The CARDIO: Heart


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Syncytium: a multinucleate mass of protoplasm (as in the plasmodium of a slime mold) resulting from fusion of cells
  • The condition produces a distinctive "clicking" sound that can be heard when listening to the heart with a stethoscope. Cause unknown. More frequent in women.
  • The CARDIO: Heart

    1. 1. Ch 21: Cardiovascular System - The Heart - Give a detailed description of the superficial and internal anatomy of the heart, including the pericardium, the myocardium, and the cardiac muscle. Explain the functioning of the valves of the heart and how they relate to the heart sounds. Discuss the conductive pathway of the heart, and relate that to clinical uses of the ECG. Goals
    2. 2. Pulmonary & Systemic Circuits artery vein capillaries
    3. 3. Location of Heart within Thoracic Cavity <ul><li>Inside thoracic cavity </li></ul><ul><li>In center of chest deep to sternum, apex tipped toward the left; base superior </li></ul><ul><li>Inside mediastinum </li></ul><ul><li>In pericardial space </li></ul>
    4. 4. Pericardium - Covering <ul><li>1. Fibrous pericardium - tough, collagenous </li></ul><ul><li>2. Serous parietal pericardium (lines fibrous pericardium) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Pericardial space with 10-20 ml of pericardial fluid </li></ul><ul><li>4. Serous visceral pericardium adheres to the heart surface </li></ul><ul><li>(also known as epicardium) </li></ul>
    5. 5. Structure of Heart Wall <ul><li>Epicardium = visceral Pericardium (serosa) </li></ul><ul><li>Myocardium : muscle tissue + c.t. + blood vessels + ? </li></ul><ul><li>Endocardium : simple squamous epithelium continuous with endothelia of blood vessels </li></ul>
    6. 6. Cardiac Muscle <ul><li>Striated, aerobic, interwoven, autorhythmic </li></ul><ul><li>Intercalated discs - gap junctions, strong desmosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Functional syncytium </li></ul>Fig 21.3
    7. 7. Fibrous Skeleton <ul><li>Internal c.t. network with lots of collagen and elastic fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Encircles bases of great vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Encircles bases of valves </li></ul><ul><li>functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Isolate atria from ventricles elctrically </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce myocardium itself </li></ul>
    8. 8. Surface Anatomy of Heart <ul><li>Auricle of atria (expandable) </li></ul><ul><li>Coronary sulcus (between atria & ventricles) </li></ul><ul><li>Ant. & post. interventricular sulcus </li></ul><ul><li>Base (3 rd costal cartilage) vs. apex (5 th intercostal space) </li></ul><ul><li>Vessels entering & leaving the heart </li></ul>Fig 21.5
    9. 9. Sectional (Internal) Heart Anatomy <ul><li>Atria & ventricles </li></ul><ul><li>Interatrial & interventricular septae </li></ul><ul><li>Valves (fibrous tissue) </li></ul><ul><li>Pectinate muscles (auricles & ant. atria) </li></ul><ul><li>Trabeculae carneae (ventricles) </li></ul><ul><li>Chordae tendinae & papillary muscles </li></ul>Fig 21.6
    10. 10. Left vs. Right Ventricle <ul><li>Left: high pressure pump - Right: low pressure pump  right chamber is thinner walled than left </li></ul><ul><li>Ventricles separated by interventricular septum </li></ul>
    11. 11. Structure and Function of Valves = Mitral valve 4 sets of valves Prevent backflow of blood Close passively under blood pressure Heart sounds produced by valve closure
    12. 12. picture taken from R ventricle, looking toward R atrium (see fig 21.6) Support for AV valves: valves are restrained by chordae tendinae which are in turn attached to papillary muscles (prevention of backflow!)
    13. 13. Mitral Valve Prolapse <ul><li>Most common cardiac variation (5-10% of population) </li></ul><ul><li>Mitral valve cusps do not close properly </li></ul><ul><li>Regurgitation during left ventricular systole </li></ul><ul><li>Not life threatening; may be lifestyle threatening </li></ul><ul><li>How can you diagnose ? </li></ul>
    14. 14. Blood flow pattern through the heart <ul><li>Blood enters right atrium </li></ul><ul><li>Passes tricuspid valve into right ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves by passing pulmonary semilunar valves into pulmonary trunk and to the lungs to be oxygenated </li></ul><ul><li>Returns from the lung by way of pulmonary veins into the left atrium </li></ul><ul><li>From left atrium past bicuspid valve into left ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves left ventricle past aortic semilunar valves into aorta </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed to rest of the body </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Actual physical contraction pattern of the myocardium as determined by the conduction. </li></ul><ul><li>Contraction is systole </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxation is diastole </li></ul><ul><li>The two atria are in systole and diastole together as are the two ventricles. </li></ul>Cardiac Cycle
    16. 16. Auscultation of Heart Sounds: 1st HS: at beginning of ventricular contraction, due to? 2nd HS: at beginning of ventricular diastole, due to?
    17. 17. Coronary Circulation Coronary arteries: first branches off the ascending aorta.
    18. 18. coronary veins coronary sinus right atrium (inferior to opening of inferior vena cava) posterior view
    19. 19. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) PET scan the brighter the color the greater the blood flow through tissue due to ? consequences ?
    20. 20. Myocardial Infarction (MI) <ul><li>~ 1.3 Mio MIs / year in US </li></ul><ul><li>Most commonly due to severe CAD (coronary thrombosis) </li></ul><ul><li>Ischemic tissue degenerates -> nonfunctional area = infarct </li></ul><ul><li>Predisposing factors? </li></ul>
    21. 21. Conducting System of the Heart <ul><li>Specialized muscle cells (autorhythmic cells) conduct APs to time and synchronize the action of the chambers </li></ul><ul><li>SA node -pacemaker, spontaneously depolarizes most rapidly and initiate heart beat, positioned on back wall of right atrium , transmits action potential to </li></ul><ul><li>AV node - (where the four chambers meet). </li></ul><ul><li>AV bundle (bundle of His) transmits down top of interventricular septum where it divides into two </li></ul><ul><li>Bundle branches , one of which supplies each ventricle where they branch into </li></ul><ul><li>Purkinje fibers reflect up external walls of ventricles and stimulate contraction of cardiac muscle cells as a unit. </li></ul><ul><li>Purkinje fibers extend into papillary muscles as well </li></ul>The End