The SKELETAL: Articulations
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The SKELETAL: Articulations

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The SKELETAL: Articulations The SKELETAL: Articulations Presentation Transcript

  • Anat 1 Chapter 8 : Articulations
    • Synarthrosis (no movement)
      • Bony Fusion (Synostosis)
      • Fibrous (Suture and Gomphosis)
      • Cartilaginous (Synchondrosis)
    • Amphiarthrosis (little movement)
      • Fibrous (Syndesmosis)
      • Cartilaginous (Symphysis)
    Functional / Structural Classification of Joints Give example location for each
    • Always synovial joints
    • mono, di-, and triaxial
    • Strength vs. motility The greater the range of motion, the weaker the joint.
    • Dislocation = luxation
    • Partial dislocation = ?
    • “ Double jointed”
    3) Diarthrosis (free movement) View slide
  • Diarthroses = Synovial Joints
    • Have synovial cavity = space between two bones
    • Components that are always present (fig 8-1)
    • Components that are sometimes present
    View slide
  • 3 Types of Motion at Synovial Joints
    • Linear motion = gliding
    • Angular motion :
      • flexion, extension, hyperextension
      • ab-, adduction
      • circumduction
    • Rotation
      • left - right, internal or medial, external or lateral
      • supination, pronation
  • Special Movements
    • Dorsiflexion, plantar flexion
    • Protraction, retraction
    • Elevation, depression
    Eversion inversion
  • 6 types of Diarthroses
    • Gliding Joint
    • Hinge Joint
    • Pivot Joint
    • Ellipsoidal joint
    • Saddle joint
    • Ball & Socket joint
  • Gliding Joint
    • articulating surfaces flat.
    • •  also found between carpals and tarsals
    • •  only slight movement - rotation prevented by ?
  • Hinge Joint
    • Convex surface of bone 1 fits into concave surface of bone 2
    • found in ?
    • monoaxial
  • Pivot Joint
    • Projection of bone 1 articulates within ring of bone 2
    • Also found in proximal ends of ulna and radius  pronation and supination
    rotation
  • Ellipsoidal (Condyloid) Joint
    • Oval shaped condyle of bone 1 fits into elliptical cavity of bone 2
    • Also found between phalanges & metacarpals/-tarsals
    • Angular motion in two planes (= )
  • Saddle Joint
    • Articular surfaces shaped like saddle and rider
    • Modified condyloid joint
    • Extensive angular motion without rotation
    • Also between malleus and incus
  • Ball and Socket Joint
    • Ball like surface of bone 1 fits into cuplike depression of bone 2
    • Found in ___________
    • Allows for flexion, ab- or adduction and rotation (  _____axial)
  • Representative Articulations
    • Temporomandibular Joint
    • Mostly hinge joint, some gliding and rotation
    • Articular disc
  • Intervertebral articulations
    • Gliding joints between ____________________
    • Intervertebral discs: (Amphiarthroses) 
      • annulus fibrosus: tough outer layer (fibrocartilage)
      • nucleus pulposus: soft, gelatinous core
      • Account for ~25% of vertebral column height – H 2 O loss during aging
    • Intervertebral ligaments
    Fig 8-8
  • Disc Problems
    • Slipped disc vs. herniated disc
    • Most common sites for disc problems:
      • C5 - C6
      • L4 - L5
      • L5 - S1
    • Lumbago
    • Laminectomy ( surgical removal vertebral arch by shaving laminae to access disc)
    Fig 8-9
  • Glenohumeral Joint
    • Type?
    • Greatest range of motion (due to loose and shallow)
    • Most frequently dislocated
    • Stability provided by?
  • Hip Joint
    • Deep well fitted _______ joint
    • Participants ?
    • Stabilization:
    • Extracapsular and intracapsular ligaments (ligamentum teres = ligamentum capitis femoris)
    • Surrounding muscles
    • Most important normal movement?
    Fig 8-15
  • Knee Joint
    • Much more complex than elbow
    • Much less stable than other ______
    • structurally 3 separate joints
    • Extra- and intracapsular ligaments
    • Locking of knee due to external rotation of tibia
    Figs 8-16 & 17
  • The end The end