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  1. 1. ECT 455 International Issues Wireless Internet and M-Business
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Market News </li></ul><ul><li>International/Localization issues </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile and wireless systems </li></ul><ul><li>Final exam topics </li></ul>
  3. 3. Global e-Business <ul><li>Opportunity for expansion </li></ul><ul><li>An ambitious and expensive investment that does not guarantee increased revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Potential global businesses must review expected revenues vs. expected cost </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic and cultural barriers </li></ul>
  4. 4. Choosing an International Market <ul><li>Focus time and money in one or two key markets initially </li></ul><ul><li>Research competitors and visitors in foreign markets </li></ul><ul><li>When choosing an international market consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of people online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet usage growth rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Per capita income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The consumers’ expectations of your business </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Reach ( http://global-reach.biz/globstats/index.php3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projections (http://glreach.com/eng/ed/art/2004.ecommerce.php3 ) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Obtaining a Local Internet Address <ul><li>.com domain name is the most universally recognized address on the Web </li></ul><ul><li>Domain-name registration in foreign countries is often complex </li></ul><ul><li>May require owning a trademark or incorporating your business in the foreign country </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations offering domain name registration services: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NetNames </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Internationalization and Localization <ul><li>Internationalization (I18n) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restructuring the software used by your e-business so that it can process foreign languages, currencies, date formats and other variations involved in conducting business globally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compatible with 16-bit character encoding systems (Unicode) and other computing standards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Localization (L10n) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes the translation and cultural adaptation of your site’s content and presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Online translation services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise Translation Server ; Alis Technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logos ; AltaVista’s Babelfish </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Internationalization and Localization <ul><li>Online translators are not 100 percent reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the context of the message in a foreign culture </li></ul><ul><li>Translate META tags and text within graphic images </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation of site layout to accommodate translations </li></ul><ul><li>Color scheme and logo translation </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion rates </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Ikea , United Airline , Yahoo ; Amazon </li></ul>
  8. 8. Internationalization and Localization <ul><li>Consider downloading capabilities in foreign markets </li></ul><ul><li>Global content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to information and design that requires translation, but is essentially the same for all cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regional content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product and marketing information that is usually written once in English and then adapted for various markets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Material on specific regional pages that appears only on that Web site, such as regional promotions, pricing, delivery and store or office locations </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Payment Systems <ul><li>Offer alternatives to credit-card payment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In many countries, credit cards are far less common than in the United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Europe, cash-on-delivery is a common form of payment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Giros: Wire transfers between bank accounts </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Debit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e-Payment service from an American company called EuroDebit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables electronic debits from European customers’ bank accounts to be sent to merchants’ bank accounts for a small fee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>smart card, e-cash </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. M-Commerce: Introduction <ul><li>Wireless technology turns e-business into m-business , or mobile business </li></ul><ul><li>Current applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct online transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make purchases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade stocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Send e-mail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Future applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A wireless office , where computers, phones and other office equipment are all networked without cables </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Wireless Technology and Devices <ul><li>Wireless development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First-generation wireless technology was the cellular phone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second generation wireless technology, which includes digital cellular phones, is currently in use worldwide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third generation, or 3G technology will enable wireless devices to send and receive data as much as seven times faster than a standard 56K modem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal digital assistants (PDAs), Palm OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital cellular phones (WAP Phones) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-way pagers (RIM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MS Windows CE/Pocket PC </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Obstacles for m-Business Adoption <ul><li>Service is not universally available and still relatively expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Limited bandwidth restricts the amount of data that can be sent over the wireless network </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless devices have significantly smaller memory capacity and less powerful processors than desktop computers </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple standards </li></ul>
  13. 13. Content <ul><li>Compare to traditional web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller screens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monochrome vs. Color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Character vs. Bit modes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Font control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited local memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited data entry capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mini browser features </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phones vs. PDAs vs. new form factors </li></ul>
  14. 14. m-Business <ul><li>m-Business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e-Business using wireless devices with Internet access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B2C marketplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased conveniences for consumers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent, small transactions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receiving news, sports scores, e-mail, coupons and advertisements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B2B marketplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salespeople can access product databases and place orders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Address customer needs immediately </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ordering and billing will be conducted remotely </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Wireless Internet Access <ul><li>Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each transmission is assigned a specific channel, giving the transmission the benefit of the entire bandwidth within that channel and reducing the possibility that a connection will be broken </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to assign each transmission on the network a unique code to ensure security </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Global System for Mobile Communications ( GSM ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) which takes multiple calls and assigns each call to a different time slot on the same radio frequency, eg. Short message service (SMS) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Wireless Internet Access <ul><li>3G technologies : high speed Internet access, email, streaming audio and video </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EDGE (AT&T, Nokia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cdma2000 (Sprint PCS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>W-CDMA (NTT DoCoMo) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International Telecommunications Union (ITU) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes guidelines for 3G </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Wireless Web Technology <ul><li>Three technologies are used to provide Web access to wireless devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palm OS --Web clipping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft’s Pocket Internet Explorer </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. PDA and Web Clipping <ul><li>Web clipping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows users to take relevant pieces of a Web site and deliver it to a wireless device, eliminating excess content and graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proxy server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lies between client (such as a Web browser) and Web server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Query is received by a proxy server controlled by the wireless ISP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proxy server goes to the Web site and “clips” the necessary data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The proxy server transmits the data back to your wireless device </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If the proxy server does not have the information, it passes the request to the regular server </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Query Application Builder ( QAB ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web designers build (PQAs) to be installed on users’ Palm handheld computers </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. WAP <ul><li>Wireless Application Protocol ( WAP ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by Nokia, Ericsson, Motorola, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of communication protocols designed to enable different kinds of wireless devices to communicate and access the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to standardize development across different wireless technologies worldwide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intended primarily for Internet-enabled digital phones, pagers and other handheld devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses Web sites specifically designed for wireless handheld devices that have small screens and low-bandwidth constraints </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. WML <ul><li>Wireless Markup Language (WML) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The scripting language used to create Web content to be delivered to wireless handheld devices, based on XML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removes “unnecessary” content from Web pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WML tags are used to “mark up” a Web page to specify how the page should be formatted on a wireless device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WML works with the WAP to deliver the content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to HTML, but it does not require input devices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microbrowsers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed with limited bandwidth and limited memory requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access the Web via the wireless Internet </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. WAP and WML <ul><li>How wireless Internet works: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A WAP gateway, which acts as a proxy server, receives the request, translates it and sends it to the appropriate Internet server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Server responds by sending the requested WML document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The WAP gateway parses this document's WML (i.e., it analyzes the WML document, checking it for correctness) and sends the proper text to the digital phone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deck </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A WML document </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Card </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of one user interaction, providing the WML browser with a small, self-contained document for browsing </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Software Appliances for Wireless Devices <ul><li>No widely accepted standard for wireless development </li></ul><ul><li>Developers are often required to develop multiple applications </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Pocket Internet Explorer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reformats complete Web pages as they are downloaded from the Internet for display on the Pocket PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows Pocket PC users to access most of the content currently available on the Web and eliminates the need to tailor Web content for delivery to handheld devices </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Wireless Local Area Networks <ul><li>Easier to install and maintain without disrupting an office or without having to install a new a new network connection in each location </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio Frequency WLANs (RF WLANs): Used to network devices at a distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laser technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrared technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi 802.11x </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Wireless Communications <ul><li>Wireless communications can be unreliable and slow, wireless-device bandwidth is about one fifth of the capabilities of a standard dial-up connection </li></ul><ul><li>General packet radio services (GPRS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables devices to transmit data at speeds of up to 114 kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Universal mobile telecommunications standard (UMTS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will offer transfer speeds of up to 2 Mbps for wireless devices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smart phones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile phones that send and receive both voice and data messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to securely send and receive secure mobile transactions </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Wireless Hype Cycle Source: Gartner
  26. 26. Location Tracking <ul><li>Location tracking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used for navigation, such as GPS (Global Positioning System) devices installed in cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used by shipping companies to track delivery trucks, giving customers more accurate tracking information and expected delivery time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can also be used for targeted marketing </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Location-based Services <ul><li>911 locator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government mandate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triangulate position from 3 towers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advertising </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impulse buying, walking past a store </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discounts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mapping and Directions </li></ul><ul><li>Weather forecasts </li></ul>
  28. 28. Global Positioning System (GPS) <ul><li>Developed by the United States Department of Defense </li></ul><ul><li>Uses satellites to track a user’s position (vertical and horizontal), velocity and the time in their location </li></ul><ul><li>Six circular orbits (four satellites per orbit), five ground stations and three antennas </li></ul><ul><li>Triangulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three (of four) satellites are used to determine the latitude, longitude and altitude of the receiver, the fourth satellite is used to check for errors in the triangulation </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. The Carriers Rule! <ul><li>Rollout of wireless Internet services depends on the carriers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They own the bandwidth licenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competing standards, esp. in the US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment in infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global and nationwide coverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auctions for new bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contrast the situations in Europe, Japan and the US. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Future of Wireless Internet <ul><li>Decreasing cost and size of wireless phones and mobile devices </li></ul><ul><li>Improving technology </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing number of devices made wireless </li></ul><ul><li>Increased venture capitalist interest in wireless technology </li></ul>
  31. 31. Ultimate Wireless Device <ul><li>Combination of all features of a mobile phone, PDA and two-way pager </li></ul><ul><li>Camera for video telephony and photography </li></ul><ul><li>Make calls from anywhere in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Send and receive e-mail in real-time, without having to dial into a service provider </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain your address book, schedules, to-do lists, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Built-in GPS System </li></ul>
  32. 32. Transforming the PC-based Web <ul><li>Sites must be rearchitected </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping (UAL) </li></ul><ul><li>New business models needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location-based services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Push vs. Pull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CRM – customer knowledge/preferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Device ubiquity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction b/w voice and data </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. http:// www.united.com/page/middlepage/0,1454,66,00.html X X Contact United X Mileage Plus Award Travel Availability X Mileage Plus Upgrade Status X X Mileage Plus Summary X X X Flight Paging X X Flight Status X X Flight Availability X X My Itinerary X X Book a Flight Wireless PDA Web Phone Alpha-numeric Pager
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