The Female Reproductive System

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The Female Reproductive System

  1. 1. Ch 27: Female Reproductive System <ul><li>All organs are internal and closely associated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary reproductive organs: ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary reproductive organs : ? </li></ul></ul>Female repro system must produce gametes AND maintain developing embryo Fig 27-11
  2. 2. Ovaries <ul><li>Suspended by ovarian ligament & suspensory ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Ova production </li></ul><ul><li>Hormone production </li></ul>
  3. 3. Oogenesis ( = ovum production) <ul><li>takes place inside ovarian follicles in ovaries as part of ovarian cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Oogonia (= stem cells) complete mitotic divisions before birth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At birth: ~ 2 mio primary oocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At puberty: ~ 400,000 primary oocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40 years later: 0 (even though only ~ 500 used)  Atresia </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Oogensis <ul><li>Ovarian cycles start at puberty under influence of ___ </li></ul><ul><li>Primordial follicle </li></ul><ul><li>Primary follicle </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary follicle </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary (Graafian follicle) </li></ul>Each month some proceed Few proceed Few proceed Fig 27-12
  5. 5. Primordial Follicle or Egg Nests (simple squamous layer) in cortex Present at birth
  6. 6. Primary Follicle Oocytes Follicle cells Follicles enlarge in response to FSH and produce estrogens
  7. 7. Secondary Follicle Few relative to number of primary follicles Produce follicular fluid Rapid enlargement = Clear glycoprotein layer
  8. 8. Tertiary or Graafian Follicle Spans entire width of cortex First meiotic division being completed: 1  oocyte divides into one 2  oocyte and one polar body
  9. 9. Oogenesis Ovulation Happens in tertiary follicle Suspended in prophase I Stops in Metaphase II
  10. 10. Ovulation <ul><li>Oocyte and follicular cells shed into abdominal cavity </li></ul><ul><li>then </li></ul><ul><li>Empty follicle forms corpus luteum which produces progesterone </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus luteum degenerates and becomes corpus albicans </li></ul><ul><li>GnRH increases under low estrogen and progesterone levels </li></ul>
  11. 11. Uterine Tube <ul><li>= Fallopian tube = oviduct = salpinx </li></ul><ul><li>Two muscular tubes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>infundibulum with fimbriae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ampulla (place of fertilization) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isthmus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intramural portion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tubal ligation </li></ul>Fig 27-14
  12. 12. Uterine Tube Histology <ul><li>Ciliated and non-ciliated simple columnar epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Ciliary movement and periodic peristaltic contractions move ova </li></ul><ul><li>Secretion of nutrient substances </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Uterus <ul><li>Uterine wall ~ 1.5 cm </li></ul><ul><li>made up of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endometrium, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Myometrium, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incomplete perimetrium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blood supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uterine arteries from internal iliac </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovarian arteries from abdominal aorta (inferior to renal arteries) </li></ul></ul>Fig 27-16
  14. 14. Histology of Endometrium <ul><li>Functional zone – deciduum, sheds during menses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>menstruation - flow sheds functionalis layer of endometrium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>proliferative phase - under influence of estrogen basal cells proliferate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>secretory phase - progesterone maintains functionalis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basilar zone – permanent layer, deep to functionalis </li></ul>Fig 27-16
  15. 15. Functions of Uterus <ul><li>Protection of embryo/fetus </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional support </li></ul><ul><li>Waste removal </li></ul><ul><li>Ejection of fetus at birth </li></ul>
  16. 16. Cervix and Vagina <ul><li>Cervix attaches to vagina at ~ 90° angle </li></ul><ul><li>Fornix – pocket surrounding uterine cervix (surgical access to pelvic cavity; location of birth control device) </li></ul><ul><li>Vagina – fibro-muscular organ serving as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>receptacle for intercourse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>passageway for menstrual products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>birth canal </li></ul></ul>Fig 27-20b
  17. 17. The Mammary Gland <ul><li>Modified sweat gland </li></ul><ul><li>Overlaying the ____________ muscle </li></ul><ul><li>15-20 separate lobes separated by suspensory ligaments; each lobe contains several secretory lobules </li></ul><ul><li>Lactiferous ducts leaving lobules; converge into 15-20 lactiferous sinuses </li></ul><ul><li>Milk stored in lactiferous sinus until released at tip of nipple </li></ul>Fig 27-21
  18. 18. Lymphatic Drainage of Mammary Glands . . . <ul><li>. . . is of considerable clinical importance, why ?? </li></ul>The End

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