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3G Mobility - 3G Mobility: The “Evolutionary Route to ...

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  • 9
  • In the late 80’s and the beginning of 90’s, GSM, TDMA and CDMA type of digital systems started the transition from analog. Although the air interface is based on digital radio technology, the radio access itself is very much circuit-switched only. While circuit-switch is efficient to provide voice, it is not at all optimized for data. The GSM community started GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) for data. The concept started in 1997 and we will begin to see products next year. It takes about 4 years to introduce this major change of technology as the standard process takes about 2 to 3 years. GRPS runs at 17.6kbps per time slot and the maximum data rate is 8 times of that at about 141kbps as there are 8 time slots in GSM which is a time-division multiple access system. The next generation of GPRS is EGPRS where E standards for Enhanced Data for GSSM Evolution where the maximum data rate is about half a Mbps. Very recently, IS-136 is following a very similar path. As a matter of fact, it has been decided that the IS-136 migration path will end up with the same path as GSM, a GPRS based system. This is sort of a hybrid system: circuit voice and packet data. And the next step for both of them is to introduce a packet voice capability on top of the GPRS/EGPRS type of data rate to integrate voice and data together using the same packet technology. Here I have also shown the migration path for the CDMA based systems including UMTS. Although the system itself is already managing voice pretty well, there is an overall trend to introduce a single packet technology there as well so that the next generation networks will have packet radio access network and IP core network. The overall architecture will look something like this.
  • 12/99 479M 12/01 804M 12/03 1.16B 12/05 12/00 633M 12/02 981M 12/04 1.30B EMC estimates as of 6/00
  • 2
  • In the late 80’s and the beginning of 90’s, GSM, TDMA and CDMA type of digital systems started the transition from analog. Although the air interface is based on digital radio technology, the radio access itself is very much circuit-switched only. While circuit-switch is efficient to provide voice, it is not at all optimized for data. The GSM community started GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) for data. The concept started in 1997 and we will begin to see products next year. It takes about 4 years to introduce this major change of technology as the standard process takes about 2 to 3 years. GRPS runs at 17.6kbps per time slot and the maximum data rate is 8 times of that at about 141kbps as there are 8 time slots in GSM which is a time-division multiple access system. The next generation of GPRS is EGPRS where E standards for Enhanced Data for GSSM Evolution where the maximum data rate is about half a Mbps. Very recently, IS-136 is following a very similar path. As a matter of fact, it has been decided that the IS-136 migration path will end up with the same path as GSM, a GPRS based system. This is sort of a hybrid system: circuit voice and packet data. And the next step for both of them is to introduce a packet voice capability on top of the GPRS/EGPRS type of data rate to integrate voice and data together using the same packet technology. Here I have also shown the migration path for the CDMA based systems including UMTS. Although the system itself is already managing voice pretty well, there is an overall trend to introduce a single packet technology there as well so that the next generation networks will have packet radio access network and IP core network. The overall architecture will look something like this.
  • Several hundred billion $ of “2G” infrastructure investment Mass “2G” market with killer wireless application still voice Limited deployment of 3G services and continued uncertain demand for high-speed wireless data and multimedia services Low-cost and seamless migration to 3G critical to growing 3G market GSM continues to prevail as dominant digital air interface GSM MAP to represent over half of the market cdma2000 likely the early dominant 3G dominant air interface TDMA still a significant presence in the Americas
  • 10 ONE OF THE HOTTEST TOPICS CTIA WAS THE INCLUSION OF DATA IN SERVICE PROVIDERS’ OFFERINGS AND THE WIDE VARIETY OF MOBILE HANDSETS OR APPLIANCES READY TO PROVIDE CONVENIENT DATA SERVICES TO END USERS. THIS CHART ILLUSTRATES JUST A FEW OF THE RECENT OFFERINGS AND THE PUSH TOWARD INTEGRATED SERVICES FROM KEY PLAYERS IN THE HANDSET INDUSTRY. ORACLE ANNOUNCES PORTAL-TO-GO NOKIA AND PALM PARTNER ON HANDSET SW
  • THE NEW SOLUTION The ETSI EDGE standard – defined in GSM Release ‘99 – specifies the Enhanced General Packet Radio Service (or, EGPRS) EGPRS builds on the existing GPRS air interface and network data backbone Using the existing 200 kHz channels, EGPRS employs a novel radio link protocol that adapts among a set of modulation and coding schemes provides each user with “best-effort” data services UWC-136/EDGE leverages the robust data services offered by EGPRS offers versatility to service providers via “EDGE Classic” and “COMPACT” EDGE Classic enables full backwards compatibility with GSM EDGE Compact enables limited spectrum deployments... but is also suitable for regular spectrum deployments where backwards compatibility with pre-Release ‘99 mobiles is not required The UWC-136/EDGE channel structure fulfills IMT-2000 Outdoor data rate requirements EDGE provides The New Solution for 3G personal communications services
  • THE NEW EVOLUTION EDGE begins The New Evolution towards a total packet network EGPRS Phase 1, defined in GSM Release ‘99, enables “best-effort” packet data capabilities EGPRS Phase 2 enables Real-Time (RT) packet services Goal: support an all-IP network Goal: provide end-to-end IP multimedia services – including voice Goal: exploit full statistical multiplexing of packet data and packet voice GSM Release 2000 Augment EGPRS radio bearers and protocol stack to support RT packet services Use “Dedicated Channels” to support packet voice Limited statistical multiplexing: e.g., multiplex a user’s data call on a channel already dedicated to the same user’s voice call GSM Release 2001 Introduce features that will provide improved spectral efficiency (e.g., space-time coding and full statistical multiplexing)
  • Lucent believes that this innovation 3G solution provides the lowest cost offering, the richest set of features, and more flexible configuration available.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Access to the Global Internet: Which Technology Will Win?
      • Evolution
        • 3G builds on existing networks
        • Huge volumes
        • Global spectrum
        • Separate network
        • Optimized for voice
        • Old technology
      • Revolution
        • IP networks
        • Optimized air interfaces
        • Design for converged traffic
        • New technology for low cost
        • No global spectrum or approval
        • No market momentum
        • Timing?
      For most of the world in 5 years (aside from North America and part of Europe): Phone = Cell Phone Internet = Wireless Internet
    • 2. Industry Directions for Networking
      • Cellular Telecom Approach
        • Efforts to define wireless data networking standard (General Packet Radio Service - GPRS) begin before full impact of Internet explosion is felt
      • Internet-Based Approach
        • Use Internet standards for networking and mobility with extensions to interoperate with cellular air interfaces (e.g., GPRS, CDMA2000)
      GPRS standards begin 1990 1995 2000 153M Internet Users 1998 3M Internet Users 1994 1992 FPLMTS standards begin 1st GPRS customers Microsoft & AT&T still competing with Internet
    • 3. 3G Mobility: The “Evolutionary” Route to Wireless Data Paul Mankiewich and Rich Howard Bell Labs, Lucent Technology
    • 4. 3G Cellular Systems: The Enabler of the Global Internet Wireless Networks become the point of access that funnels end user experience into the Internet Wireless Network Internet First Contact With the Internet for Most People in the World Will be Wireless
    • 5. Integrated Wireless Services--The Vision Wi-Fi (WaveLAN) Radio Hub Cable, xDSL, V90 10/100-BaseT Wireless LAN Bluetooth Wireless PAN Multimedia & Messaging Server
      • integrated
      • voice and data
      • video postcards
      • in-call image
      • up/download
      • codec converter
      • bandwidth manager
      • store & forward
      • playback
      Content GPRS/ EDGE/ TDMA Base Station UMTS/ CDMA2000 Base Station Wireless Backbone and Gateways Location Services IP Network
    • 6. Migration of Digital Cellular Systems UMTS GSM Circuit-Switched Voice GPRS GPRS: General Packet Radio Service (17.6 kbps x 8) EDGE: Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution (59.2 kbps x 8) UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecomm Systems EDGE IS-136 Circuit-Switched Voice IS-136+ EDGE Packet Voice & Data over EDGE Packet Voice & Data over UMTS (WCDMA) Circuit-Switched Circuit-Switched Voice Packet-Switched Data Packet-Switched CDMA2000 Packet Data
    • 7. Mobility Subscriber Projections: Analyst View 1.3B by 2004 5/99 Est 5/99 Est EMC
    • 8. The Voice/Multimedia Revenue Gap ($ Millions) Source: International Data Corp, 1998/Level 3 Wireless is much worse Today’s IP Market Today’s Voice Market 9.4% = Today’s Voice Market Switched Telephony 462,763 Fax 64,775 Total 527,538 Today’s IP Market Data Services 37,092 Internet Access 15,471 IP Telephony 1,890 IP VPN 419 Total 54,872
    • 9. Consumer Cocktail: DoCoMo I-mode
      • Service offered: - Security trading (2 traders) - Banking (31 banks) - Travel - Concert tickets - News - Network game - Total of 1300 I-mode web sites
      • Subscriber uptake: - Service Launch February 22, 1999 - 20,000 in March - 100,000 in April - 90.000 new subscribers/week in August - August 99: 1.2 million subscribers (24 million DoCoMo users) - E-mail and mobile banking most popular
    • 10. I Mode in Japan: 6M Subscribers in Under 1 Year (and the Rate is Increasing) ~140,000 new subscribers/week DoCoMo Website 6/1/2000
    • 11. Wonder Swan
      • Hand-held Game Device
      • Sold 1.4 M units in Japan in one year
      • Email send and receive (SMTP)
      • Internet Access (mini-browser)
      • Remote download of mini-games
    • 12. Wireless Data in the Japan Market Applications and Network Capability Linked to Market Segment Cost of Service is “Clearly” Low (10 Yen = 8 Cents) High School Girls 10 YEN P-Mail Business Professional Value Mail Capability Speed 64K Market Segment H.S. Girl Application 64K Dating Connection
    • 13. Mobility: Data vs Voice
      • Almost all traffic (and revenue) is voice
        • BUT, mobile data is growing much faster than voice
        • US is behind Europe and Japan
          • Japan is approaching 50% data traffic
      • Today systems are circuit switched and spectrally inefficient
        • 2G systems => ~$600/hour for video or $60/hour for MP3
        • 3G systems have
          • IP backbones
          • Lower cost per bit
          • Easy service creation
      • What will be the services?
      • Who will pay the bills?
    • 14. Migration of Digital Cellular Systems UMTS GSM Circuit-Switched Voice GPRS GPRS: General Packet Radio Service (17.6 kbps x 8) EDGE: Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution (59.2 kbps x 8) UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecomm Systems EDGE IS-136 Circuit-Switched Voice IS-136+ EDGE Packet Voice & Data over EDGE Packet Voice & Data over UMTS (WCDMA) Circuit-Switched Circuit-Switched Voice Packet-Switched Data Packet-Switched CDMA2000 Packet Data
    • 15. Mobility Subscriber Projections: by Technology Lucent WNG View Subscribers in Thousands GSM UMTS
    • 16. 3G Data Options
    • 17. Transition to Next Generation Networks The next generation architecture uses Internet based client-server platforms to enable universal services and reduce network cost structure. … Today’s Wireless Networks
      • 99% Mobile Voice
      • Circuit Derived
      Base Stations Next Generation Networks Packet Mode Servers High Speed Data, Multimedia, Voice over IP, etc .
      • Universal Services - Voice or Data & Wireless or Wireline
      • Client/Server Model - Internet Derived (IP)
      Radio Clients MSC … Internet / Advanced Services PSTN Circuit Mode Servers Voice, LS Circuit Data, etc. PSTN Network Servers Mobile Switches IP / ATM Core Network Wireless Control Servers Feature Control, Network Management, Billing, etc
    • 18. Services Rollout Portal Link Web access Intranet 3G 1Q1999 4Q1999 4Q2000 4Q2001 WAP launch Mobile Office Schedule Management Work flow Management Electronic Conference File Sharing Video Multi-player Games Music m-banking Interactive TV TV Conference Information Services Radio Visual, High Speed SMS Picture clips Route planning Chat Room email GPRS Video clips Web cam m-stock trading m-cash
    • 19.
      • Docomo
      • Pocketboard
      10 Samsung MP3 Phone The Devices are Awesome Ericsson R320 WAP Phone & MC218 Mobile Companion QUALCOMM pdQ™ smartphone Motorola StarTAC™ clipOn Organizer NeoPoint™ 1600 smartphone Nokia 7110 phone & 9110 Communicator Sharp Zaurus Bandai WonderSwan
    • 20. Can 3G Deliver?: UMTS Capacity Estimates
      • Overall about 6x increase over IS-95 for voice
        • 3x comes from bandwidth--5 MHz vs 1.25 MHz
        • 2x from modulation, coherent detection, and signal processing tricks.
      • For user rates up to ~128 kbps (BER=~1e-4 )
        • 1.8 Mb/sec total for all 3 sectors in 5 MHz of spectrum each way.
        • About 5.4 Mb/sec/basestation total for a 15 MHz up/15 MHz down license
          • => ~42 users/basestation at 128 kbps
      • Range ~2-3 Km => Can cover UK with about 10-20K basestations
        • Capacity for about 1% of the population at 128 kbps
        • Smart antennas can increase this by at least 4X
      • If 10% of the population wanted 128 kbps continuous (e.g. MP3)
        • ~20-40K basestations with 4 antennas in a terminal
        • Reasonable flat-rate pricing possible
      Courtesy Gee Rittenhouse 3/7/00
    • 21. Will UMTS Happen?: Results of UK UMTS Spectrum Auction License Winner Price A TIW UMTS (UK) Limited £ 4,384,700,000 B Vodaphone Limited £ 5,964,000,000 C BT (3G) Limited £ 4,030,100,000 D One2One Personal Communications Limited £ 4,003,600,000 E Orange 3G Limited £ 4,095,000,000 ~$34B says it will! Rest of Europe by Fall
    • 22. Backups
    • 23. Multiple Access Schemes CDMA Different “Languages” FDMA Different Carriers TDMA Different Time Slots FHSS Orthogonal Time Slots & Carriers
    • 24. Enhanced Data for Global Evolution (EDGE)
      • Defines an evolution of GSM and TDMA technologies to support high bit rate circuit and packet data services
      • Builds on GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) air interface and network with adaptive modulation and coding
      • Uses 200 kHz bandwidth channels
      • Two versions of EDGE:
        • EDGE Classic enables full backwards compatibility with current GSM (4/12 reuse)
        • EDGE Compact enables limited spectrum (< 1 MHz) deployments
      • Channel structure supports:
        • Peak throughputs up to 474 kbps
        • Average throughputs up to 384 kbps (up to 200 kbps for EDGE Compact with limited spectrum deployments)
    • 25. Wireless data network
      • Macrocellular data rates ~384 kbps (UMTS-FDD)
      • Minicellular data rates ~1 Mbps (UMTS-TDD)
      • Picocellular data rates ~1-20 Mbps (Bluetooth, hyperLAN)
      Macrocell-mobile r~3-5 km BLAST technology used in every one Increasing data rate, decreasing cell size Minicell-mobile r~1 km Picocell-pedestrian r~100 m
    • 26. Internet Volume Approaches Voice New networks will need to be deployed as demands for data and interactive services approaches capacity of existing voice/data networks
      • Projected
      Actual  Worldwide voice/modem traffic Source: Internet Society Show Me The Money! Projected Crossover 1999 Data=10xVoice 2000
    • 27. Real Time Services Via GPRS & IP: Phase 2 - VOIP Starting at Terminal PSTN ANSI-41 Backbone Network To Data and VOIP Gateways
      • Packet Voice (VOIP) starts with an IP Client in the terminal, the call model resides in feature servers on the IP network.
      • Traditional Circuit voice is supported as before.
      IP Client in terminal for Voice and packet data Traditional Circuit voice supported by MSC 7RE Resource Servers Call Control Servers Use Today’s Wireless Voice Infrastructure and Interconnect with the Packet Core Network at a PSTN trunk level. IP/ATM Core Network Packet Gateway 5ESS Switch SGSN GGSN Circuit Data IWF 7RE Feature Servers Customer Care NM Servers Packet Gateway Mob Manager 7RE Signaling Gateways APs APs
    • 28. Enhanced Data for Global Evolution … (continued)
      • Handoff enabled through reselection procedures
      • Current work in ETSI to define VoIP and Real-Time services over EDGE in GSM Release 2000
      • Phase 1
        • Standards: Release ’99
        • Large deployments start in 2002
          • Some initial deployments start in 2001
        • Supports best effort packet data at speeds up to about 384 kbps
      • Phase 2
        • Standards: Release 2000
        • Large deployments start in 2003
          • Some initial deployments start in 2002
        • Will add Voice over IP capability
    • 29. Drivers Of Convergence
      • Rapid Technology Advancement and Change
        • Chip capacity doubles every 18 mos (Moore’s Law)
        • Fiber Capacity-Distance doubles every 9 mos
      • Tremendous Growth Of Data Networking
        • Led by the Internet
      • Potential To Offer A Wealth Of New Services
        • Data services, Voice services, and new services that combine both
      • The Threat Of Competition
        • Deregulation/Privatization
        • Defend against attackers in incumbent territories
        • Potential to enter previously inaccessible territories
    • 30. 3G Solution Direction
      • One Network delivering Voice and Data services
        • Supporting all major 3G Technologies to enable operators to meet global market needs
        • IP Centric Network Architecture for Internet derived services
        • Future proof platform that evolves with the IP networking industry
        • Working with Sun to deliver next generation services with carrier grade reliability (99.999%)
      • Flexible Service Creation
        • Provides platform for integration of mobile and internet environments
        • Rapid service delivery for Lucent developed and third party services
        • Retain value in wireless network by creating operator controlled value added interfaces
          • Operators want to be more than an IP pipe provider
      • Rapid Network Deployment
        • Easy to install and maintain
        • Self Optimizing
        • Integrated maintenance capabilities to reduce life cycle costs

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