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3G CDMA Interoperability with Next-Generation OFDM-Based ...
3G CDMA Interoperability with Next-Generation OFDM-Based ...
3G CDMA Interoperability with Next-Generation OFDM-Based ...
3G CDMA Interoperability with Next-Generation OFDM-Based ...
3G CDMA Interoperability with Next-Generation OFDM-Based ...
3G CDMA Interoperability with Next-Generation OFDM-Based ...
3G CDMA Interoperability with Next-Generation OFDM-Based ...
3G CDMA Interoperability with Next-Generation OFDM-Based ...
3G CDMA Interoperability with Next-Generation OFDM-Based ...
3G CDMA Interoperability with Next-Generation OFDM-Based ...
3G CDMA Interoperability with Next-Generation OFDM-Based ...
3G CDMA Interoperability with Next-Generation OFDM-Based ...
3G CDMA Interoperability with Next-Generation OFDM-Based ...
3G CDMA Interoperability with Next-Generation OFDM-Based ...
3G CDMA Interoperability with Next-Generation OFDM-Based ...
3G CDMA Interoperability with Next-Generation OFDM-Based ...
3G CDMA Interoperability with Next-Generation OFDM-Based ...
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3G CDMA Interoperability with Next-Generation OFDM-Based ...

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  • 1. 3G CDMA Interoperability with Next-Generation OFDM-Based Mobile Broadband Solutions Tom Chui tchui@nortel.com Nov 24, 2008 BUSINESS MADE SIMPLE 1 Nortel Confidential Information
  • 2. Introduction • Market Growth and Demand • CDMA OFDMA Introduction • Core Network Architecture • Handoff Control • Intersystem functionalities • Service continuity across network boundaries 2
  • 3. EV-DO – Subscriber Growth Rev A growth drives sub count to more than 100,000,000 !! 124 EV-DO operators globally, Over 100 million EV-DO users! 44 of which are Rev A. A 33% increase in one year! Another 80 EV-DO networks are being Asia-Pac has 39% of subs! deployed. EV-DO Rel. 0 EV-DO Rev. A Commercial Commercial 105 Rel. 0 Networks 44 Rev. A Networks Rel. 0 Networks Commercial 41 38 in Deployment Rev. A Networks Rel. 0 Devices Rev. A Devices 527 90 from 50 vendors from 30 vendors WIDELY-ACCEPTED Technology, EXPLOSIVE Growth 3 Source: CDG, November 2008
  • 4. CDMA OFDMA Complementary Today 3G CDMA2000 1X and 1xEV-DO Nationwide Coverage Initial Roll-out LTE (OFDMA) LTE (OFDMA) LTE (OFDMA 3G CDMA 3G CDMA (Coexistence) Urban-zone Urban-zone Urban-zone 3G CDMA and LTE Over time Nationwide Coverage 3G CDMA networks will coexist with OFDM-based LTE Networks until next-generation broadband networks are fully capable of delivering: Ubiquitous Coverage, Carrier-Grade Mass Market VoIP, Devices - Variety & Low Cost, Global Roaming CDMA 4 LTE (OFDMA) Network Interoperability is critical for success
  • 5. Waves of Packet Core Wave 1 - Initial Wireless Data (from 1999) • Service: Very low bit rate data as adjunct to voice and text • Subscribers: A few niche subscribers for 2G data services • Packet Core Products: Small Scale Enterprise Class Voice Devices Wave 2 – Mass Market Mobile Broadband (from 2004) • Service: Moderate bit rate data on its own merit • Subscribers: Business users and early Mobile Broadband • Blackberry and PC cards using 2G/3G -> EV-DO/HSPA Business Devices & PC Cards • Packet Core Products: Intelligent Carrier Class Wave 3 – Enhanced Mobile Broadband Experience (from 2010+) • Service: Mobile Broadband turbo charged by LTE Service • Subscribers: Mass Market = Data Traffic Volume >> Voice • Packet Core Products: Low Cost of Ownership, High Capacity, Consumer & Scalable, Multi Access, Carrier Class, COTS, Femto Ready Embedded Devices Increasing Mass Market Mobile Broadband Demands Further 5 Investment in Radio and Core Network Technology
  • 6. Core Network Architecture • The Interworking architecture must cover: • Mobility • Authentication / Security • Policy and Charging • Fixed / Mobile convergence • Current agreed architectures for OFDM-CDMA Interworking • EV-DO (HRPD) LTE: based on 3GPP Evolved Packet Core (EPC) (agreed in 3GPP and 3GPP2) • WiMAX HRPD: based on “commonalities” between 3GPP2 & WiMAX NWG Common Reference Architecture to Accommodate Performance 6 Requirements and Deployment Models for all Technology Pairings
  • 7. Supporting an Access Aware Network CDMA MSC BSC A1 A2 Media Gateway PSTN Add LTE as Overlay: BTS • Separate IP’s, No Network Interaction S102 RNC PDSN HSGW Add Mobile IP: A10/A11 Home Agent MIP • Provides network mobility for non-real- time applications & common services BTS Pi Add Seamless Mobility: S101 S2 / SX-u • Optimizes network mobility for real- time applications & services IP Core & Services Network S1 SGi eNodeB Add Handoff (HO) to 1X Voice: MME • Extends coverage of LTE VoIP by P/S-GW adding seamless mobility to 1X Move to an All-IP, Simpler, Flatter, Cost Effective Network 7
  • 8. 3GPP2 and 3GPP Evolved Packet Core (Example of Roaming Arch in TS 23.402) HSS SWx Rx hPCRF Operator’s IP Gx Services S6a (e.g. IMS, PSS etc.) SGi PDN 3GPP AAA HPLMN Gateway Server S6b S9 S2b SWd S8 vPCRF 3GPP Serving Access Gateway Gxc Gxb 3GPP AAA Proxy S2a SWm ePDG VPLMN Non-3GPP Networks Gxa SWn Trusted Non-trusted Non-3GPP Non-3GPP EV-DO and WiMAX Access Access SWa STa are considered Trusted Non-3GPP Access 8
  • 9. Handoff Control Network or Terminal Triggering • Network Triggered: • Target selection (in the network) may be enhanced with additional parameters to finely tune the handoff criteria. • Network can be tuned to trigger handoff based on highly granular information (e.g. aggressive handoff regiment depending on deployment circumstances) • Mobile Triggered: • The mobile makes the HO decision, potentially with assistance from the network • Network push • Network receives measurement information • The degree of network assistance (i.e. what information is provided) will determine the performance of the handoff Network Controlled Handoff Optimizes Access Network Interworking 9
  • 10. Inter-system Functionalities Loose coupling Little or no inter-system functionalities UE-centric L3 mobility based on (P)MIP Resources are released in the source system prior to a) “Break Before Make” Handover execution (MBB) Service break is significant Resources in target system are obtained prior to HO execution directly over target radio interface - “seamless mobility” b) “Dual-radio MBB” Requires dual radio capability, simultaneous transmit. Requires inter-system functionalities Network-controlled; L3 mobility based on (P)MIP (S101) Ability to configure and report measurements of the target Tight coupling system Inter-system interface for establishing resources in target system prior to HO execution “Make Before Break” Possibility of data forwarding “Network-controlled” Suitable for single radio devices, but also applicable to 10 dual radio devices
  • 11. Requirements for Mobility and HO • CDMA2000 and LTE connected systems… • Shall support terminals with single radio and dual radio solutions. • Shall support voice service continuity between access networks. • Shall support bidirectional service continuity between access networks to enable both best effort and real-time applications. • Shall minimize impact on service quality, e.g. Quality of Service (QoS), reduce interruption times. • Should minimize the coupling between access networks (e.g. by using transparent signaling through the source system) allowing independent protocol evolution in each access. • Shall be based on the principles of network controlled radio access mobility. 11
  • 12. Principles for Optimized Handovers • Inspired from the A21 interface defined for EV-DO =>1X voice call continuity • Terminal interacts directly with target system (LTE or EV-DO) to perform handover preparation • Source system provides “tunneling” capability (S101) for terminal to interact with target system • In the LTE => EV-DO direction there are two distinct steps • 1) Pre-registration: when conditions are such that a handover to HRPD may be required, the source system provides the UE with sufficient information to perform pre-registration with the target HRPD access and core network, over the S101 tunnelling interface • 2) HO execution: if conditions subsequently warrant that a handover should occur, the handover signalling will also be performed over the S101 tunnelling interface, whereas data forwarding takes place on S103 • Similar logic applies in the EV-DO => LTE direction • Except that, pre-registration also triggers the HO execution 12
  • 13. Voice Continuity with Legacy CS Domain: OFDM to Circuit Switched (CS) Handoff (HO) • EPC/LTE is Packet Switched (PS) only system • Voice continuity between LTE and 1X Circuit Switched (CS) domain requires a transformation of a VoIP (on IMS) call into CS session and vice versa • Requirement is that there should be minimum impact on the CS domain • The solution to the problem falls in the Voice Call Continuity (VCC) with “single radio hybrid terminal” category • VCC = Voice Call Continuity between CS domain and PS via IMS • Because of the similarities with 3GPP2 VCC and 3GPP Rel-7 VCC, the problem is referred to as Single Radio VCC • Single Radio VCC for LTE-1X is specified in 3GPP TS 23.216 13
  • 14. SR-VCC Architecture for 1X CS 1xCS SRVCC 1xRTT CS A1 1xRTT UE ANSI-41 Access MSC A1 (ISUP) VCC AS 1xCS IWS 3GPP2 S102 IMS MME S1-MME S11 1xCS Serving/PDN SGi SRVCC E-UTRAN UE GW (LTE) S1-U Tunnelled 1xRTT messages • Based on the A21 solution in 3GPP2 A.S0008-C • While attached to EUTRAN, the UE initiates tunnelled establishment of the CS access leg (via Uu - S1-MME – S102 – A1) • After handover to 1X, the LTE access behaves as if the UE has gone out of coverage i.e. it performs the S1 release procedure and considers the UE to be in IDLE state • 3GPP mostly specifies the transport of A21 messages over S102 14
  • 15. Graceful CDMA to LTE Evolution Standards alignment, driven by service providers • CDMA core networks with IMS and VCC will play a key role in expanding 3G and 4G deployments • e.g. Seamless call handoffs between 2G, 3G and 4G networks • e.g. EV-DO and LTE femtocells • CDMA operators will be among the first to deploy wider- bandwidth OFDM solutions: • Broadcast – DVB-H, MFLO, ISDB-T, T-DMB, etc. • Additional broadband capacity – LTE, Wi-Fi, etc. • CDMA Ecosystem will ensure service continuity will exist between these complementary solutions IP Core Networks and VCC Bridge Multiple Technologies, 15 including Wi-Fi, Femto, LTE and WiMAX
  • 16. Planning for Success Device and Application Ecosystem 1X EV-DO WiMAX LTE Ethernet and Optical Connectivity Common Core Architecture Design, Engineering, Operations, Applications Enhancing today networks while building the networks for tomorrow 16
  • 17. www.nortel.com/cdma www.nortel.com/lte 17

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