<ul><li>Cutaneous Membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Accessory Structures </li></ul>Ch 4: Integumentary System
Made up of all 4 tissue types . . . .??
Two Major Subdivisions <ul><li>Cutaneous Membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epidermis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dermis </li><...
Epidermis <ul><li>Type of Epithelium? </li></ul><ul><li>_vascular </li></ul><ul><li>Different layers  (=strata) </li></ul>...
Stratum Germinativum <ul><li>Cell types: </li></ul><ul><li>Stem cells (basal cells) </li></ul><ul><li>Melanocytes </li></u...
Stratum Spinosum <ul><li>Stem cell daughter cells (some can still divide) </li></ul><ul><li>Melanocytes & Langerhans cells...
Stratum Granulosum <ul><li>Cells displaced from stratum spinosum   Keratinocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Production of keratohy...
Stratum Lucidum <ul><li>In palms of hands and soles of feet  </li></ul><ul><li>Cells do not stain well    clear (lucid) l...
<ul><li>Many layers of flattened, dead cells, filled with keratin </li></ul><ul><li>Continually shed in sheaths </li></ul>...
Thin  vs.  Thick Skin <ul><li>Up to 6 x thicker </li></ul><ul><li>Where?? </li></ul><ul><li>Average 0.08 mm </li></ul><ul>...
Contour of skin surface follows pattern of epidermal ridges.  Advantage  ?? Unique fingerprints c c
Skin Color <ul><li>depends on   3 pigments </li></ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin (dermal blood supply) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reddis...
Melanocytes Number of melanocytes same in all people,  production levels differ ! Function ?
Dermis <ul><li>Papillary layer  loose c.t. </li></ul><ul><li>Reticular layer  dense irregular c.t. </li></ul>
Papillary Layer <ul><li>Dermal papillae project between epidermal ridges. </li></ul><ul><li>Consist of </li></ul><ul><li>L...
Reticular Layer <ul><li>Consist of  </li></ul><ul><li>______________ c.t. </li></ul><ul><li>+ ?? </li></ul>Pacinian corpus...
Hypodermis <ul><li>2 other names ? </li></ul><ul><li>Indistinct boundary (c.t. fibers interwoven) </li></ul><ul><li>Made u...
Clinical Brief: <ul><li>Wrinkles </li></ul><ul><li>Stretch marks  (lineae albicantes) </li></ul><ul><li>Decubitus </li></u...
Accessory Structures: Hair Follicles & Hair  <ul><li>5 mio hair/hu body. (98% not on top of head) </li></ul><ul><li>Three ...
Skin Glands: 1) Sebaceous Glands <ul><li>Holocrine </li></ul><ul><li>Sebum  discharged into hair follicles </li></ul><ul><...
2)  Apocrine   Sweat Glands <ul><li>Have merocrine secretion!! </li></ul><ul><li>Empty into hair follicle </li></ul><ul><l...
3) Merocrine Sweat Glands <ul><li>Empty directly onto skin surface </li></ul><ul><li>Location: most all over body (esp. ab...
For purpose of completion:  <ul><li>Other integumentary Glands: </li></ul><ul><li>Mammary glands : Modified apocrine sweat...
The End Nails not covered. Skin and Aging Process
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The Integumetary System

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  • Lucid = translucent
  • Insensible perspiration about 500 ml / day
  • Subcutaneous layer or superficial fascia
  • The Integumetary System

    1. 1. <ul><li>Cutaneous Membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Accessory Structures </li></ul>Ch 4: Integumentary System
    2. 2. Made up of all 4 tissue types . . . .??
    3. 3. Two Major Subdivisions <ul><li>Cutaneous Membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epidermis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dermis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypodermis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accessory Structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excretory glands (?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>? </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Epidermis <ul><li>Type of Epithelium? </li></ul><ul><li>_vascular </li></ul><ul><li>Different layers (=strata) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 layers in thin skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 layers in thick skin </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Stratum Germinativum <ul><li>Cell types: </li></ul><ul><li>Stem cells (basal cells) </li></ul><ul><li>Melanocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Merkel cells (touch receptors in hairless skin only) </li></ul>Stratum germinativum = stratum basale Innermost, single layer
    6. 6. Stratum Spinosum <ul><li>Stem cell daughter cells (some can still divide) </li></ul><ul><li>Melanocytes & Langerhans cells </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of Desmosomes </li></ul>Stratum spinosum Several cells thick
    7. 7. Stratum Granulosum <ul><li>Cells displaced from stratum spinosum  Keratinocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Production of keratohyalin and keratin fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Cells start to die. Dehydration leaves interlocked layers of keratin, keratohyalin & PL membranes </li></ul>Stratum granulosum
    8. 8. Stratum Lucidum <ul><li>In palms of hands and soles of feet </li></ul><ul><li>Cells do not stain well  clear (lucid) looking </li></ul>Stratum lucidum
    9. 9. <ul><li>Many layers of flattened, dead cells, filled with keratin </li></ul><ul><li>Continually shed in sheaths </li></ul><ul><li>Water-resistant but not water proof (  insensible perspiration) </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively dry - advantage? </li></ul><ul><li>Keratinization occurs everywhere except for anterior surface of eye </li></ul>Stratum Corneum Stratum corneum 15-30 layers (much thicker in thick skin)
    10. 10. Thin vs. Thick Skin <ul><li>Up to 6 x thicker </li></ul><ul><li>Where?? </li></ul><ul><li>Average 0.08 mm </li></ul><ul><li>Rest of body </li></ul>Refers to epidermis
    11. 11. Contour of skin surface follows pattern of epidermal ridges. Advantage ?? Unique fingerprints c c
    12. 12. Skin Color <ul><li>depends on 3 pigments </li></ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin (dermal blood supply) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reddish tones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pale, due to? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluish (=?), due to? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Melanin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced by melanocytes of stratum basale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carotene </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtained from plant foods </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Melanocytes Number of melanocytes same in all people, production levels differ ! Function ?
    14. 14. Dermis <ul><li>Papillary layer loose c.t. </li></ul><ul><li>Reticular layer dense irregular c.t. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Papillary Layer <ul><li>Dermal papillae project between epidermal ridges. </li></ul><ul><li>Consist of </li></ul><ul><li>Loose c.t. = _____ </li></ul><ul><li>Capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Tactile receptors </li></ul>M 
    16. 16. Reticular Layer <ul><li>Consist of </li></ul><ul><li>______________ c.t. </li></ul><ul><li>+ ?? </li></ul>Pacinian corpuscule (deep pressure)
    17. 17. Hypodermis <ul><li>2 other names ? </li></ul><ul><li>Indistinct boundary (c.t. fibers interwoven) </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose c.t. + lots of . . . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilization of skin while allowing for independent movement </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Clinical Brief: <ul><li>Wrinkles </li></ul><ul><li>Stretch marks (lineae albicantes) </li></ul><ul><li>Decubitus </li></ul><ul><li>Transdermal medication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage and disadvantage? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypodermic needles </li></ul>Lines of cleavage
    19. 19. Accessory Structures: Hair Follicles & Hair <ul><li>5 mio hair/hu body. (98% not on top of head) </li></ul><ul><li>Three hair types (vellus – intermediate – terminal) </li></ul><ul><li>Function ? </li></ul><ul><li>Hair color </li></ul><ul><li>Growth cycle </li></ul>
    20. 20. Skin Glands: 1) Sebaceous Glands <ul><li>Holocrine </li></ul><ul><li>Sebum discharged into hair follicles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(lubrication & bactericidal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>excessive shampooing leads to dry & brittle hair </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sebaceous follicles , = Large sebaceous glands, discharge directly to epidermis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Folliculitis; furuncle (boil); acne </li></ul>
    21. 21. 2) Apocrine Sweat Glands <ul><li>Have merocrine secretion!! </li></ul><ul><li>Empty into hair follicle </li></ul><ul><li>Location: armpits, groin, nipples </li></ul><ul><li>Viscous, cloudy secretion  good nutrient source for bacteria (odor !!) </li></ul><ul><li>Secretion may contain Pheromones </li></ul><ul><li>Secretion begins at puberty and is stimulated during emotional distress (cold sweat) </li></ul>
    22. 22. 3) Merocrine Sweat Glands <ul><li>Empty directly onto skin surface </li></ul><ul><li>Location: most all over body (esp. abundant on palms & soles: ~ 500/cm 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Clear, watery secretion (99% H 2 O; rest NaCl + some waste products) </li></ul><ul><li>Sensible perspiration; Function: ? </li></ul>
    23. 23. For purpose of completion: <ul><li>Other integumentary Glands: </li></ul><ul><li>Mammary glands : Modified apocrine sweat glands </li></ul><ul><li>Ceruminous glands : modified sweat glands in __________ </li></ul>
    24. 24. The End Nails not covered. Skin and Aging Process

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