3. Nanooptics for Photonic Integrated Chips Near-field interactions in ADNs provide a variety of functionalities which are critical in optoelectronic systems and packaging. For example: nanostructured polarization optics can be readily incorporated with VCSEL technology for polarization control and mode stabilization; near field programmable diffractive optic modulators allow for signal encoding with low drive voltages; and FBCGHs can be used for beam control, steering, and switching. In addition, near-field optical devices based on ADNs facilitate miniaturization, as well as the development of multifunctional devices, greatly increasing the amount of functionality which can be achieved in a given size. Near-field optical materials and properties are also instrumental in the development of higher density integrated optoelectronic systems. Since the optical properties of the near-field materials are controlled by the geometry, there is flexibility in the choice of constituent materials, facilitating the implementation of a wide range of devices using compatible materials for ease of fabrication and integration. In addition, the analysis of the near field coupling is critical to the development of densely integrated systems-in terms of both analyzing and isolating undesirable crosstalk between integrated structures, as well as increasing density through the use of near-field coupling between devices.
A Mobile Internet Powered by a Planetary Computer Invited Talk Grid on the Go Workshop NCSA University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, IL May 21, 2001
The Next Wave of the Internet Will Extend IP Throughout the Physical World Materials and Devices Team, UCSD This is the Research Context for the California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology
UC San Diego and UC Irvine California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology
Huge Capital Investments Already Made (Particularly in Europe)
More Investments Required for Spectrum
Differential Roll-Out Around the World
High Data Rate (HDR) A 2.5G Bridge to the Future
Qualcomm’s High Data Rate (HDR)
Peak is 2.4 Mbps downstream, 307 kbps Upstream
Average is 600 kbps upstream, 220 kbps down
Extends CDMA Cellular/PCS Voice to IP Packet Data
Can Share Existing CDMA Deployed Infrastructure
Can be Installed in Current Cell Phones, Laptops, etc.
CDMA2000, High Rate Packet Data Air Interface Spec.
Telecommunications Industry Assoc. Spec. TIA/EIA/IS-856
Also known as 1xEV
Based on HDR
UCSD/CalIT2 Has HDR Antennas Deployed & Working
Testbed for Wide Area Broadband Wireless
Use as WAN to 802.11 LAN
HDR Provides an Early View of Broadband Wireless Internet
New Software Environments for Wireless Application Development
Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless (BREW)
Works on Qualcomm CDMA Chipsets
the Application and the Chip System Source Code
Windows-based Software Development Kit (SDK)
Native C/C++ applications will run most efficiently,
Supports Integration of Java™ Applications
Different Model of Security from JAVA
Will The Planned Global Rollout of 3G Proceed as Planned?
The Economics of Telecom
The Huge Debt Load
The Investment in 3G Buildout
Is There a Business Case to Recoup?
IEEE 802.11 Buildout
Will It Skim the Cream off 3G?
2.5G Can Deploy Now (Sprint PCS)
Will 3G Standardize in Europe, Asia, US?
Wireless Technologies Are a Strong Academic Research Discipline Two Dozen ECE and CSE Faculty LOW-POWERED CIRCUITRY ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION COMMUNICATION THEORY COMMUNICATION NETWORKS MULTIMEDIA APPLICATIONS RF Mixed A/D ASIC Materials Smart Antennas Adaptive Arrays Modulation Channel Coding Multiple Access Compression Architecture Media Access Scheduling End-to-End QoS Hand-Off Changing Environment Protocols Multi-Resolution Center for Wireless Communications Source: UCSD CWC
Creating Tiny and Inexpensive Wireless Internet Sensors Combining… Fluids Stresses and Strains Optics and Lasers UCI Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility 0.1 mm
Integrating MEMS Sensors With Computing, Storage, & Communication Source: Sujit Dey, UCSD ECE Protocol Stacks SoC Design Methodologies SW/Silicon/MEMS Implementation Memory Protocol Processors Processors DSP RF Reconf. Logic Wireless RTOS Network Physical Data Link Transport Applications sensors Protocols SW/HW/Sensor/RF Co-design Reconfiguration Internet
As Our Bodies Move On-Line Bioengineering and Bioinformatics Merge
New Sensors—Israeli Video Pill
Battery, Light, & Video Camera
Images Stored on Hip Device
Next Step—Putting You On-Line!
Wireless Internet Transmission
Key Metabolic and Physical Variables
Model -- Dozens of 25 Processors and 60 Sensors / Actuators Inside of our Cars
Post-Genomic Individualized Medicine
Body Data Flow
Use Powerful AI Data Mining Techniques
Wireless Sensors Will Allow Instrumentation of Critical Civil Infrastructure New Bay Bridge Tower with Lateral Shear Links Cal-(IT) 2 Will Develop and Install Wireless Sensor Arrays Linked to Crisis Management Control Rooms Source: UCSD Structural Engineering Dept.
The Perfect Storm: Convergence of Engineering with BioMed, Physics, & IT Requires New Clean Room Facilities 5 nanometers Human Rhinovirus IBM Quantum Corral Iron Atoms on Copper VCSELaser 2 mm Nanogen MicroArray 500x Magnification MEMS 400x Magnification NANO
Nanotechnology Will be Essential for Photonics Source: Shaya Fainman, UCSD VCSEL + Near-field polarizer : Efficient polarization control,mode stabilization, and heat management Composite nonlinear, E-O, and artificial dielectric materials control and enhance near-field coupling Near-field coupling between pixels in Form-birefringent CGH (FBCGH) FBCGH possesses dual-functionality such as focusing and beam steering Wavelength ( m) 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.5 Reflectivity 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 TE TM Information I/O through surface wave, guided wave,and optical fiber from near-field edge and surface coupling Near-field E-O modulator controls optical properties and near-field micro-cavity enhances the effect +V -V Angle (degree) 20 30 40 TM Efficiency 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Near-field E-O Modulator + micro-cavity FBCGH VCSEL Near-field E-O coupler Micro polarizer Fiber tip Grating coupler Thickness ( m) 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 TM 0th order efficiency 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 RCWA Transparency Theory Near-field coupling
Why the Grid is the Future Scientific American, January 2001
The UCSD “Living Grid Laboratory”— Fiber, Wireless, Compute, Data, Software Source: Phil Papadopoulos, SDSC ½ Mile
Commodity Internet, Internet2
CENIC’s ONI, Cal-REN2, Dig. Cal.
PACI Distributed Terascale Facility
SIO SDSC CS Chem Med Eng. / Cal-(IT) 2 Hosp
High-speed optical core
Near Term Goal: Build an International Lambda Grid
Establish PACI High Performance Network
SDSC to NCSA LambdaNet for DTF
State Dark Fiber
Metropolitan Optical Switched Networks
Campus Optical Grids
International Optical Research Networks
NSF Fund Missing Dark Fiber Links For:
Optically Linked High Resolution Data Analysis and Crisis Management Facilities
Large-Scale Immersive Displays
Fiber Links Between SIO, SDSC, SDSU
Driven by Data-Intensive Applications
Seismic and Civil Infrastructure
Water Environmental System
Integrate Access Grid for Collaboration
Attack of the Killer Micros From Vector SMPs to Intel Clusters RISC Processors IBM SP Intel Processors Linux Clusters TMC CM-5 Time Cray X-MP ASCI Red PC Clusters
Peer-to-Peer Computing and Storage Is a Transformational Technology The emergence of Peer-to-Peer computing signifies a revolution in connectivity that will be as profound to the Internet of future as Mosaic was to the Web of the past.” – Patrick Gelsinger, VP and CTO, Intel Corp.
Grid Computing (Condor) For Quantum Monte Carlo Materials Codes Torelli, Mitas, Nano Team + Livny, UW Madison Condor Output Input Clone 1 Clone 2 Clone M ...
Pool of Workstations: Condor Carries Out the Management, Distribution, Monitoring and Checkpointing
Very Coarse-Grain Parallelism: Parameter Scans, Independent Searches, Monte Carlo
Each Clone: Independent Random Number Streams - “Grand Averages” Evaluated at the Very End
UW Pool ~ 800 Workstations Www.Cs.Wisc.Edu/condor NCSA/BI Pool ~ 40 Workstations - Capable of Providing Free 9000 SGI CPU- Hours Per Month
Entropia’s Planetary Computer Grew to a Teraflop in Only Two Years Deployed in Over 80 Countries The Great Mersenne Prime (2 P -1) Search (GIMPS) Found the First Million Digit Prime www.entropia.com Eight 1000p IBM Blue Horizons
SETI@home Demonstrated that PC Internet Computing Could Grow to Megacomputers
Running on 500,000 PCs, ~1000 CPU Years per Day
Over Half a Million CPU Years so far!
22 Teraflops sustained 24x7
Sophisticated Data & Signal Processing Analysis
Distributes Datasets from Arecibo Radio Telescope
Arecibo Radio Telescope
Extending the Grid to Planetary Dimensions Using Distributed Computing and Storage AutoDock Application Software Has Been Downloaded to Over 20,000 PCs Nearly 3 Million CPU-Hours Computed In Silico Drug Design Art Olson, TSRI
Monte Carlo Cellular Microphysiology From IBM Blue Horizon to the Grid
Francine D. Berman
UC San Diego
Terrence J. Sejnowski
Salk Institute for Biological Studies
Dorian Arnold Jack Dongarra Richard Wolski
University of Tennessee
Thomas M. Bartol Lin-Wei Wu
Salk Institute for Biological Studies
Henri Casanova Mark H. Ellisman Maryann Martone
UC San Diego
Leading to Muscle Contraction
The Transmission of 6,000 Molecules of the Neurotransmitter Acetylcholine (Cyan Specks)
In a Reconstructed Mouse Sternomastoid Neuromuscular Junction
Containing Acetylcholinesterase (White Spheres).
Rendered by Tom Bartol of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies & Joel Stiles of Cornell University using Pixar PhotoRealistic RenderMan www.npaci.edu/envision/v16.4/mcell.html