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  • 3. Nanooptics for Photonic Integrated Chips   Near-field interactions in ADNs provide a variety of functionalities which are critical in optoelectronic systems and packaging. For example: nanostructured polarization optics can be readily incorporated with VCSEL technology for polarization control and mode stabilization; near field programmable diffractive optic modulators allow for signal encoding with low drive voltages; and FBCGHs can be used for beam control, steering, and switching. In addition, near-field optical devices based on ADNs facilitate miniaturization, as well as the development of multifunctional devices, greatly increasing the amount of functionality which can be achieved in a given size. Near-field optical materials and properties are also instrumental in the development of higher density integrated optoelectronic systems. Since the optical properties of the near-field materials are controlled by the geometry, there is flexibility in the choice of constituent materials, facilitating the implementation of a wide range of devices using compatible materials for ease of fabrication and integration. In addition, the analysis of the near field coupling is critical to the development of densely integrated systems-in terms of both analyzing and isolating undesirable crosstalk between integrated structures, as well as increasing density through the use of near-field coupling between devices.

5-21-01_NCSA.ppt 5-21-01_NCSA.ppt Presentation Transcript

  • A Mobile Internet Powered by a Planetary Computer Invited Talk Grid on the Go Workshop NCSA University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, IL May 21, 2001
    • Wireless Access--Anywhere, Anytime
    • Broadband to the Home and Small Businesses
    • Vast Increase in Internet End Points
      • Embedded Processors
      • Sensors and Actuators
      • Information Appliances
    • Highly Parallel Light Waves Through Fiber
    • Emergence of a Distributed Planetary Computer
      • Storage of Data Everywhere
      • Scalable Computing Power
    The Emerging Planetary Scale Grid
  • The Next Wave of the Internet Will Extend IP Throughout the Physical World Materials and Devices Team, UCSD This is the Research Context for the California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology
  • UC San Diego and UC Irvine California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology
    • 220 Faculty and Senior Researchers
    • Layered Structure
      • Materials and Devices
      • Networked Infrastructure
      • Interfaces and Software
      • Strategic Applications
      • Policy
    • New Funding Model (4 Years)
      • State $100M
      • Industry $140M
      • Private $30 M
      • Campus $30M
      • Federal $100-200M
      • Total $400-500M
    • One of Four Awarded
  • The Era of Guerilla Infrastructure
    • Guerilla vs. Commercial Infrastructure
      • Bottom Up
      • Completely Decentralized
      • Self-Assembling
      • Use at Your Own Risk
      • Paves the Way for Commercial Deployment
    • Examples
      • NSFnet  Internet
      • NCSA Mosaic  Web
      • Napster  Peer-to-Peer Storage
      • [email_address]  Peer-to-Peer Computing
      • IEEE 802.11  Broadband Wireless Internet
  • Broadband Wireless Internet is Here Today
    • Create Wireless Internet “Watering Holes”
      • Ad Hoc IEEE 802.11 Domains
        • Real Broadband--11 mbps Going to 54 mbps
        • Security and Authentication can be Added
        • But, it is Shared and Local
      • Home, Neighborhoods, Office, Schools?
        • MobileStar--Admiral Clubs, Starbucks, Major Hotels, Restaurants, …
        • UCSD—Campus Buildings, Dorms, Coffee Shops…
  • The High Performance Wireless Research and Education Network
    • Cal-(IT)2 Will Build on This Pioneering Experiment
    • Add New Science Sensor Arrays
    • Instrument Civil Infrastructure
    • Try Out New Wireless Technologies
    • Data Analysis
    • Outreach and Education
    NSF Funded PI, Hans-Werner Braun, SDSC Co-PI, Frank Vernon, SIO 45mbps Duplex Backbone
  • Roadmap to 3rd Generation Wireless (3G)
    • Huge Capital Investments Already Made (Particularly in Europe)
    • More Investments Required for Spectrum
    • Differential Roll-Out Around the World
  • High Data Rate (HDR) A 2.5G Bridge to the Future
    • Qualcomm’s High Data Rate (HDR)
      • Peak is 2.4 Mbps downstream, 307 kbps Upstream
        • Average is 600 kbps upstream, 220 kbps down
      • Extends CDMA Cellular/PCS Voice to IP Packet Data
      • Can Share Existing CDMA Deployed Infrastructure
      • Can be Installed in Current Cell Phones, Laptops, etc.
    • CDMA2000, High Rate Packet Data Air Interface Spec.
      • Telecommunications Industry Assoc. Spec. TIA/EIA/IS-856
      • Also known as 1xEV
      • Based on HDR
    • UCSD/CalIT2 Has HDR Antennas Deployed & Working
      • Testbed for Wide Area Broadband Wireless
      • Use as WAN to 802.11 LAN
  • HDR Provides an Early View of Broadband Wireless Internet
  • New Software Environments for Wireless Application Development
    • Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless (BREW)
      • Works on Qualcomm CDMA Chipsets
      • Middleware Between
        • the Application and the Chip System Source Code
      • Windows-based Software Development Kit (SDK)
      • Native C/C++ applications will run most efficiently,
      • Supports Integration of Java™ Applications
      • Different Model of Security from JAVA
    www.qualcomm.com/brew/
  • Will The Planned Global Rollout of 3G Proceed as Planned?
    • The Economics of Telecom
      • The Huge Debt Load
      • The Investment in 3G Buildout
        • Is There a Business Case to Recoup?     
    • Technological Breakouts
      • IEEE 802.11 Buildout
        • Will It Skim the Cream off 3G?        
      • 2.5G Can Deploy Now (Sprint PCS)
      • Will 3G Standardize in Europe, Asia, US?        
  • Wireless Technologies Are a Strong Academic Research Discipline Two Dozen ECE and CSE Faculty LOW-POWERED CIRCUITRY ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION COMMUNICATION THEORY COMMUNICATION NETWORKS MULTIMEDIA APPLICATIONS RF Mixed A/D ASIC Materials Smart Antennas Adaptive Arrays Modulation Channel Coding Multiple Access Compression Architecture Media Access Scheduling End-to-End QoS Hand-Off Changing Environment Protocols Multi-Resolution Center for Wireless Communications Source: UCSD CWC
  • Creating Tiny and Inexpensive Wireless Internet Sensors Combining… Fluids Stresses and Strains Optics and Lasers UCI Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility 0.1 mm
  • Integrating MEMS Sensors With Computing, Storage, & Communication Source: Sujit Dey, UCSD ECE Protocol Stacks SoC Design Methodologies SW/Silicon/MEMS Implementation Memory Protocol Processors Processors DSP RF Reconf. Logic Wireless RTOS Network Physical Data Link Transport Applications sensors Protocols SW/HW/Sensor/RF Co-design Reconfiguration Internet
  • As Our Bodies Move On-Line Bioengineering and Bioinformatics Merge
    • New Sensors—Israeli Video Pill
      • Battery, Light, & Video Camera
      • Images Stored on Hip Device
    • Next Step—Putting You On-Line!
      • Wireless Internet Transmission
      • Key Metabolic and Physical Variables
      • Model -- Dozens of 25 Processors and 60 Sensors / Actuators Inside of our Cars
    • Post-Genomic Individualized Medicine
      • Combine
        • Genetic Code
        • Body Data Flow
      • Use Powerful AI Data Mining Techniques
    www.givenimaging.com www.bodymedia.com
  • Wireless Sensors Will Allow Instrumentation of Critical Civil Infrastructure New Bay Bridge Tower with Lateral Shear Links Cal-(IT) 2 Will Develop and Install Wireless Sensor Arrays Linked to Crisis Management Control Rooms Source: UCSD Structural Engineering Dept.
  • The Perfect Storm: Convergence of Engineering with BioMed, Physics, & IT Requires New Clean Room Facilities 5 nanometers Human Rhinovirus IBM Quantum Corral Iron Atoms on Copper VCSELaser 2 mm Nanogen MicroArray 500x Magnification MEMS 400x Magnification NANO
  • Nanotechnology Will be Essential for Photonics Source: Shaya Fainman, UCSD VCSEL + Near-field polarizer : Efficient polarization control,mode stabilization, and heat management Composite nonlinear, E-O, and artificial dielectric materials control and enhance near-field coupling Near-field coupling between pixels in Form-birefringent CGH (FBCGH) FBCGH possesses dual-functionality such as focusing and beam steering Wavelength (  m) 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.5 Reflectivity 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 TE TM Information I/O through surface wave, guided wave,and optical fiber from near-field edge and surface coupling Near-field E-O modulator controls optical properties and near-field micro-cavity enhances the effect +V -V Angle (degree) 20 30 40 TM Efficiency 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Near-field E-O Modulator + micro-cavity FBCGH VCSEL Near-field E-O coupler Micro polarizer Fiber tip Grating coupler Thickness (  m) 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 TM 0th order efficiency 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 RCWA Transparency Theory Near-field coupling
  • Why the Grid is the Future Scientific American, January 2001
  • The UCSD “Living Grid Laboratory”— Fiber, Wireless, Compute, Data, Software Source: Phil Papadopoulos, SDSC ½ Mile
    • Commodity Internet, Internet2
    • CENIC’s ONI, Cal-REN2, Dig. Cal.
    • PACI Distributed Terascale Facility
    • Wireless LANs
    SIO SDSC CS Chem Med Eng. / Cal-(IT) 2 Hosp
    • High-speed optical core
    Wireless WAN
  • Near Term Goal: Build an International Lambda Grid
    • Establish PACI High Performance Network
      • SDSC to NCSA LambdaNet for DTF
    • Link to:
      • State Dark Fiber
      • Metropolitan Optical Switched Networks
      • Campus Optical Grids
      • International Optical Research Networks
    • NSF Fund Missing Dark Fiber Links For:
      • Scientific Applications
      • Network Research
  • Optically Linked High Resolution Data Analysis and Crisis Management Facilities
    • Large-Scale Immersive Displays
      • Panoram Technology
    • Fiber Links Between SIO, SDSC, SDSU
      • Cox Communication
    • Optical Switching
      • TeraBurst Networks
    • Driven by Data-Intensive Applications
      • Seismic and Civil Infrastructure
      • Water Environmental System
    • Integrate Access Grid for Collaboration
    SDSC SIO
  • Attack of the Killer Micros From Vector SMPs to Intel Clusters RISC Processors IBM SP Intel Processors Linux Clusters TMC CM-5 Time Cray X-MP ASCI Red PC Clusters
  • Peer-to-Peer Computing and Storage Is a Transformational Technology The emergence of Peer-to-Peer computing signifies a revolution in connectivity that will be as profound to the Internet of future as Mosaic was to the Web of the past.” – Patrick Gelsinger, VP and CTO, Intel Corp.
  • Grid Computing (Condor) For Quantum Monte Carlo Materials Codes Torelli, Mitas, Nano Team + Livny, UW Madison Condor Output Input Clone 1 Clone 2 Clone M ...
    • Pool of Workstations: Condor Carries Out the Management, Distribution, Monitoring and Checkpointing
    • Very Coarse-Grain Parallelism: Parameter Scans, Independent Searches, Monte Carlo
    • Each Clone: Independent Random Number Streams - “Grand Averages” Evaluated at the Very End
    UW Pool ~ 800 Workstations Www.Cs.Wisc.Edu/condor NCSA/BI Pool ~ 40 Workstations - Capable of Providing Free 9000 SGI CPU- Hours Per Month
  • Entropia’s Planetary Computer Grew to a Teraflop in Only Two Years Deployed in Over 80 Countries The Great Mersenne Prime (2 P -1) Search (GIMPS) Found the First Million Digit Prime www.entropia.com Eight 1000p IBM Blue Horizons
  • SETI@home Demonstrated that PC Internet Computing Could Grow to Megacomputers
    • Running on 500,000 PCs, ~1000 CPU Years per Day
      • Over Half a Million CPU Years so far!
      • 22 Teraflops sustained 24x7
    • Sophisticated Data & Signal Processing Analysis
    • Distributes Datasets from Arecibo Radio Telescope
    Arecibo Radio Telescope
  • Extending the Grid to Planetary Dimensions Using Distributed Computing and Storage AutoDock Application Software Has Been Downloaded to Over 20,000 PCs Nearly 3 Million CPU-Hours Computed In Silico Drug Design Art Olson, TSRI
  • Monte Carlo Cellular Microphysiology From IBM Blue Horizon to the Grid
    • PROJECT LEADERS
      • Francine D. Berman
        • UC San Diego
      • Terrence J. Sejnowski
        • Salk Institute for Biological Studies
    • PARTICIPANTS
      • Dorian Arnold Jack Dongarra Richard Wolski
        • University of Tennessee
      • Thomas M. Bartol Lin-Wei Wu
        • Salk Institute for Biological Studies
      • Henri Casanova Mark H. Ellisman Maryann Martone
        • UC San Diego
    • Neurotransmitter Activity
    • Leading to Muscle Contraction
    • MCell Simulated:
      • The Transmission of 6,000 Molecules of the Neurotransmitter Acetylcholine (Cyan Specks)
      • In a Reconstructed Mouse Sternomastoid Neuromuscular Junction
      • Containing Acetylcholinesterase (White Spheres).
    Rendered by Tom Bartol of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies & Joel Stiles of Cornell University using Pixar PhotoRealistic RenderMan www.npaci.edu/envision/v16.4/mcell.html
  • The Emerging Planetary Supercomputer
    • Napster Meets SETI@Home
      • Distributed Computing and Storage
    • Assume Ten Million PCs in Five Years
      • Average Speed Ten Gigaflop
      • Average Free Storage 100 GB
    • Planetary Computer Capacity
      • 100 Petaflop Speed
      • 1 Exabyte Storage
    • Serve as Global Compute and Storage Server for Mobile Clients