Voiding Dysfunction in Children COL John Roscelli Pediatric Nephrology San Antonio Military Pediatric Center
Perspective <ul><li>Incontinence is part of transitional phase from infantile to adult lower urinary tract function </li><...
Agenda <ul><li>How the Lower Urinary Tract Works </li></ul><ul><li>Voiding Dysfunction in children with no organic patholo...
How the Lower Urinary Tract Works
Bowl and Bladder Function <ul><li>Lower GU tract tied to lower GI tract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same embryogenic origin: end...
Function of Lower Urinary Tract <ul><li>STORAGE  of  adequate volumes  of urine at  low pressure  & with  no leakage </li>...
Lower Urinary Tract is a Functionally Integrated Unit <ul><li>Ureteral Vesicle Junction </li></ul><ul><li>Bladder </li></u...
Anatomy & Neurophysiology of the Lower Urinary Tract <ul><li>Bladder (detrusor) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores urine at low ...
Nervous system control of Lower Tract <ul><li>CNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Periaqueductal gray  matter receives bladder filli...
Nervous system control of Lower Tract <ul><li>CNS micturition centers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exert voluntary control over s...
Autonomic NS receptor Distribution
Low pressure storage with continence Outlet obstruction: Sympathetic   -adrenergic  stimulation of bladder neck & posteri...
Voluntary Efficient Complete Low Pressure Voiding Outlet relaxation: CNS micturition  Centers Inhibit sympathetic   -adre...
Normal Voiding Study Bladder Neck Pressures Bladder Pressures External Sphincter EMG Activity Storage (cc) Voluntary Voiding
Normal Voiding Study
Maturation of Voiding Neonatal voiding <ul><li>Controlled by sacral spinal cord reflex  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bladder dist...
Maturation of Voiding <ul><li>Bladder capacity increases & voiding frequency decrease with growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bl...
Maturation of Voiding <ul><li>By age 4 Micturition spinal reflex fully modulated by CNS micturition center via a spinobulb...
Maturation of Voiding <ul><li>Initially child has better control over external sphincter than bladder  </li></ul><ul><ul><...
 
Usual sequence of bowel & bladder control <ul><li>Nocturnal bowel control </li></ul><ul><li>Daytime bowel control </li></u...
Maturation of Voiding <ul><li>By 4 most children have adult voiding pattern  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brazelton studied 1,170...
Definitions Incontinence in Children <ul><li>International Children's Continence Society definitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Definitions <ul><li>Diurnal enuresis is often interchanged with dysfunctional voiding but they are not the same </li></ul>...
Characterization of  Voiding Dysfunction <ul><li>Storage Problem:  Failure to Store  normal volumes  of urine at  low pres...
Clinical Problems from Voiding Dysfunction <ul><li>Increased bladder pressures  resulting in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VUR </l...
Voiding Dysfunction in Children with no organic pathology
Voiding Dysfunction in “Normal Children”- 3 Issues <ul><li>Clinician must 1 st  suspect voiding dysfunction in certain cli...
Presentations of Voiding Dysfunction in “Normal” Children <ul><li>Urologic Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>GI Presentation ...
Urologic Presentation Signs & Symptoms which suggest voiding dysfunction <ul><li>Infrequent voiding </li></ul><ul><li>Freq...
Urologic Presentation <ul><li>It can not be overemphasized to the general pediatrician how important it is that they rule ...
GI Presentation Signs & Symptoms which suggest voiding dysfunction <ul><li>Fecal staining of undergarments </li></ul><ul><...
Occult Neurologic Presentation <ul><li>Early detection may prevent neurologic damage and its bladder or bowel dysfunction ...
Ocult Neurologic Presentation Spinal cord tethering suggested by  <ul><li>Lower back abnormalities such as nevus, dermal s...
Types of Voiding Dysfunction Disorders in “normal” Children
Minor Voiding Dysfunctional Disorders <ul><li>Extraordinary daytime urinary frequency syndrome  </li></ul><ul><li>Giggle i...
Major Voiding Dysfunctional Disorders <ul><li>Hinman syndrome- non neruogenic neurogenic bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Ochoa (...
Moderate Voiding Dysfunctional Disorders <ul><li>Overactive bladder/Urge Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Bladder Sphincter Dysn...
Moderate Voiding dysfunctional disorders
Classification of Diurnal Voiding Dysfunction None Usually normal Multiple uninhibited detrusor contractions with increase...
Classification of Diurnal Voiding Dysfunction Variable Increased EMG activity causing diminution or interruption of the ur...
Classification of Diurnal Voiding Dysfunction Always Prolonged, decreased flow with abdominal straining and bursts of EMG ...
Evaluation of Voiding Dysfunction
Purpose of evaluation <ul><li>Characterize the Elimination problems to direct treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage prob...
Evaluation of Dysfunctional Voiding <ul><li>Index of suspicion </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></...
History To characterize the Problem <ul><li>Evaluation of dysfunctional voiding begins with a detailed elimination history...
History To characterize the Problem <ul><li>Voiding symptoms & pattern of incontinence must be quantified </li></ul><ul><u...
Holding Maneuvers
Ectopic Ureter
<ul><li>3 Day Elimination Diary-Your most  powerful diagnostic tool & its CHEAP & BENIGN </li></ul><ul><li>Determines BM p...
History Irritable Bladder <ul><li>Urgency & frequency as Cerebral cortex unable to inhibit reflex bladder contractions tri...
History Infrequent Voider <ul><li>Typically school girls with recurrent UTI & often with history of intermittent enuresis ...
History Infrequent Voider <ul><li>Physician must uncover that the child with a wetting problem actually has abnormally few...
History To Identify underlying treatable Pathology <ul><li>Identify organic pathology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetes, epil...
Physical Examination <ul><li>1st step is growth, general health & vital signs including BP </li></ul><ul><li>2nd step is t...
Physical Examination Abdomen <ul><li>Renal masses </li></ul><ul><li>Distended bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Large stool mass s...
Physical Examination   Perineum & Genitalia   <ul><li>Dampness at beginning of exam & with straining </li></ul><ul><li>Sig...
Focused Neurolgogic Examination <ul><li>Lumbosacral spine for lipoma, sinus, pigmentation tufts of hair- may be clue to un...
 
NERVE ROOTS & THEIR ASSOCIATED SENSORY & MOTOR FUNCTIONS  Plantar flexion of big toe   Perineal S3, 4 Dorsiflexion of big ...
FOCUSED NEUROLOGIC EXAMINATION    Perineum Big toe flexion S3 Back of heel Big toe extension S2 Side of foot Plantar flexi...
Routine Labs <ul><li>Urine tests best obtained on 1 st  AM specimen after overnight NPO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UA </li></ul...
Other Studies that can be obtained prior to referral <ul><li>Post void residual urine by catheter </li></ul><ul><li>Abdomi...
Sonography <ul><li>Lower tract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess bladder wall thickness (nl <3mm when full; 5 mm when empty) </...
Other Studies that can be obtained prior to referral <ul><li>Nuclear Medicine renal scan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cortical sc...
Studies requiring referral  <ul><li>Rarely required but simple & non invasive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uroflometry </li></ul>...
Studies requiring referral    Uroflow/Flowmetry   <ul><li>Non invasive assessment of urine flow rates </li></ul><ul><li>St...
Studies requiring referral  Urodynamics often with video fluro <ul><li>Parameters used to diagnose urodynamic dysfunction ...
Studies requiring referral  Urodynamics often with video fluro
Studies that should never be done <ul><li>Cystoscopy with or without urethral dilation or meatotomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Management of Voiding Dysfunction in Children with no treatable Neruologic, Urologic or other organic etiology
Treatment of Voiding Dysfunction Non Pharmacological <ul><li>Timed voiding is the easiest & most effective Rx & it works f...
Treatment of Voiding Dysfunction Pharmacological <ul><li>Anticholinergic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for irritable bladder ...
Treatment of Voiding Dysfunction <ul><li>TREAT STOOLING DYSFUNCTION </li></ul>
UTIs, VUR & Elimination Dysfunction <ul><li>Strong association between the 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Treat voiding dysfunction <...
Approach to Voiding Dysfunction
Approach to Voiding Dysfunction
Summary We have reviewed <ul><li>Function (continent storage & voluntary emptying at low pressures) & how the lower GU tra...
Voiding Dysfunction in Children with Neurogenic Bladder
Spinal cord injury (SCI) produces profound alterations in lower urinary tract function <ul><li>Incontinence </li></ul><ul>...
Neurogenic Bladder Made Simple   Lack of higher CNS control results in <ul><li>Inability to sense fullness & voluntarily v...
Neurogenic Bladder Made Simple <ul><li>High LPP pressure is good for continence but bad for the kidney </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Neurogenic Bladder Made Simple <ul><li>Bladder compliance is another key variable & may change over time </li></ul><ul><ul...
Focus is on 2 issues <ul><li>Preservation of Renal function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining normal bladder pressures dur...
Evaluation of Newborn with Neurogenic Bladder <ul><li>Assess upper tract for damage or evidence of high pressure (hydronep...
Evaluation of Newborn with Neurogenic Bladder <ul><li>Assess lower tract for evidence of increased voiding pressure  </li>...
Newborn with Neurogenic Bladder   General Treatment <ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Folic Acid- 0.4 mg per day st...
Newborn with Neurogenic Bladder   General Treatment <ul><li>Latex precautions from birth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latex aller...
Treatment of Neurogenic Bladder in the infant based on Evaluation <ul><li>Low LPP, normal bladder function- observation </...
Treatment of Neurogenic Bladder Continence, Bladder Pressures & UTIs <ul><li>Urologic Rx Based on bladder/sphincter physio...
Treatment of Neurogenic Bladder Continence, Bladder Pressures & UTIs <ul><li>CIC is key-   s bladder pressures, improves ...
Improving Continence   Continent Catherizable Stomas <ul><li>Appendix (Mitrofanoff), section of  ileum or colon placed fro...
Bladder Augmentation <ul><li>Indicated when medical therapy fails to achieve adequate low-pressure capacity with continenc...
Bladder Augmentation Variety of Methods <ul><li>Ileum & colon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperchloremic hypokalemia acidosis, m...
Bladder Augmentation using Segment of Ileum
Improving Continence by Increasing Sphincter Resistance <ul><li>   Adrenergic drugs (phenylpropanolamine, pseudoephedrine...
Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) <ul><li>40-65% of neurogenic bladder patients have VUR </li></ul><ul><li>Rx aimed at reducing ...
Urinary Tract Infections <ul><li>Bacteruria- rule not the exception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>J Peds 126; 1995; 490 </li></ul>...
Urinary Tract Infections <ul><li>Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in SCI patients of no proven benefit   </li></ul><u...
Rx of Urinary Tract Infections <ul><li>Symptomatic UTIs treated with narrowest spectrum antibiotics for the shortest possi...
Rx of Urinary Tract Infections <ul><li>Prophylaxis does not decrease UTIs or asymptomatic bacteruria-  (J Peds 132;1998;70...
Summary We have reviewed <ul><li>Function (storage & voluntary emptying at low pressures) & how the lower GU tract works &...
References <ul><li>Pediatric Clinics N America 48; Dec 01 1489-1503 & 1505-1518 </li></ul><ul><li>Fernandes; The Unstable ...
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Voiding Dysfunction

  1. 1. Voiding Dysfunction in Children COL John Roscelli Pediatric Nephrology San Antonio Military Pediatric Center
  2. 2. Perspective <ul><li>Incontinence is part of transitional phase from infantile to adult lower urinary tract function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wetting disorders often considered necessary nuisance & tolerated until child lags behind peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parental concerns about voiding are common & often supersede the child's anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However, voiding dysfunction can be a sign of underlying pathophysiology that needs Rx to prevent Renal/Urologic damage </li></ul>
  3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>How the Lower Urinary Tract Works </li></ul><ul><li>Voiding Dysfunction in children with no organic pathology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation modes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. How the Lower Urinary Tract Works
  5. 5. Bowl and Bladder Function <ul><li>Lower GU tract tied to lower GI tract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same embryogenic origin: endodermal tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to sixth week gestation urogenital sinus & the hindgut empty into common cloaca </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems with elimination in one usually associated with problems in the other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper term is Elimination Dysfunction Syndrome </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Function of Lower Urinary Tract <ul><li>STORAGE of adequate volumes of urine at low pressure & with no leakage </li></ul><ul><li>EMPTYING that is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low pressure </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Lower Urinary Tract is a Functionally Integrated Unit <ul><li>Ureteral Vesicle Junction </li></ul><ul><li>Bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Sphincter </li></ul><ul><li>Urethra </li></ul><ul><li>Neurologic control mechanisms </li></ul>
  8. 8. Anatomy & Neurophysiology of the Lower Urinary Tract <ul><li>Bladder (detrusor) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores urine at low pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compresses urine for voiding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Urethra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conveys urine from bladder to outside world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sphincter(s) internal & external </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls urine flow & maintain continence between voidings </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Nervous system control of Lower Tract <ul><li>CNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Periaqueductal gray matter receives bladder filling info </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal/parietal lobes & cingulate gyrus inibit lower micturation centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus center initiate voluntary voiding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pontine Micturation center excites Bladder & inhibits sphincter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebellum integrates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spinal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetics T10-L1 via hypogastric Nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S2-S4 Parasympathetic via Pelvic N Somatic via Pudental N </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Nervous system control of Lower Tract <ul><li>CNS micturition centers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exert voluntary control over spinal centers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spinal micturition centers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T10-L1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetics via hypogastric Nerve </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S2-S4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic via Pelvic N </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Somatic via Pudental N </li></ul></ul></ul>CNS micturition centers T10-L1 S2-S4
  11. 11. Autonomic NS receptor Distribution
  12. 12. Low pressure storage with continence Outlet obstruction: Sympathetic  -adrenergic stimulation of bladder neck & posterior urethra from T10-L1 via Hypogastric Nerve Somatic stimulation of External Sphincter from S2-S4 via Pudental Nerve Bladder Relaxation:  -adrenergic stimulation of bladder fundus from T10-L2 via Hypogastric Nerve decreases bladder tone Allows continent storage of significant volumes of urine at < 20 mmHg CNS micturition centers T10-L1 S2-S4
  13. 13. Voluntary Efficient Complete Low Pressure Voiding Outlet relaxation: CNS micturition Centers Inhibit sympathetic  -adrenergic stimulation of bladder neck/posterior urethra & somatic stimulation of External Sphincter Bladder Contraction: CNS micturition Centers Inhibits  -adrenergic bladder relaxation & stimulates Parasympathetic cholinergic stimulation of bladder fundus from S2-S4 via Pelvic Nerve Allows complete emptying at pressures < 40 mm Hg CNS micturition centers T10-L1 S2-S4
  14. 14. Normal Voiding Study Bladder Neck Pressures Bladder Pressures External Sphincter EMG Activity Storage (cc) Voluntary Voiding
  15. 15. Normal Voiding Study
  16. 16. Maturation of Voiding Neonatal voiding <ul><li>Controlled by sacral spinal cord reflex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bladder distention sends signals to sacral spinal cord micturition center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinal cord micturition center sends efferent signals that cause detrusor contraction & relaxation of external sphincter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results in frequent, complete, low pressure emptying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newborns void 20 x/day with only a slight decrease during the 1st year of life </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Maturation of Voiding <ul><li>Bladder capacity increases & voiding frequency decrease with growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bladder capacity in Ounces (30ml) = Age (yrs) +2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1-2 yrs: conscious sensation of bladder fullness develops </li></ul><ul><li>2-3 yrs: Ability to initiate or inhibit voiding voluntarily develops </li></ul><ul><li>2-4 yrs: Voiding comes under reliable voluntary control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 4 years of age, most children have achieved an adult pattern of micturition </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Maturation of Voiding <ul><li>By age 4 Micturition spinal reflex fully modulated by CNS micturition center via a spinobulbospinal tact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As bladder fills, desire to empty occurs-child must consciously suppress this desire until he/she can get to toilet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With conscious voiding, external sphincter willfully relaxed prior to initiating bladder contraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sphincter relaxation & bladder contraction, must occur in coordinated fashion for proper emptying </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Maturation of Voiding <ul><li>Initially child has better control over external sphincter than bladder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to stop urination than start it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voiding inhibition done by contracting external sphincter rather than inhibiting bladder contraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This pattern may be reinforced during toilet training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persistence of this pattern is bladder sphincter dysnergia </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Usual sequence of bowel & bladder control <ul><li>Nocturnal bowel control </li></ul><ul><li>Daytime bowel control </li></ul><ul><li>Daytime control of voiding </li></ul><ul><li>Nocturnal control of voiding </li></ul>
  21. 22. Maturation of Voiding <ul><li>By 4 most children have adult voiding pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brazelton studied 1,170 children & found </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>26% achieved daytime continence by age 24 months </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>52.5% by age 27 months </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>85.3% by age 30 months </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>98% by age 36 months </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Definitions Incontinence in Children <ul><li>International Children's Continence Society definitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enuresis: normal voiding that occurs at inappropriate time or involuntarily in socially unacceptable setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nocturnal enuresis- nighttime wetting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>diurnal enuresis- daytime wetting </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Definitions <ul><li>Diurnal enuresis is often interchanged with dysfunctional voiding but they are not the same </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all dysfunctional voiders are incontinent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dysfunctional voiding can be neuropathic or nonneuropathic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuropathic- voiding disorders caused by neurologic conditions such as spina bifida, transverse myelitis, or spinal cord trauma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonneuropathic- functional voiding problems in neurologically normal children </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Characterization of Voiding Dysfunction <ul><li>Storage Problem: Failure to Store normal volumes of urine at low pressure & without leakage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non compliant bladder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irritable bladder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate sphincter tone during filling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emptying Problem: Failure to empty completely , on command , efficiently at low pressures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure of neurological control of bladder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bladder muscle failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure of sphincter relaxation during voiding </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Clinical Problems from Voiding Dysfunction <ul><li>Increased bladder pressures resulting in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VUR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper tract damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bladder hypertrophy leading to detrusor failure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Residual Urine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UTI </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incontinence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social consequences </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Voiding Dysfunction in Children with no organic pathology
  27. 28. Voiding Dysfunction in “Normal Children”- 3 Issues <ul><li>Clinician must 1 st suspect voiding dysfunction in certain clinical circumstances in normal children </li></ul><ul><li>Clinician must then rule out Neurologic, Urologic & other organic (diabetes, concentrating defects) problems </li></ul><ul><li>Clinician must then characterize & Rx the functional voiding dysfunction </li></ul>
  28. 29. Presentations of Voiding Dysfunction in “Normal” Children <ul><li>Urologic Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>GI Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Occult Neurologic presentation </li></ul>
  29. 30. Urologic Presentation Signs & Symptoms which suggest voiding dysfunction <ul><li>Infrequent voiding </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent voiding </li></ul><ul><li>Urgency </li></ul><ul><li>Dysuria </li></ul><ul><li>Holding maneuvers </li></ul><ul><li>Straining </li></ul><ul><li>Poor stream </li></ul><ul><li>Intermittent stream </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete emptying </li></ul><ul><li>Incontinence </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary tract infections </li></ul><ul><li>VUR </li></ul>
  30. 31. Urologic Presentation <ul><li>It can not be overemphasized to the general pediatrician how important it is that they rule out voiding dysfunction in all their children with recurrent UTIs, VUR or incontinence </li></ul>
  31. 32. GI Presentation Signs & Symptoms which suggest voiding dysfunction <ul><li>Fecal staining of undergarments </li></ul><ul><li>Fecal incontinence </li></ul><ul><li>Constipation </li></ul><ul><li>Encopresis </li></ul><ul><li>Obstipation (i.e., severe constipation causing obstruction) </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominal pains </li></ul>
  32. 33. Occult Neurologic Presentation <ul><li>Early detection may prevent neurologic damage and its bladder or bowel dysfunction sequelae </li></ul><ul><li>Complex spina bifida occulta is an important disease entity because of its prevalence in the general population (as much as 1%); </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower back abnormalities such as nevus, dermal sinus, or dimple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormal neurologic examination, or foot or gait abnormality </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Ocult Neurologic Presentation Spinal cord tethering suggested by <ul><li>Lower back abnormalities such as nevus, dermal sinus, or dimple </li></ul><ul><li>Pain in the lower back during stretching of the lower extremities </li></ul><ul><li>Gait abnormalities </li></ul><ul><li>Worsening symptoms during growth spurts </li></ul><ul><li>Severe stool incontinence </li></ul><ul><li>Complex enuresis refractory to routine Rx </li></ul>
  34. 35. Types of Voiding Dysfunction Disorders in “normal” Children
  35. 36. Minor Voiding Dysfunctional Disorders <ul><li>Extraordinary daytime urinary frequency syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Giggle incontinence </li></ul><ul><li>Stress incontinence </li></ul><ul><li>Post void dribbling </li></ul><ul><li>Vaginal voiding </li></ul><ul><li>Primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis </li></ul>
  36. 37. Major Voiding Dysfunctional Disorders <ul><li>Hinman syndrome- non neruogenic neurogenic bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Ochoa (urofacial) syndrome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinman syndrome with Autosomal dominant inheritance & facial grimace when smiling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Myogenic detrusor failure </li></ul>
  37. 38. Moderate Voiding Dysfunctional Disorders <ul><li>Overactive bladder/Urge Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Bladder Sphincter Dysnergia </li></ul><ul><li>Lazy bladder syndrome </li></ul>
  38. 39. Moderate Voiding dysfunctional disorders
  39. 40. Classification of Diurnal Voiding Dysfunction None Usually normal Multiple uninhibited detrusor contractions with increased EMG activity and expressions of urgency Urge syndrome Post void Residual Voiding Filling Term
  40. 41. Classification of Diurnal Voiding Dysfunction Variable Increased EMG activity causing diminution or interruption of the urinary flow Usually normal Bladder/ sphincter dysfunction Post void Residual Voiding Filling Term
  41. 42. Classification of Diurnal Voiding Dysfunction Always Prolonged, decreased flow with abdominal straining and bursts of EMG activity Abnormally capacious bladder with little or no expression of urge Lazy bladder syndrome Post void Residual Voiding Filling Term
  42. 43. Evaluation of Voiding Dysfunction
  43. 44. Purpose of evaluation <ul><li>Characterize the Elimination problems to direct treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emptying problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continence problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rule out Neurolgic, Urologic or other organic causes </li></ul>
  44. 45. Evaluation of Dysfunctional Voiding <ul><li>Index of suspicion </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Exam </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Exam </li></ul><ul><li>Simple Lab Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Imaging </li></ul><ul><li>Urodynamics </li></ul>
  45. 46. History To characterize the Problem <ul><li>Evaluation of dysfunctional voiding begins with a detailed elimination history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History of current elimination problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed voiding history </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed Stooling history </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past elimination/urologic History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UTIs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constipation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age of toilet training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intake history- fluids and diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family history of urologic problems </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. History To characterize the Problem <ul><li>Voiding symptoms & pattern of incontinence must be quantified </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urgency, frequency, straining, dysuria etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holding maneuvers such as leg crossing, squatting, or &quot;Vincent's curtsey&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous incontinence in a girl suggests ectopic ureter that inserts distal to urethral sphincter or into the vagina </li></ul></ul>
  47. 48. Holding Maneuvers
  48. 49. Ectopic Ureter
  49. 50. <ul><li>3 Day Elimination Diary-Your most powerful diagnostic tool & its CHEAP & BENIGN </li></ul><ul><li>Determines BM problems </li></ul><ul><li>Characterizes voiding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency of voids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume of voids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allows Characterization voiding disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emptying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continence </li></ul></ul>Good time to do intake diary Parents record liquid intake volume
  50. 51. History Irritable Bladder <ul><li>Urgency & frequency as Cerebral cortex unable to inhibit reflex bladder contractions triggered during filling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents need to know where every bathroom is at mall etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When they void, void normally although usually have a small bladder capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibit behaviors to avoid leakage: Dancing, squatting, holding & posturing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classic sign of bladder instability is &quot;Vincent's curtsy“- squatting posture in girls in which the heel compresses the perineum and thereby obstructs the urethra to prevent urinary leakage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If unsuccessful get urge incontinence of small amount of urine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These behaviors can lead to bladder sphincter dysnergia </li></ul></ul>
  51. 52. History Infrequent Voider <ul><li>Typically school girls with recurrent UTI & often with history of intermittent enuresis </li></ul><ul><li>Postpone voiding as long as possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t like to void in public bathrooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use holding maneuvers to fight urge to void </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If holding maneuvers fail get incontinence- “Suzy waits till the last minute to void & then its to late” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop large capacity bladders- void 2-3 times per day & often don’t have to void on awakening </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When they void voluntarily it is large volumes, prolonged & requires straining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often don’t take time to completely empty </li></ul></ul>
  52. 53. History Infrequent Voider <ul><li>Physician must uncover that the child with a wetting problem actually has abnormally few voids & a weak bladder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May wait at least an hour after waking to void </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May void only 2-3 to three times daily, often not at all during school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Straining during urination common because detrusor is large-capacity & capable of only weak contractions </li></ul></ul>
  53. 54. History To Identify underlying treatable Pathology <ul><li>Identify organic pathology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetes, epilepsy, obstructive sleep apnea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurologic problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urologic problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify functional cause that is treatable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voiding symptoms may be sign of sexual abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stressful occurrence at home or school can trigger incontinence </li></ul></ul>
  54. 55. Physical Examination <ul><li>1st step is growth, general health & vital signs including BP </li></ul><ul><li>2nd step is to inspect the child's underwear for evidence of wetness or soiling </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd step is to observe or at least listen to voiding for evidence of weak, slow or intermittent stream </li></ul><ul><li>4 th step is focused physical exam </li></ul>
  55. 56. Physical Examination Abdomen <ul><li>Renal masses </li></ul><ul><li>Distended bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Large stool mass suggestive of constipation </li></ul>
  56. 57. Physical Examination Perineum & Genitalia <ul><li>Dampness at beginning of exam & with straining </li></ul><ul><li>Signs of erythema or irritation may be indicative of vaginal voiding </li></ul><ul><li>Meatal stenosis in boys & presence of labial adhesions in girls </li></ul><ul><li>Signs of trauma suggestive of sexual abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Careful examination of the introitus for an ectopic ureter </li></ul><ul><li>Location of anus </li></ul>
  57. 58. Focused Neurolgogic Examination <ul><li>Lumbosacral spine for lipoma, sinus, pigmentation tufts of hair- may be clue to underlying occult myelodysplasia </li></ul><ul><li>Perineal sensation, anal sphincter tone, lower limb function/gait/sensation & Peripheral reflexes </li></ul><ul><li>The bulbocavernosus reflex: squeeze glans penis or clitoris & observe or feel reflex contraction of external anal sphincter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Checks integrity of the lower motor neuron reflex arcs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence suggestive of a sacral neurologic lesion </li></ul></ul>
  58. 60. NERVE ROOTS & THEIR ASSOCIATED SENSORY & MOTOR FUNCTIONS Plantar flexion of big toe Perineal S3, 4 Dorsiflexion of big toe Heel of the foot S2 Plantar flexion of foot (cannot walk on toes) Sole of the foot S1 Dorsiflexion of foot (cannot walk on heels) Lateral tibia L5 Lower leg extension Anterior/medial tibia L4 Lower leg flexion Knees, lateral thigh L3 Thigh extension/flexion Anterior/medial thigh L2 Thigh extension/flexion Inguinal area L1 Motor Sensation Level
  59. 61. FOCUSED NEUROLOGIC EXAMINATION   Perineum Big toe flexion S3 Back of heel Big toe extension S2 Side of foot Plantar flexion S1 Sensory Motor Nerve Root
  60. 62. Routine Labs <ul><li>Urine tests best obtained on 1 st AM specimen after overnight NPO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific gravity- over 1.020 rules out significant concentrating defect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microscopic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UC </li></ul></ul>
  61. 63. Other Studies that can be obtained prior to referral <ul><li>Post void residual urine by catheter </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominal radiograph (KUB) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies lumbar-sacral anomalies, bowel gas patterns & amount of stool </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Renal and bladder ultrasound </li></ul>
  62. 64. Sonography <ul><li>Lower tract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess bladder wall thickness (nl <3mm when full; 5 mm when empty) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post void residual > 2 mL/kg is abnormal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Upper tract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size, contour, echogenicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydro-nephrosis </li></ul></ul>Excellent correlation between residual urine by direct urethral instrumentation & noninvasive sonography
  63. 65. Other Studies that can be obtained prior to referral <ul><li>Nuclear Medicine renal scan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cortical scan to RO scars or difference in function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional SCAN with/without lasix to RO obstruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voiding cystourethrography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History of UTIs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family history of VUR </li></ul></ul>
  64. 66. Studies requiring referral <ul><li>Rarely required but simple & non invasive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uroflometry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very rarely required & invasive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urodynamics with electromyography of the external urinary sphincter </li></ul></ul>
  65. 67. Studies requiring referral Uroflow/Flowmetry <ul><li>Non invasive assessment of urine flow rates </li></ul><ul><li>Staccato voiding or intermittent stream </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermittent involuntary sphincter activity during voiding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fractionated & incomplete voiding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abdominal straining needed to assist bladder emptying & contraction of abdominal muscles contracts the sphincter </li></ul></ul>
  66. 68. Studies requiring referral Urodynamics often with video fluro <ul><li>Parameters used to diagnose urodynamic dysfunction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bladder capacity of <10-15 mL/kg body weight, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postvoid residual of >2 mL/kg body weight, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detrusor hyper-reflexia, (detrusor contractions during bladder filling without urine leakage and intravesical pressure of >40 cm H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voiding detrusor pressure of >70 cm H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dyssynergic increase or lack of suppression of sphincteric EMG with a detrusor contraction. </li></ul></ul>
  67. 69. Studies requiring referral Urodynamics often with video fluro
  68. 70. Studies that should never be done <ul><li>Cystoscopy with or without urethral dilation or meatotomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are rarely if ever useful and are expensive & potentially dangerous </li></ul></ul>
  69. 71. Management of Voiding Dysfunction in Children with no treatable Neruologic, Urologic or other organic etiology
  70. 72. Treatment of Voiding Dysfunction Non Pharmacological <ul><li>Timed voiding is the easiest & most effective Rx & it works for irritable bladder & infrequent voider </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular by the clock voids q 2-3 hours during day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biofeedback </li></ul><ul><li>Kegel exercises </li></ul>
  71. 73. Treatment of Voiding Dysfunction Pharmacological <ul><li>Anticholinergic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for irritable bladder especially with urgency, frequency & urge incontinence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxybutinin 0.1-0.15 mg/kg per dose 3 x day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dry mouth, constipation, drowsiness & heat intolerance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Imipramine used primarily for nocturnal enuresis </li></ul><ul><li>Low dose UTI prophylaxis </li></ul>
  72. 74. Treatment of Voiding Dysfunction <ul><li>TREAT STOOLING DYSFUNCTION </li></ul>
  73. 75. UTIs, VUR & Elimination Dysfunction <ul><li>Strong association between the 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Treat voiding dysfunction </li></ul><ul><li>Treat stooling dysfunction </li></ul>
  74. 76. Approach to Voiding Dysfunction
  75. 77. Approach to Voiding Dysfunction
  76. 78. Summary We have reviewed <ul><li>Function (continent storage & voluntary emptying at low pressures) & how the lower GU tract works & how it matures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship with lower GI tract </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voiding dysfunction syndromes in normal children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When to suspect it- UTIs, VUR, incontinence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to evaluate (history, voiding diary) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to RX voiding dysfunction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Timed urination, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treat stooling dysfunction </li></ul></ul></ul>
  77. 79. Voiding Dysfunction in Children with Neurogenic Bladder
  78. 80. Spinal cord injury (SCI) produces profound alterations in lower urinary tract function <ul><li>Incontinence </li></ul><ul><li>Neurological obstruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevated intravesical pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VUR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased risk of UTIs </li></ul><ul><li>Stones </li></ul>
  79. 81. Neurogenic Bladder Made Simple Lack of higher CNS control results in <ul><li>Inability to sense fullness & voluntarily void </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detrusor controlled by un modulated spinal reflex </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sphincter with fixed passive resistance- Leak Point Pressure (LPP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Varies between patients may change in same patient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At bladder pressures < LPP no leakage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At bladder pressures > LPP leakage or urination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sphincter may not relax when bladder contracts- bladder sphincter dysnergia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results in high voiding pressures </li></ul></ul></ul>
  80. 82. Neurogenic Bladder Made Simple <ul><li>High LPP pressure is good for continence but bad for the kidney </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prolonged LPP > than 40 cm H2O have been associated with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VUR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upper tract deterioration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreasing bladder compliance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  81. 83. Neurogenic Bladder Made Simple <ul><li>Bladder compliance is another key variable & may change over time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determined by neurologic reflex activity & LPP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor bladder compliance associated with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incontinence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UTIs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upper Tract Damage </li></ul></ul></ul>
  82. 84. Focus is on 2 issues <ul><li>Preservation of Renal function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining normal bladder pressures during filling & voiding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimizing UTIs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not an issue in first couple of years of life </li></ul></ul>
  83. 85. Evaluation of Newborn with Neurogenic Bladder <ul><li>Assess upper tract for damage or evidence of high pressure (hydronephrosis) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creatinine, lytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UA & Cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renal US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CT urography can give more detail if US abnormal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can do non contrast MRI if there is renal failure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some use nuclear studies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  84. 86. Evaluation of Newborn with Neurogenic Bladder <ul><li>Assess lower tract for evidence of increased voiding pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bladder US for bladder hypertrophy & post void residual- obtain in newborn period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VCUG for VUR & bladder hypertrophy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urodynamics for LPP & compliance </li></ul></ul>
  85. 87. Newborn with Neurogenic Bladder General Treatment <ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Folic Acid- 0.4 mg per day start prior to pregnancy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minimize spinal damage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prenatal Diagnosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suspect in certain racial groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prenatal screening </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> fetoprotein- 16-17 weeks GA </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fetal sonography- 17th week GA </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C Section prior to labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper handling post delivery </li></ul></ul>
  86. 88. Newborn with Neurogenic Bladder General Treatment <ul><li>Latex precautions from birth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latex allergy seen in up to 40% of spina bifida patients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treat GI tract dysfunction </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize orthopedic function </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid obesity </li></ul>
  87. 89. Treatment of Neurogenic Bladder in the infant based on Evaluation <ul><li>Low LPP, normal bladder function- observation </li></ul><ul><li>Flaccid bladder unable to empty- Clean Intermittent Catheterization- CIC </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperreflexic &/or non compliant bladder- CIC with anticholinergics </li></ul><ul><li>CIC if needed done every 3 hours </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NO CREDE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If upper tracts deteriorate- vesicostomy </li></ul></ul>
  88. 90. Treatment of Neurogenic Bladder Continence, Bladder Pressures & UTIs <ul><li>Urologic Rx Based on bladder/sphincter physiology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low LPP, normal bladder function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observation for neonates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CIC for continence in older children </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flaccid bladder unable to empty- CIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperreflexic &/or non compliant bladder- CIC with anticholinergics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxybutynin 0.1 mgk/Kg per dose 3 X per day </li></ul></ul></ul>
  89. 91. Treatment of Neurogenic Bladder Continence, Bladder Pressures & UTIs <ul><li>CIC is key-  s bladder pressures, improves continence & eliminates residual urine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CIC in newborns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>done every 3 hours </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NO CREDE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If upper tracts deteriorate- vesicostomy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In older children CIC can be made easier with Continent Catheterizable stomas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Especially valuable in males who still have perineal sensation or children with poor coordination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metroffanof uses appendix as conduit </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  90. 92. Improving Continence Continent Catherizable Stomas <ul><li>Appendix (Mitrofanoff), section of ileum or colon placed from umbilicus to bladder & tunneled into bladder to prevent reflux </li></ul><ul><li>Indicated in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheel-chair bound patients with severe scoliosis lordosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor upper extremity function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Males with intact urethral sensation </li></ul></ul>
  91. 93. Bladder Augmentation <ul><li>Indicated when medical therapy fails to achieve adequate low-pressure capacity with continence </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of substances and surgical techniques used each with problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of intestinal tract allows absorption or secretion of electrolytes from or into urine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All require religious CIC to avoid rupture </li></ul>
  92. 94. Bladder Augmentation Variety of Methods <ul><li>Ileum & colon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperchloremic hypokalemia acidosis, mucous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stomach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less mucous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can cause hyperkalemic metabolic aklalosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can cause hematuria and dysuria due to acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rx with H2 blockers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Dilated ureter of non functioning kidney </li></ul><ul><ul><li>None of problems seen with GI tract </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Detrusor mytomy (autoaugmentation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>None of problems seen with GI tract </li></ul></ul>
  93. 95. Bladder Augmentation using Segment of Ileum
  94. 96. Improving Continence by Increasing Sphincter Resistance <ul><li> Adrenergic drugs (phenylpropanolamine, pseudoephedrine) increase sphincter tone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually only marginally effective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surgical techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Periurethral injections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bladder neck suspension & Sling procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial urinary sphincter </li></ul></ul>
  95. 97. Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) <ul><li>40-65% of neurogenic bladder patients have VUR </li></ul><ul><li>Rx aimed at reducing bladder pressures rather than fixing the VUR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bladder Augmentation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prophylactic antibiotics controversial </li></ul><ul><li>Surgical correction of VUR indicated for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deterioration of upper tracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recurrent pyelonephritis </li></ul></ul>
  96. 98. Urinary Tract Infections <ul><li>Bacteruria- rule not the exception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>J Peds 126; 1995; 490 </li></ul></ul>
  97. 99. Urinary Tract Infections <ul><li>Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in SCI patients of no proven benefit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not treat cultures treat patients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Working definition of true UTI in these patients is fever with + UC </li></ul>
  98. 100. Rx of Urinary Tract Infections <ul><li>Symptomatic UTIs treated with narrowest spectrum antibiotics for the shortest possible time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same antibiotics as used for Rx of complicated UTIs in general population </li></ul></ul>
  99. 101. Rx of Urinary Tract Infections <ul><li>Prophylaxis does not decrease UTIs or asymptomatic bacteruria- (J Peds 132;1998;704) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some still use if there is VUR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other methods also unsuccessful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cranberry juice- J Peds 135; 1999; 698 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single use sterile catheter Peds 108;2001;2001 </li></ul></ul>
  100. 102. Summary We have reviewed <ul><li>Function (storage & voluntary emptying at low pressures) & how the lower GU tract works & how it matures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship with lower GI tract </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voiding dysfunction in normal children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When to suspect it- UTIs, VUR, incontinence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to evaluate (voiding diary) & Rx it (timed urination) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluation & Rx of children with neurogenic bladder- focus on preserving upper tract & continence </li></ul>
  101. 103. References <ul><li>Pediatric Clinics N America 48; Dec 01 1489-1503 & 1505-1518 </li></ul><ul><li>Fernandes; The Unstable Bladder in children; Journal Peds; 118; 1991; 831 </li></ul><ul><li>Pediatrics in Review; Volume 21 Number 10 October 2000; 336-341 </li></ul>
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