Zoological Roots


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Zoological Roots

  1. 1. a- without, not, negative (asexual, atrophy, asymmetry) ab- away from (aboral, abductor, absorption) ad-, af-, an-, at- to or toward (adrenal, adductor, adaptation, afferent, atrium) adipo- fat (adipose) aero- air, gas, oxygen (aerobic, anaerobic, aerial) alba- white (albicans) ambi-, amphi- both, double (ambidextrous, amphibian, amphioxus, amphicoelous ana- apart (anaphase) ante-, antero- before, previous to (anterior, anteroposterior) anti- against (antibody, antimere) arthro- joint (arthropod, arthritis) auto- self (autoimmune, autonomic, autosome, autonomy) bio- life, live (biology, biogenesis, biogeography) bis-, bi- two, double (bisect, bivalve, biramous, bilateral) blast- germ (blastoderm, blastula) brachi- arm (brachial, brachiopoda) -brevis short (peroneus brevis) bronchi- windpipe (bronchiole) -bulla blister (tympanic bulla) capit head (rectus capitis) cata- down (catabolism) cauda- tail (caudal, caudata) cephalo-, cranio- head (cephalothorax, cephalic, craniosacral) chemo- chemical (chemoreceptor) chondr- cartilage, granule (chondrocyte, mitochondrion) circum- around, about (circumpharyngeal) -clast to break (osteoclast) co- with, together (coenzyme, commensal, convergent) -cost rib (intercostal) -cox hip (os coxae) cruci- cross (cruciate) cubit- elbow (cubital) cyto- cell (cytology, cytoplasm, spermatocyte) de-, des- from, away, lost (dehydration, descending) delta- triangle (deltoideus) dent- tooth (dentine) derm- skin (dermal, ectoderm, echinoderm) dextr- right hand (dextrin) di- two, double (dihybrid, dimorphic, diencephalon)
  2. 2. dia- across, through (diaphragm) diplo- double (diploid) -duct lead (oviduct, duct) duo- two (duodenum) dura- hard (dura mater) e-, ex-, ef- out of, from (efferent, excurrent, excretion) ecto- on the outside of, outer (ectoderm, ectoparasite) ella-, -ium, -olus, -olum, -culus, -culum, these are diminutives, i.e. the signify a small thing -cle, -cule en-, endo- in, inside (endoderm) entero- intestine, gut (enteric, archenteron) epi- upon, above (epigenesis, epithelium, epidermis) erythro- red (erythrocyte) eu- true, well, real (eucaryote) ex-, extra- beyond, additional, outside of (excretion, extracellular) -fer bear, carry, possess (porifera, rotifera, afferent) -flex bending, turning (reflex, circumflex) -gaster- stomach (gastrula, gastropoda, gastric) gene-, gen- producing (genetic) -glossa- tongue (hypoglossal, genioglossus) haplo- single, simple (haploid) hem-, heme- blood (hemoglobin, hematoma) hemi- half (hemisphere, hemichordate) hepato- liver (hepatic) hetero- other, different (heterozygous, heterogamy) histo- tissue (histology) holo- entire, whole (holocrine, holoblastic, holozoic) homo- alike, same, equal (homozygous, homology) hydro-, hygro- water (hydrolysis) hyper- above (hyperthyroid, hyperkinetic) hypo- under (hypovolemic, hypodermic) -ia, -id, -osis, -tion, -y- state of, condition (myopia, gravid) im-, in- in (implant, ingest, inherit) infra- below (infrared, infraspinatus) inter- between (intercostal, intervertebral) intra-, intro- into (intracellular, introduction) iso- same, equal to (isothermic, isotonic) -ist, -or, -er, -ite agent of (anatomist)
  3. 3. itis- inflammation (gastritis, neuritis, hepatitis) lact- milk (lactation) later-, latus- side (lateral) leuco- white (leucocyte) lingua- tongue (lingual) lympho-, lyo- water (lymph, lymphocyte) macro- large (macroscopic, macrophage) maxilla- jaw (maxilliped, maxilla) meso- middle (mesoderm, mesothorax, mesonephros) meta- between, beyond, after (metamere, metanephros, metaphase) micro- small (microscopic, microbe) mito- thread (mitosis, mitochondria) mono- one, single (monocyte, monoecious) -morph- form (morphogenesis, morphology, metamorphosis) myo- muscle (myoglobin, myocardium myoseptum) necro- dead (necropsy) neo- new (neotony, neoplasm) nephro- kidney (nephrostome, nephridia, metanephros, nephron) neuro- nerve (neurology) nom-, -onomy name (taxonomy, nomenclature) nuc- nut (nucleus) o-, ovo- egg (oviduct, ovary) ob- in front of, inverse (observe, obstruct) -oid resemblance (hydroid, mucoid) oligo- few (oligocere, oligodendrocyte) ortho- straight (orthogenesis, orthodontics) osse-, ost-, os- bone (periosteum, osteoblast) para- side by side, near (parathyroid, parasite) pariet- wall (parietal) -ped foot (biped) peri- around (pericardium, peritoneum) -phage, phag to eat (phagocyte, sarcophagus) -phile to love, require, attraction (eosinophile, hemophilia) photo- light (photosynthesis) -physis to grow (epiphysis) -plasm, -plast anything formed (protoplasm, plasma, plasmodium) -pleur- side (pleurisy) pod-, ped- foot (tetrapod, podiatry) poly- many (polynucleate, polymorphic)
  4. 4. post-, postero- after, hind part (posterior) pre- before (preview, predominate) -proctum- anus (proctodeum) proto- first (protoplasm, protozoa, prototype) pseudo- false (pseudopod) -pteron, -pter wing (coleoptera,diptera, chiroptera) pulmo- lung (pulmonary) quadr- four (quadruped) re-, retro- again, turn back, turn again (reflex, regenerate) rect- straight (rectus abdominis) ren- kidney (renal) -rhage, -rhea flow (hemorrhage) sagitta- arrow (sagittal) sarc- flesh (sarcophytic, sarcoplasm) scler- hard (sclera, sclerotic) -sect to cut (dissect) semi- half, part way (semicircular) septa- wall (septum) soma- body (somite, somatic) -stasis stop, stand (homeostasis, bacteriostasis) stom- mouth (stomata, nephrostome, cytostome) sub- under, below (suborder, submarine) super-, supra- over, above, beyond (superorder, suprascapular) sym-, syn- together, resemble (symbiosis, synapse, syncytium) tel-, tele- far, distant (telescope, telophase) teres- round (teres minor) tetra- four (tetrapod) thyro- door, shield (thyroid) -tom to cut (microtome, anatomy) tri- three (tricuspid) -troph nourishment, growth, food (gonadotrophic, tropism) uni- one (unicellular) vaso- vessel (vasoconstrictor) villi- shaggy (microvilli) vita- life (vital) zoo- animal (zoology, holozoic, protozoa) zygo- join, united, yoked together (zygote, heterozygous)