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  • 1. ECT 455 International Issues Wireless Internet and M-Business
  • 2. Agenda
    • Market News
    • International/Localization issues
    • Mobile and wireless systems
    • Final exam topics
  • 3. Global e-Business
    • Opportunity for expansion
    • An ambitious and expensive investment that does not guarantee increased revenue
    • Potential global businesses must review expected revenues vs. expected cost
    • Linguistic and cultural barriers
  • 4. Choosing an International Market
    • Focus time and money in one or two key markets initially
    • Research competitors and visitors in foreign markets
    • When choosing an international market consider:
      • The number of people online
      • Internet usage growth rates
      • Per capita income
      • The consumers’ expectations of your business
    • Resources
      • Global Reach ( http://global-reach.biz/globstats/index.php3
      • Projections (http://glreach.com/eng/ed/art/2004.ecommerce.php3 )
  • 5. Obtaining a Local Internet Address
    • .com domain name is the most universally recognized address on the Web
    • Domain-name registration in foreign countries is often complex
    • May require owning a trademark or incorporating your business in the foreign country
    • Organizations offering domain name registration services:
      • NetNames
  • 6. Internationalization and Localization
    • Internationalization (I18n)
      • Restructuring the software used by your e-business so that it can process foreign languages, currencies, date formats and other variations involved in conducting business globally
      • Compatible with 16-bit character encoding systems (Unicode) and other computing standards
    • Localization (L10n)
      • Includes the translation and cultural adaptation of your site’s content and presentation
    • Online translation services
      • Enterprise Translation Server ; Alis Technologies
      • Logos ; AltaVista’s Babelfish
  • 7. Internationalization and Localization
    • Online translators are not 100 percent reliable
    • Consider the context of the message in a foreign culture
    • Translate META tags and text within graphic images
    • Adaptation of site layout to accommodate translations
    • Color scheme and logo translation
    • Conversion rates
    • Examples: Ikea , United Airline , Yahoo ; Amazon
  • 8. Internationalization and Localization
    • Consider downloading capabilities in foreign markets
    • Global content
      • Refers to information and design that requires translation, but is essentially the same for all cultures
    • Regional content
      • Product and marketing information that is usually written once in English and then adapted for various markets
    • Local content
      • Material on specific regional pages that appears only on that Web site, such as regional promotions, pricing, delivery and store or office locations
  • 9. Payment Systems
    • Offer alternatives to credit-card payment
      • In many countries, credit cards are far less common than in the United States
      • In Europe, cash-on-delivery is a common form of payment
    • Giros: Wire transfers between bank accounts
    • Direct Debit
      • e-Payment service from an American company called EuroDebit
      • Enables electronic debits from European customers’ bank accounts to be sent to merchants’ bank accounts for a small fee
    • Other Methods:
      • smart card, e-cash
  • 10. M-Commerce: Introduction
    • Wireless technology turns e-business into m-business , or mobile business
    • Current applications
      • Conduct online transactions
      • Make purchases
      • Trade stocks
      • Send e-mail
    • Future applications
      • A wireless office , where computers, phones and other office equipment are all networked without cables
  • 11. Wireless Technology and Devices
    • Wireless development
      • First-generation wireless technology was the cellular phone
      • Second generation wireless technology, which includes digital cellular phones, is currently in use worldwide
      • Third generation, or 3G technology will enable wireless devices to send and receive data as much as seven times faster than a standard 56K modem
    • Wireless devices
      • Personal digital assistants (PDAs), Palm OS
      • Digital cellular phones (WAP Phones)
      • Two-way pagers (RIM)
      • MS Windows CE/Pocket PC
  • 12. Obstacles for m-Business Adoption
    • Service is not universally available and still relatively expensive
    • Limited bandwidth restricts the amount of data that can be sent over the wireless network
    • Wireless devices have significantly smaller memory capacity and less powerful processors than desktop computers
    • Multiple standards
  • 13. Content
    • Compare to traditional web
      • Smaller screens
      • Low bandwidth
      • Monochrome vs. Color
      • Character vs. Bit modes
      • Font control
      • Limited local memory
      • Limited data entry capabilities
      • Mini browser features
    • Phones vs. PDAs vs. new form factors
  • 14. m-Business
    • m-Business
      • e-Business using wireless devices with Internet access
      • B2C marketplace
        • Increased conveniences for consumers
        • Frequent, small transactions
        • Receiving news, sports scores, e-mail, coupons and advertisements
      • B2B marketplace
        • Salespeople can access product databases and place orders
        • Address customer needs immediately
        • Ordering and billing will be conducted remotely
  • 15. Wireless Internet Access
    • Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
      • Each transmission is assigned a specific channel, giving the transmission the benefit of the entire bandwidth within that channel and reducing the possibility that a connection will be broken
      • Able to assign each transmission on the network a unique code to ensure security
    • Global System for Mobile Communications ( GSM )
      • Uses Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) which takes multiple calls and assigns each call to a different time slot on the same radio frequency, eg. Short message service (SMS)
  • 16. Wireless Internet Access
    • 3G technologies : high speed Internet access, email, streaming audio and video
      • EDGE (AT&T, Nokia)
      • Cdma2000 (Sprint PCS)
      • W-CDMA (NTT DoCoMo)
    • International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
      • Establishes guidelines for 3G
  • 17. Wireless Web Technology
    • Three technologies are used to provide Web access to wireless devices
      • Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
      • Palm OS --Web clipping
      • Microsoft’s Pocket Internet Explorer
  • 18. PDA and Web Clipping
    • Web clipping
      • Allows users to take relevant pieces of a Web site and deliver it to a wireless device, eliminating excess content and graphics
    • Proxy server
      • Lies between client (such as a Web browser) and Web server
      • Query is received by a proxy server controlled by the wireless ISP
      • Proxy server goes to the Web site and “clips” the necessary data
        • The proxy server transmits the data back to your wireless device
        • If the proxy server does not have the information, it passes the request to the regular server
    • Query Application Builder ( QAB )
      • Web designers build (PQAs) to be installed on users’ Palm handheld computers
  • 19. WAP
    • Wireless Application Protocol ( WAP )
      • Developed by Nokia, Ericsson, Motorola, etc.
      • A set of communication protocols designed to enable different kinds of wireless devices to communicate and access the Internet
      • Designed to standardize development across different wireless technologies worldwide
      • Intended primarily for Internet-enabled digital phones, pagers and other handheld devices
      • Uses Web sites specifically designed for wireless handheld devices that have small screens and low-bandwidth constraints
  • 20. WML
    • Wireless Markup Language (WML)
      • The scripting language used to create Web content to be delivered to wireless handheld devices, based on XML
      • Removes “unnecessary” content from Web pages
      • WML tags are used to “mark up” a Web page to specify how the page should be formatted on a wireless device
      • WML works with the WAP to deliver the content
      • Similar to HTML, but it does not require input devices
    • Microbrowsers
      • Designed with limited bandwidth and limited memory requirements
      • Access the Web via the wireless Internet
  • 21. WAP and WML
    • How wireless Internet works:
      • A WAP gateway, which acts as a proxy server, receives the request, translates it and sends it to the appropriate Internet server
      • Server responds by sending the requested WML document
      • The WAP gateway parses this document's WML (i.e., it analyzes the WML document, checking it for correctness) and sends the proper text to the digital phone
    • Deck
      • A WML document
    • Card
      • Consists of one user interaction, providing the WML browser with a small, self-contained document for browsing
  • 22. Software Appliances for Wireless Devices
    • No widely accepted standard for wireless development
    • Developers are often required to develop multiple applications
    • Microsoft Pocket Internet Explorer
      • Reformats complete Web pages as they are downloaded from the Internet for display on the Pocket PC
      • Allows Pocket PC users to access most of the content currently available on the Web and eliminates the need to tailor Web content for delivery to handheld devices
  • 23. Wireless Local Area Networks
    • Easier to install and maintain without disrupting an office or without having to install a new a new network connection in each location
    • Technologies
      • Radio Frequency WLANs (RF WLANs): Used to network devices at a distance
      • Laser technology
      • Infrared technology
      • Bluetooth
      • Wi-Fi 802.11x
  • 24. Wireless Communications
    • Wireless communications can be unreliable and slow, wireless-device bandwidth is about one fifth of the capabilities of a standard dial-up connection
    • General packet radio services (GPRS)
      • Enables devices to transmit data at speeds of up to 114 kbps
    • Universal mobile telecommunications standard (UMTS)
      • Will offer transfer speeds of up to 2 Mbps for wireless devices
    • Smart phones
      • Mobile phones that send and receive both voice and data messages
      • Used to securely send and receive secure mobile transactions
  • 25. Wireless Hype Cycle Source: Gartner
  • 26. Location Tracking
    • Location tracking
      • Can be used for navigation, such as GPS (Global Positioning System) devices installed in cars
      • Can be used by shipping companies to track delivery trucks, giving customers more accurate tracking information and expected delivery time
      • Can also be used for targeted marketing
  • 27. Location-based Services
    • 911 locator
      • Government mandate
      • Triangulate position from 3 towers
    • Advertising
      • Impulse buying, walking past a store
      • Discounts
    • Mapping and Directions
    • Weather forecasts
  • 28. Global Positioning System (GPS)
    • Developed by the United States Department of Defense
    • Uses satellites to track a user’s position (vertical and horizontal), velocity and the time in their location
    • Six circular orbits (four satellites per orbit), five ground stations and three antennas
    • Triangulation
      • Three (of four) satellites are used to determine the latitude, longitude and altitude of the receiver, the fourth satellite is used to check for errors in the triangulation
  • 29. The Carriers Rule!
    • Rollout of wireless Internet services depends on the carriers
      • They own the bandwidth licenses
      • Competing standards, esp. in the US
      • Investment in infrastructure
      • Global and nationwide coverage
      • Auctions for new bandwidth
      • Competition
      • Cooperation
    • Contrast the situations in Europe, Japan and the US.
  • 30. Future of Wireless Internet
    • Decreasing cost and size of wireless phones and mobile devices
    • Improving technology
    • Increasing number of devices made wireless
    • Increased venture capitalist interest in wireless technology
  • 31. Ultimate Wireless Device
    • Combination of all features of a mobile phone, PDA and two-way pager
    • Camera for video telephony and photography
    • Make calls from anywhere in the world
    • Send and receive e-mail in real-time, without having to dial into a service provider
    • Maintain your address book, schedules, to-do lists, etc.
    • Built-in GPS System
  • 32. Transforming the PC-based Web
    • Sites must be rearchitected
    • Mapping (UAL)
    • New business models needed
      • Location-based services
      • Push vs. Pull
      • CRM – customer knowledge/preferences
      • Device ubiquity
      • Interaction b/w voice and data
  • 33. http:// www.united.com/page/middlepage/0,1454,66,00.html X X Contact United X Mileage Plus Award Travel Availability X Mileage Plus Upgrade Status X X Mileage Plus Summary X X X Flight Paging X X Flight Status X X Flight Availability X X My Itinerary X X Book a Flight Wireless PDA Web Phone Alpha-numeric Pager