing mechanisms allow real-time charging or proper control and 3.2.1.4 Mobile Brand Name authorization for content delivery to pre-pay customers. Another interest part of our survey is The participants’ preference on a certain related to the users’ preference concerning their mobile payment model is presented in this preference on the mobile brands. As the subsection. The columns refer to the 3 possible manufacturers appear to be quite many in today’s choices: ‘Pre-paid’, ‘Post-paid’ and ‘both’ (Pre- Greek market we have categorized them to the paid and Post-paid). following 5 columns: ‘Nokia’, ‘Sony-Ericsson’, ‘Siemens’, ‘Panasonic’ and ‘Other’. 60 50 45 40 40 35 Men (%) 30 30 Women 25 Men (%) 20 20 Women 15 10 10 5 0 Pre-paid (card) Post-paid Both 0 (contract) on ia er s c en i ok th on ss m O N as ri c ie an E S y- P on S Figure 7: Payment model preferences. Figure 6: Mobile brand name preferences. According to the results, although the major percentage of the participants prefers the pre- According to iDATE’s statistics [Antoine paid payment type it is interesting to note that P. et al., 2005], Nokia dominated the mobile women prefer to make use of the post-paid model terminals market in 2004 grabbing the 32,2% of the (54,64%), while most men prefer the pre-paid one total market share. In our survey, Nokia is, also, the (50,53%). We should, additionally, mention that preferred manufacturer among the participants 12,23% of all participants makes use of both independently of their gender; 39,34% of women payment models, and 32,63% of men hold a Nokia mobile phone. Given their social profile, the young, entertainment-focused and Internet-friendly prepaid 3.2.1.5 Payment Model customers are often more suited for new multimedia services than the less price-sensitive The mobile industry provides two distinct but time-poor contract users. However, new types of service provider-customer relationships: services such as GPRS, MMS, and i-mode are not  low commitment relationship (prepaid) yet commonly offered to pre-paid customers.  high commitment relationship (post-paid) These two categories of contractual 3.2.1.6 Mobile Usage Type obligations allow distinguishing two groups of customers who may potentially develop different In this subsection we examine the perceptions of mobile services. Given that both preferable mobile usage among the participants. forms of relationships are currently widely utilized, The usage is categorized according to the most it is important to understand the differences in generic possible way. Thus, the 3 available choices customer behaviors between these two groups. for the participants are: ‘Personal’, ‘Work’, ‘Both’ Though initially the industry introduced only the (Personal and Work). post-paid payment method, prepaid services became widely popular in recent years. By the end
  • 6. 80 50 70 45 60 40 50 35 Men (%) 40 30 Women Men (%) 30 25 Women 20 20 10 15 0 10 Personal Work Both 5 0 Usefulness Speed Ease of use Other Figure 8: Mobile usage preferences. A total of 61,15% of the participants use Figure 9: Main factors for service accessibility. their mobile phone only for personal scope (communicating with friends and family, As the figure depicts, men are more entertainment etc), while 34,53% of them use the interested (41.05%) in the speed of the service, mobile phone for both personal and work scope. while most women (44,81%) seem to believe that 67,76% of women use their phone only for the most important factor in service accessibility is personal scope on the contrary to men, where the the ‘ease of use’ of the service. As for ‘usefulness’, relevant percentage is much lower (48,42%). In almost 1 out of 5 participants (18,71%) claims that addition, according to the results, the distribution in this is the main factor providing best possible the scope of mobile usage is quite even in men access to mobile services. participants (48,42% against 46,32%). 3.2.2.2 Main Factor for adopting multimedia 3.2.2 Specific Queries services 3.2.2.1 Service Accessibility The industry hasn’t yet figured out how best to bill for multimedia services, the variety and From a theoretical point of view, adoption complexity of which continue to increase. studies of mobile end-user services focus on Operators use a variety of charging models for new describing and explaining adoption processes at the services, which are often driven by operator- individual adopter level. Some descriptive studies specific technological constraints. The charging focus on the decision to adopt mobile services only approaches used for access (i.e. GPRS) and [Green N. et al., 2001], while other studies also services (e.g. MMS) include per event, per data investigate the attitudes towards using mobile volume, per minute, flat rate, as well as services as use is habituated [Palen L. et al., 2001]. subscriptions or bundles of services. This deluge of Service accessibility appears to be one of pricing plans and options serves to create excessive the most important issues affecting the adoption of confusion for consumers. current and future mobile services. The most In order to investigate the users’ point of crucial factors related to service accessibility (for view towards the most significant factor concerning both manufacturers and users) are examined in this the adoption of multimedia services we have asked subsection. The participants were asked to choose the users to choose among the next 4 factors: one of the provided factors: ‘Usefulness’, ‘Speed’, ‘Lower cost of terminals’, Simplification of ‘Ease of use’ and ‘Other’. charging models’, ‘Lower prices of services’ or any ‘Other’.
  • 7. 70 40 60 35 50 30 40 Men 25 Men (%) (%) 30 Women 20 Women 15 20 10 10 5 0 Other Lower cost of Simplification Lower prices 0 of services of charging terminals models Digital Hard Voting Ticketing Other goods goods Figure 11: Most used content via a mobile phone. Figure 10: Main factors for multimedia services’ adoption. As the figure depicts, digital goods is the preferred and most used content type among men A remarkable note coming out of this participants (35,79%), while most women (28,42%) figure is that 55,76% of the participants thinks that seem to prefer buying hard goods via their mobile. the main factor for adopting multimedia services is It is however, worth mentioning, that 26,62% of all the lower prices of the services. While only 35,61% participants have widely used some other service of the participants have used 2.5G or 3G services than those mentioned in the questionnaire. This is the pricing (either of devices or of services) is seen quite reasonable, as mobile service providers have as the most influential problem of past and present displayed too many new value-added services over mobile services [Aarnio A. et al., 2002]. It is, the last few years (games, dating, news etc.). especially, seen to prevent consumers from even trying some new services. 3.2.2.4 Mobile Service Preference The latter remark is related to the current status of the Greek mobile services market, where A, really, interested area concerning both Cosmote (the exclusive provider of i-mode in the users’ satisfaction factor and the operators’ Greece) is continually lowering the prices of i- potential for developing new services is the mode service, as the subscribers’ interest seems to preference the consumers show in certain services. be quite low. Thus, in this subsection we investigate these An underestimated factor that still worries participants’ preferences towards some of the most mobile users towards acceptance of newer and widespread value-added services: ‘Wireless advanced multimedia services is charging Internet access’, ‘Download digital goods’, simplicity. According to our results, 14,39% of all Location based services’, ‘News-Information’, surveyed consumers indicated that the simplicity of ‘Shopping’. On the contrary to the previous the charging model is very important in their subsection, in this question we have asked the purchasing decision. This finding is in accordance participants to choose one of the services they with a similar survey showing that 14% of the would like to use in the future (as most the participants between 18-24 find mobile offers and appearing services have just entered Greek market). tariffs complex [Aafjes M. Et al., 2004]. 3.2.2.3 Content Type Usage 35 30 25 In this subsection, we asked the 20 Men (%) participants to choose the content type that they 15 Women 10 have used/purchased most of the times. The 5 available fields to choose from where: ‘Digital 0 goods, ‘Hard goods, ‘Voting’, ‘Ticketing’ and n ds s s g io ce es in oo at pp i cc rv rm ‘Other.’ lg ho se ta fo ta S e In d gi rn se s- di te ew ba of In N d n ss oa ti o le ca nl i re ow Lo W D Figure 12: Preferable mobile services.
  • 8. The figure shows that men are mostly Aarnio, A.; Enkenberg, A.; Heikkila, J. and interested in using (and willing to pay for) location- Hirvola, S. “Adoption and Use of Mobile Services: based services, while most women (31,15%) prefer Empirical Evidence from a Finnish Survey”, in to download digital goods (ring tones, logos etc). It Proceedings of the 35th Hawaii International is, also, interesting that a high percentage of the Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii, 2002 participants (23,74%) is interested in wireless Androulidakis, N. and Androulidakis, I. “M- Internet access via their mobile, while only 46,4% Business: The Base for Creating Competitive of them have access on the Internet through any Advantage. The Case of Vodafone-Panafon”, other means (PC, PDA etc). WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and The potential of location-based services, Applications, vol. 1 (5), pp. 1309-1313, 2004 which utilize geographical location context via Androulidakis, N. and Androulidakis, I. global positioning services such as GPS (in order to “Perspectives of Mobile Advertising in Greek provide customized mobile application services), Market”, in Proceedings of 2005 International has been demonstrated in other studies too ([Rao Conference on Mobile Business (ICBM 2005), B. et al., 2003], [Bristow H.W. et al., 2004]). In 2005 addition, according to case studies [Henneking K.- Antoine, P.; Manero, C. and Pujol, F. “The World M., 2004], Location Based Services is the preferred Mobile Service Market”, IDATE Technical Report, service category of the interviewed customer 2005 sample. This comes up as a result from our survey Bristow, H. W.; Baber, C.; Cross, J.; Knight, J. F. too, concerning men only. and Woolley, S. I. “Defining and Evaluating It is, also, worth mentioning that although Context for Wearable Computing”, International a relative survey [Knoche H. O. et al., 2004] has Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol. 60 shown that ‘News’ appear to be the most popular (5-6), pp. 798-819, 2004 content for users from UK and France and the Commission of the European Community. second most popular among Greek users, our “eInclusion revisited: The Local Dimension of the results rank the particular content type only to the Information Society”, Commission Staff Working fourth place for men participants and third for Document Part I, SEC (2005) 206, Brussels, 2005 women users. Dillman, D. A. “Mail and Internet Surveys: The Tailored Design Method”, John Wiley & Sons, 2nd 4. Conclusions edition, November 1999 Green, N.; Harper, R.H.R; Murtagh, G. and Our research has shown some challenging Cooper, G. “Configuring the Mobile User: findings. A major part of the mobile users believe Sociological and Industry Views”, Personal and that speed and ease of use are two factors of great Ubiquitous Computing, vol. 5, pp. 146-156, 2001 importance as far as service accessibility is GRNet. “National Survey on New Technologies concerned, while lower prices appears to be the and the Information Society”, GRNet Report, main factor driving the easier adoption of new Athens, 2003 multimedia services. Furthermore, we argue that Henneking, K.-M. “Optimizing Mobile Data and new mobile services should be integrated with Content Pricing – A Tool Based Approach”, in Internet services, not only because the later are Proceedings of CeBIT 2004, Hannover, Germany, considered as low-priced, but because they appear March 2004 to be one of the most preferable value-added Knoche, H. O. and McCarthy, J. D. “Mobile Users’ services among young adult population. Needs and Expectations of Future Multimedia In conclusion, operators over time should Services”, Wireless World Research Forum be in a position to eliminate most of the barriers to (WWRF) Technical Report, 2004 the adoption of upcoming mobile services. By Ling R. “We release them little by little: Maturation simplifying tariff structures and lowering prices and gender identity as seen in the use of mobile they will make new services accessible to the broad telephony”, Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, market. By improving the multimedia customer vol. 5, pp. 123-136, 2001 experience they will ensure that services are Lonergan, D.; Swain, W., Guy, A.; Yunus, F.; compelling, and thus will drive usage and customer Jackson, J.; Mallinson, K.; Barrabee, L.; Minoru, loyalty. L.; Hatton, M.; Entner, R.; Putcha, S.; Hoffman, G. and Quigley M. “Asia-Pacific Region to Drive Global Wireless Revenue”, The Yankee Group 5. References Technical Report, Boston, MA, 2004 Marcussen, C. H. “Mobile Data and M-commerce Aafjes, M.; Bensaou, B. and Shaikh, J. in Europe”, CRTR Report, 2003 “Recharging Mobile Innovation: Strategies to NTT DoCoMo. “Current Trends in Mobile Phone Create New Market Space”, Capgemini White Usage Among Adolescents”, DoCoMo Report No. Paper, 2004 10, March 2001
  • 9. NTT DoCoMo. “Mobile Phones Increasingly Rao, B. and Minakakis, L. “Mobile Commerce Popular Among the Elderly”, DoCoMo Report No. Opportunities and Challenges: Evolution of Mobile 11, May 2001 Location-based Services”, Communications of the NTT DoCoMo. “The Use of Cell-phones/PHS- ACM, vol. 46 (12), 2003 phones in Everyday Urban Life: A survey of 1,000 Veglis A. “Zero Growth of Internet Users in People”, DoCoMo Report No. 9, November 2000 Greece”, Global Communications Newsletter, Palen, L.; Salzman, M. and Youngs, E. “Discovery December 2004 and Integration of Mobile Communications in Vrechopoulos, A.P.; Constantiou, I.D. and Sideris, Everyday Life”, Personal and Ubiquitous I. “Strategic Marketing Planning for Mobile Computing, vol. 5, pp. 109-122, 2001 Commerce Diffusion and Consumer Adoption”, in Pfleeger, S. L. and Kitchenham, B. A. “Principles Proceedings of M-Business 2002, Athens, Greece, of Survey Research Part 1: Turning Lemons into July 8-9, 2002 Lemonade” ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes, vol. 26 (6), November 2001 APPENDIX The main questions forming the questionnaire that was used for our survey are quoted here: 1) Gender: Α) Male Β) Female 2) How many mobile phones do you have? Α) More than 3 Β) 3 C) 2 D) 1 Ε) None 3) You use your mobile for: Α) Personal communication Β) Work C) Both 4) What is the brand of your mobile phone (if you have more than one, check the one you prefer)? Α) Nokia B) Sony-Ericsson C) Siemens D) Panasonic E) Other 5) Who is the mobile provider you are subscribed to? Α) Cosmote Β) Vodafone C) TIM D) Q-Telecom 6) Are you a contract subscriber or a prepaid subscriber? Α) Pre-paid (Card) Β) Post-paid (Contract) C) Both 7) Have you ever used 2.5G services (i-mode, GPRS etc) or 3G services (MobileTV etc)? Α) Yes Β) No 8) Are you a computer user? Α) Yes Β) No 9) Do you have Internet access? Α) Yes Β) No 10) What is the kind of service that you would like to use most? Α) Wireless Internet access (via mobile) Β) Downloading digital goods (ringtones, logos, games, gambling etc) C) Location based services (traffic information, maps etc) D) News-Information (athletics, financial, horoscope, weather etc) Ε) Shopping (price information and comparisons, commercials etc) 11) Which one of the followings have you paid to use or to buy or to download the most times? Α) Digital goods (mp3, ringtones, java, games etc) Β) Hard goods (books, CDs etc) C) Voting D) Buying tickets E) Other 12) In your opinion, what is the crucial factor for the mobile operators in order to raise the accessibility in mobile services? Α) Usefulness Β) Speed C) Ease of use D) Other 13) In your opinion, what is the crucial factor for the mobile operators in order to accelerate the adoption of multimedia services from the users? Α) Lower cost of terminals Β) Simplification of charging models C) Lower price of services D) Other