Skull, Brain and Cranial Nerves streetanatomy.com   www.uberreview.com
Skull <ul><li>Part of Axial Skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Cranial bones = cranium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enclose and protect b...
Cranial and Facial Bones <ul><li>Cranial - 8 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occipital </li></ul>...
Bones of Skull <ul><li>Flat bones: thin, flattened, some curve </li></ul><ul><li>Sutures: immovable joints joining bones <...
Cranial Fossae <ul><li>Created by bony ridges </li></ul><ul><li>Supports, encircles brain </li></ul><ul><li>3 Fossae </li>...
Other Cavities of Skull <ul><li>Orbits </li></ul><ul><li>Nasal Cavity </li></ul>Middle Ear Inner Ear pg 904 pg 813
Skull through Life <ul><li>Ossifies late in 2 nd  month of development </li></ul><ul><li>Frontal + Mandible start as 2 hal...
Fetal Skull <ul><li>Skull bones separated by unossified membranes =  Fontanels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow compression of ...
<ul><li>4 Parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebrum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* Diencephalon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain ...
Meninges: 3 membranes around brain and spinal cord <ul><li>Made of Connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul...
Meninges  (continued) <ul><li>Dura mater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strongest, 2 Layers, Fibrous Connective Tissue </li></ul></...
Extensions of Dura Mater <ul><ul><li>Partitions: limit movement of brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Falx Cerebri   –ve...
Meninges <ul><li>Arachnoid Mater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subarachnoid Space -between...
Meninges  (continued) <ul><li>Pia Mater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innermost layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delicate, highly ...
Ventricles <ul><li>Expansions of brain’s central cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Lined with Ependymal Cells </li></ul><ul><li>Fil...
Ventricles  (continued) <ul><li>Lateral Ventricles (#1+2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebral Hemisphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Cerebrospinal Fluid <ul><li>Liquid cushion for brain and spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Nourishes brain </li></ul><ul><li>R...
Choroid Plexuses <ul><li>Choroid Plexuses : groups of capillaries surrounded by ependymal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Made of ...
Flow of CSF <ul><li>Formed in Choroid plexuses </li></ul><ul><li>Through Ventricles </li></ul><ul><li>Into Subarachnoid sp...
Organization of the Brain <ul><li>Composed of gray and white matter </li></ul><ul><li>Different organization than in the s...
Cerebrum <ul><li>“ Executive Suite” of nervous system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-awareness, initiate + control voluntary m...
Cerebral Hemispheres <ul><li>Fissures and Grooves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fissures – deepest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
Cerebral Hemispheres:  <ul><li>Each hemisphere divided into 5 lobes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Cerebral Hemispheres <ul><li>The 2 hemispheres control opposite sides of body </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus callosum </li></ul>...
Diencephalon <ul><li>Surrounded by cerebral hemispheres </li></ul><ul><li>Made of 3 Paired Structures </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Brainstem <ul><li>Midbrain, Pons, Medulla Oblongata  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passage of all signals between spinal cord and ...
Brainstem <ul><li>Midbrain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual and Auditory reflex centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attachment ...
<ul><li>Smooths + coordinates body movements directed by other parts of brain </li></ul><ul><li>2 Cerebellar Hemispheres <...
Blood Brain Barrier <ul><li>Protects brain from blood-borne toxins (e.g. urea, food toxins, bacteria) </li></ul><ul><li>En...
Blood Supply to Brain <ul><li>Arteries  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External carotid arteries and branches </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Blood Supply to the Brain <ul><li>Veins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dural sinuses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superior & Infe...
Cranial Nerves <ul><li>12 Pairs: I-XII </li></ul><ul><li>Numbered Anterior to Posterior </li></ul><ul><li>Attach to inferi...
Foramina serving Cranial Nerves <ul><li>You must know what foramina each CN leaves the skull through   </li></ul><ul><li>(...
How to Remember CN I-XII O h!  O h!  O h!  T o  T ouch  A nd  F eel  V ery  G ood  V elvet!  A h  H eaven!
I O lfactory (oh) II O ptic (oh) III O culomotor (oh) IV T rochlear (to) V T rigeminal (1-3) (touch) VI A bducens (and) VI...
Motor vs. Sensory Nerves <ul><li>Sensory = Afferent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Send nervous impulse  from sensory receptors to ...
Sensory Nerves <ul><li>Sensory = Afferent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visceral Sensory  (sensory innervation of viscera) </li></...
Motor Nerves <ul><li>Motor Nerves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visceral Motor   (motor innervation muscle in viscera + glands) </...
Mnemonic for CN Function <ul><li>Some  (CN I) </li></ul><ul><li>Say  (CN II) </li></ul><ul><li>Marry   (CN III) </li></ul>...
I Olfactory-------- Sensory --smell II Optic------------- Sensory --vision III Oculomotor---- Motor ----extrinsic eye musc...
VI Abducens-------------- Motor -----eye abduction muscles VII Facial------------------- Sensory ---part of tongue (taste)...
CN I:  Olfactory Nerve <ul><li>Attaches to cerebrum </li></ul><ul><li>Many nerve endings from olfactory bulbs </li></ul><u...
CN II:  Optic Nerve <ul><li>Attaches to Diencephalon </li></ul><ul><li>Enters orbit through optic canal </li></ul><ul><li>...
CN III:  Oculomotor Nerve <ul><li>Attaches to Midbrain </li></ul><ul><li>Enters orbit through superior orbital fissure </l...
CN IV: Trochlear Nerve <ul><li>Attaches to Midbrain </li></ul><ul><li>Enters orbit through superior orbital fissure </li><...
CN V 1 : Ophthalmic Nerve <ul><li>First branch of Trigeminal nerve (CN V) </li></ul><ul><li>Attaches to Pons </li></ul><ul...
CN V 2  : Maxillary Nerve <ul><li>Second branch of Trigeminal nerve (CN V) </li></ul><ul><li>Attaches to the pons </li></u...
CN V 3 : Mandibular Nerve <ul><li>Third branch of Trigeminal nerve (CN V) </li></ul><ul><li>Attaches to Pons </li></ul><ul...
Distribution of sensory innervation to skin of face from CN V CN V = Trigeminal V 1  = Opthalmic V 2  = Maxillary V 3  = M...
CN VI: Abducens Nerve <ul><li>Attaches to Pons </li></ul><ul><li>Enters orbit through superior orbital fissure </li></ul><...
CN VII: Facial Nerve <ul><li>Attaches to Pons </li></ul><ul><li>Exits cranial cavity through internal acoustic meatus, the...
CN VIII: Vestibulocochlear Nerve <ul><li>Attaches to Pons </li></ul><ul><li>Enters inner ear through internal acoustic mea...
CN IX: Glossopharyngeal nerve <ul><li>Attaches to medulla oblongata </li></ul><ul><li>Exits cranial cavity through jugular...
CN X: Vagus Nerve <ul><li>Attaches to Medulla oblongata </li></ul><ul><li>Exits cranial cavity through jugular foramen </l...
CN XI: Accessory Nerve <ul><li>Attaches to Medulla oblongata </li></ul><ul><li>Exits cranial cavity through jugular forame...
CN XII: Hypoglossal Nerve <ul><li>Attaches to Medulla oblongata </li></ul><ul><li>Exits cranial cavity through hypoglossal...
Summary of Functional Groups <ul><li>Purely Sensory = I, II, VIII </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily Motor = III, IV, VI, XI, XII...
Parasympathetic Fibers <ul><li>CN III = Oculomotor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracts Iris (controls pupil) </li></ul></ul><u...
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Skull, Brain and Cranial Nerves

  1. 1. Skull, Brain and Cranial Nerves streetanatomy.com www.uberreview.com
  2. 2. Skull <ul><li>Part of Axial Skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Cranial bones = cranium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enclose and protect brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attachment for head + neck muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facial bones =framework of face </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form cavities for sense organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opening for air + food passage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hold teeth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchor face muscles </li></ul></ul>pg 800
  3. 3. Cranial and Facial Bones <ul><li>Cranial - 8 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occipital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sphenoid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethmoid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parietal (2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporal (2) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facial – 14 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maxilla (2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zygomatic (2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nasal (2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacrimal (2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palatine (2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vomer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inf. Nasal Conchae(2) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Bones of Skull <ul><li>Flat bones: thin, flattened, some curve </li></ul><ul><li>Sutures: immovable joints joining bones </li></ul><ul><li>Calvaria = Skullcap =Vault </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior, Lateral, Posterior part of skull </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Floor = Base </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inferior part of skull </li></ul></ul><ul><li>85 openings in skull </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinal cord, blood vessels, nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foramina, meatus, canal, fissure, notch </li></ul></ul>pg 818 pg 825
  5. 5. Cranial Fossae <ul><li>Created by bony ridges </li></ul><ul><li>Supports, encircles brain </li></ul><ul><li>3 Fossae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All the bones visible from this view are the cranial bones!! </li></ul>pg 825
  6. 6. Other Cavities of Skull <ul><li>Orbits </li></ul><ul><li>Nasal Cavity </li></ul>Middle Ear Inner Ear pg 904 pg 813
  7. 7. Skull through Life <ul><li>Ossifies late in 2 nd month of development </li></ul><ul><li>Frontal + Mandible start as 2 halves-then fuse </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of Skull </li></ul><ul><ul><li>½ adult size by age 9 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>¾ adult size by 2 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100% adult size by 8-9 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Face enlarges between ages 6-13 years </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Fetal Skull <ul><li>Skull bones separated by unossified membranes = Fontanels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow compression of skull during delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows rapid growth of brain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mostly replaced w/bone after 1 st year </li></ul>www.aafp.org
  9. 9. <ul><li>4 Parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebrum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* Diencephalon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain Stem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Midbrain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medulla </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebellum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gray matter surrounded by White matter w/outer cortex of gray matter </li></ul><ul><li>*some texts consider this part of brain stem </li></ul>The Brain Pg 836
  10. 10. Meninges: 3 membranes around brain and spinal cord <ul><li>Made of Connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover, Protect CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enclose, protect blood vessels supplying CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain CSF </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 Layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dura Mater (external) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arachnoid Mater (middle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pia Mater (internal) </li></ul></ul>pg 833
  11. 11. Meninges (continued) <ul><li>Dura mater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strongest, 2 Layers, Fibrous Connective Tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Periosteal layer (Periosteum): External/superficial layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meningeal layer: Internal/deep layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Layers fused except around dural sinuses (venous blood filled  internal jugular vein) </li></ul></ul>pg 818
  12. 12. Extensions of Dura Mater <ul><ul><li>Partitions: limit movement of brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Falx Cerebri –vertical, between cerebral hemispheres </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Falx Cerebelli -vertical, between cerebellar hemispheres </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tentorium Cerebelli –horizontal, between cerebrum and cerebellum </li></ul></ul></ul>pg 831
  13. 13. Meninges <ul><li>Arachnoid Mater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subarachnoid Space -between arachnoid mater and pia mater (contains most of CSF, blood vessels) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arachnoid Villi (Granulations)- projections of arachnoid mater through dura into superior sagittal sinus, act as valves to help CSF pass into dural sinuses </li></ul></ul>pg 833
  14. 14. Meninges (continued) <ul><li>Pia Mater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innermost layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delicate, highly vascular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clings directly to brain tissue, dips into convolutions </li></ul></ul>pg 833
  15. 15. Ventricles <ul><li>Expansions of brain’s central cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Lined with Ependymal Cells </li></ul><ul><li>Filled with CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) </li></ul><ul><li>Ventricles continuous w/each other + central canal of spinal cord </li></ul>Pg 836
  16. 16. Ventricles (continued) <ul><li>Lateral Ventricles (#1+2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebral Hemisphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separated by Septum Pellucidum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Third Ventricle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diencephalon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interventricular Foramen : connects to lateral ventricle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fourth Ventricle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hindbrain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebral Aqueduct: connects 3 rd and 4 th ventricles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects to central canal of spinal cord & medulla </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 openings connect 4 th to subarachnoid space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 lateral apertures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 median aperture </li></ul></ul></ul>health.howstuffworks.com
  17. 17. Cerebrospinal Fluid <ul><li>Liquid cushion for brain and spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Nourishes brain </li></ul><ul><li>Removes waste </li></ul><ul><li>Conducts chemical signals between parts of CNS (e.g. hormones) </li></ul><ul><li>Forms as a filtrate of blood in choroid plexuses </li></ul>health.allrefer.com
  18. 18. Choroid Plexuses <ul><li>Choroid Plexuses : groups of capillaries surrounded by ependymal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Made of sodium, chloride ions, proteins, glucose, O 2 </li></ul>www.daviddarling.info
  19. 19. Flow of CSF <ul><li>Formed in Choroid plexuses </li></ul><ul><li>Through Ventricles </li></ul><ul><li>Into Subarachnoid space & central canal from 4 th ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>Through Arachnoid Villi into Superior Sagittal Sinus </li></ul><ul><li>Into Internal Jugular Vein </li></ul>faculty.washington.edu
  20. 20. Organization of the Brain <ul><li>Composed of gray and white matter </li></ul><ul><li>Different organization than in the spinal cord </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centrally located gray matter surrounded by white matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cortex: external sheets of gray matter in cerebrum & cerebellum (some parts of brain) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclei: deep masses of gray matter surrounded by white matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(some parts of brain) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Cerebrum <ul><li>“ Executive Suite” of nervous system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-awareness, initiate + control voluntary movements, communicate, remember, understanding, language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most superior region </li></ul><ul><li>Covers diencephalon + top of brain stem like mushroom cap </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebral cortex </li></ul>pg 836
  22. 22. Cerebral Hemispheres <ul><li>Fissures and Grooves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fissures – deepest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transverse cerebral fissure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separates cerebral hemispheres from cerebellum </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Longitudinal fissure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separates R and L cerebral hemispheres </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulci </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grooves on surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gyri </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ridges of brain tissue among the sulci </li></ul></ul></ul>pg 836 pg 833
  23. 23. Cerebral Hemispheres: <ul><li>Each hemisphere divided into 5 lobes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parietal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occipital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insula </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Created by deep sulci </li></ul><ul><li>Functional areas: motor, sensory </li></ul><ul><li>Associative areas: integrate </li></ul>pg 836
  24. 24. Cerebral Hemispheres <ul><li>The 2 hemispheres control opposite sides of body </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus callosum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The largest commissure between the hemispheres </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hemispheres specialized for different cognitive functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Left Cerebral hemisphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language, mathematics and logic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right Cerebral hemisphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visual-spatial, interpreting facial expressions, intuition, emotion, artistic/musical skills </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Diencephalon <ul><li>Surrounded by cerebral hemispheres </li></ul><ul><li>Made of 3 Paired Structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thalamus “gateway” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communicates sensory info of cerebral cortex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regulates many body activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emotion, sleep, memory, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pituitary Gland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growth Hormone </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thyroid Stimulating Hormone </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epithalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pineal Gland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Melatonin </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>pg 836
  26. 26. Brainstem <ul><li>Midbrain, Pons, Medulla Oblongata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passage of all signals between spinal cord and brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulates basic physiological functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innervation of head and neck </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Brainstem <ul><li>Midbrain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual and Auditory reflex centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attachment for CN III, IV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attachment for CN V, VI, VII, VIII </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medulla oblongata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulates several basic physiological functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attachment of CN IX, X, XI, XII </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Smooths + coordinates body movements directed by other parts of brain </li></ul><ul><li>2 Cerebellar Hemispheres </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebellar cortex surrounds Arbor vitae </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information on equilibrium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement of neck, trunk, limbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information from cerebral cortex on voluntary movement </li></ul></ul>Cerebellum
  29. 29. Blood Brain Barrier <ul><li>Protects brain from blood-borne toxins (e.g. urea, food toxins, bacteria) </li></ul><ul><li>Endothelium of brain capillaries are loaded with tight junction to decrease permeability </li></ul><ul><li>Not complete protection, some things still have to get through (e.g. fat-soluble molecules can pass through) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Blood Supply to Brain <ul><li>Arteries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External carotid arteries and branches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tissues of head & face, skin, muscles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Middle meningeal a. = brain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boxers! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal carotid arteries and branches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opthalmic a. = Eye & Orbits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ant & Middle Cerebral arts = Cerebrum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Branches form Cerebral Arterial Circle = Anastomosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertebral arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior brain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vertebrae & Cervical Spinal Cord </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Branches form Cerebral Arterial Circle = Anastomosis </li></ul></ul></ul>pg 832 pg 838
  31. 31. Blood Supply to the Brain <ul><li>Veins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dural sinuses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superior & Inferior Sagittal, transverse, sigmoid, straight, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal jugular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receives from dural sinuses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External jugular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drains scalp and face (superficial) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertebral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drains cervical vertebrae, cervical spinal cord, small neck muscles </li></ul></ul></ul>pg 842 pg 870
  32. 32. Cranial Nerves <ul><li>12 Pairs: I-XII </li></ul><ul><li>Numbered Anterior to Posterior </li></ul><ul><li>Attach to inferior surface of brain </li></ul><ul><li>Exit brain through foramina in skull </li></ul><ul><li>I + II attach to Forebrain (cerebrum + diencephalon) </li></ul><ul><li>III-XII attach to Brainstem (midbrain, pons, medulla) </li></ul><ul><li>Only X goes beyond the head-neck </li></ul>pg 851
  33. 33. Foramina serving Cranial Nerves <ul><li>You must know what foramina each CN leaves the skull through </li></ul><ul><li>(refer to lab manual) </li></ul>
  34. 34. How to Remember CN I-XII O h! O h! O h! T o T ouch A nd F eel V ery G ood V elvet! A h H eaven!
  35. 35. I O lfactory (oh) II O ptic (oh) III O culomotor (oh) IV T rochlear (to) V T rigeminal (1-3) (touch) VI A bducens (and) VII F acial (feel) VIII V estibulocochlear (very) IX G lossopharyngeal (good) X V agus (velvet) XI A ccessory (ah) XII H ypoglossal (heaven)
  36. 36. Motor vs. Sensory Nerves <ul><li>Sensory = Afferent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Send nervous impulse from sensory receptors to brain to bring in information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. pressure, temperature, pain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motor = Efferent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Send nervous impulses from brain to body to accomplish an action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. movement of a muscle, activation of a gland </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Sensory Nerves <ul><li>Sensory = Afferent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visceral Sensory (sensory innervation of viscera) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stretch, pain, temp., chemical changes, irritation in viscera </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Special: taste </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Somatic Sensory (sensory innervation of outer part body) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>touch, pain, pressure, vibration, temp. in skin, body wall, limbs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Special: hearing, equilibrium, vision, smell </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Motor Nerves <ul><li>Motor Nerves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visceral Motor (motor innervation muscle in viscera + glands) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>innervation smooth + cardiac muscle, glands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Somatic Motor (motor innervation of skeletal muscle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>innervation of skeletal muscles (except pharyngeal arch m.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Mnemonic for CN Function <ul><li>Some (CN I) </li></ul><ul><li>Say (CN II) </li></ul><ul><li>Marry (CN III) </li></ul><ul><li>Money (CN IV) </li></ul><ul><li>But (CN V) </li></ul><ul><li>My (CN VI) </li></ul><ul><li>Brother (CN VII) </li></ul><ul><li>Says (CN VIII) </li></ul><ul><li>Big (CN IX) </li></ul><ul><li>Brains (CN X) </li></ul><ul><li>Matter (CN XI) </li></ul><ul><li>Most! (CN XII) </li></ul><ul><li>S = Sensory function M = Motor function </li></ul><ul><li>B = BOTH (Sensory and Motor function) </li></ul>
  40. 40. I Olfactory-------- Sensory --smell II Optic------------- Sensory --vision III Oculomotor---- Motor ----extrinsic eye muscles IV Trochlear------- Motor ----extrinsic eye muscles V Tri geminal V 1 Opthalmic----- Sensory -cornea, nasal mucosa, face skin V 2 Maxillary------ Sensory -skin of face, oral cavity, teeth V 3 Mandibular--- Motor -muscles of mastication --- Sensory -face skin, teeth, tongue (general) Cranial Nerve Function
  41. 41. VI Abducens-------------- Motor -----eye abduction muscles VII Facial------------------- Sensory ---part of tongue (taste) ------------------- Motor ------muscles of facial expression VIII Vestibulocochlear--- Sensory ----hearing, equilibrium IX Glossopharyngeal---- Motor ------stylopharyngeus muscle ---- Sensory ----tongue (gen & taste), pharynx X Vagus------------------ Motor -------pharynx, larynx ------------------- Sensory ----pharynx, larynx, abd. organs XI Accessory------------- Motor ------trapezius, sternocleidomastoid XII Hypoglossal---------- Motor -------tongue muscles Cranial Nerves (continued)
  42. 42. CN I: Olfactory Nerve <ul><li>Attaches to cerebrum </li></ul><ul><li>Many nerve endings from olfactory bulbs </li></ul><ul><li>Pass through olfactory foramina in cribriform plate of ethmoid bone to receptors in roof of nasal cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory for smell </li></ul>Fig 8.48
  43. 43. CN II: Optic Nerve <ul><li>Attaches to Diencephalon </li></ul><ul><li>Enters orbit through optic canal </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory for vision </li></ul>Fig 8.83
  44. 44. CN III: Oculomotor Nerve <ul><li>Attaches to Midbrain </li></ul><ul><li>Enters orbit through superior orbital fissure </li></ul><ul><li>Motor to 3 of 4 extrinsic muscles of eye </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior, inferior and medial rectus muscles & inferior oblique muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic to muscles controlling pupil & lens of eye </li></ul>Fig 8.83
  45. 45. CN IV: Trochlear Nerve <ul><li>Attaches to Midbrain </li></ul><ul><li>Enters orbit through superior orbital fissure </li></ul><ul><li>Motor to superior oblique muscle of eye </li></ul>Fig 8.83
  46. 46. CN V 1 : Ophthalmic Nerve <ul><li>First branch of Trigeminal nerve (CN V) </li></ul><ul><li>Attaches to Pons </li></ul><ul><li>Enters orbit through superior orbital fissure, then exits orbit through supraorbital foramen/notch </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory -cornea, nasal mucosa, face skin </li></ul>Fig 8.83
  47. 47. CN V 2 : Maxillary Nerve <ul><li>Second branch of Trigeminal nerve (CN V) </li></ul><ul><li>Attaches to the pons </li></ul><ul><li>Passes through the foramen rotundum, inferior orbital fissure and out the infraorbital foramen </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory -skin of face, oral cavity, teeth </li></ul>Fig 8.138
  48. 48. CN V 3 : Mandibular Nerve <ul><li>Third branch of Trigeminal nerve (CN V) </li></ul><ul><li>Attaches to Pons </li></ul><ul><li>Exits cranial cavity through foramen ovale, into the mandibular foramen and out the mental foramen </li></ul><ul><li>Motor -muscles of mastication </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory -face skin, teeth, anterior 2/3 tongue (general) </li></ul>Fig 8.139
  49. 49. Distribution of sensory innervation to skin of face from CN V CN V = Trigeminal V 1 = Opthalmic V 2 = Maxillary V 3 = Mandibular pg 867
  50. 50. CN VI: Abducens Nerve <ul><li>Attaches to Pons </li></ul><ul><li>Enters orbit through superior orbital fissure </li></ul><ul><li>Motor to lateral rectus muscle of eye </li></ul>Fig 8.83
  51. 51. CN VII: Facial Nerve <ul><li>Attaches to Pons </li></ul><ul><li>Exits cranial cavity through internal acoustic meatus, then exits skull through stylomastoid foramen </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory to anterior 2/3 tongue for taste </li></ul><ul><li>Motor to muscles of facial expression </li></ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic to Mandibular & Sublingual glands, Lacrimal gland </li></ul>Fig 8.60
  52. 52. CN VIII: Vestibulocochlear Nerve <ul><li>Attaches to Pons </li></ul><ul><li>Enters inner ear through internal acoustic meatus </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory to organs of hearing and equilibrium </li></ul>Fig 8.119
  53. 53. CN IX: Glossopharyngeal nerve <ul><li>Attaches to medulla oblongata </li></ul><ul><li>Exits cranial cavity through jugular foramen </li></ul><ul><li>Motor to stylopharyngeus muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory to posterior 1/3 tongue (general & taste), pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic to parotid gland </li></ul>Figs 8.162, 8.247
  54. 54. CN X: Vagus Nerve <ul><li>Attaches to Medulla oblongata </li></ul><ul><li>Exits cranial cavity through jugular foramen </li></ul><ul><li>Nicknamed the “wanderer” </li></ul><ul><li>Motor to pharynx, larynx </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory to pharynx, larynx, abdominal organs </li></ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic to thoracic and abdominal organs </li></ul>Figs 8.164
  55. 55. CN XI: Accessory Nerve <ul><li>Attaches to Medulla oblongata </li></ul><ul><li>Exits cranial cavity through jugular foramen </li></ul><ul><li>Joined by a spinal segment passing through foramen magnum </li></ul><ul><li>Motor to trapezius & sternocleidomastoid muscles </li></ul>Fig 8.165
  56. 56. CN XII: Hypoglossal Nerve <ul><li>Attaches to Medulla oblongata </li></ul><ul><li>Exits cranial cavity through hypoglossal canal </li></ul><ul><li>Motor to tongue muscles </li></ul>Fig 8.166
  57. 57. Summary of Functional Groups <ul><li>Purely Sensory = I, II, VIII </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily Motor = III, IV, VI, XI, XII </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed = V, VII, IX, X </li></ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic Fibers = III, VII, IX, X (Division of Autonomic NS = Visceral Motor) </li></ul>
  58. 58. Parasympathetic Fibers <ul><li>CN III = Oculomotor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracts Iris (controls pupil) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracts Ciliary Muscle (controls lens) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CN VII = Facial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innervates Salivary glands (mandibular & sublingual) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innervates Lacrimal gland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CN IX = Glossopharyngeal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innervates Parotid Salivary gland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CN X = Vagus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innervates thoracic & abdominal viscera </li></ul></ul>pg 48
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