Lecture Presentation #4

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Lecture Presentation #4

  1. 1. The Thoracic Cavity Boundaries of and Structures Within
  2. 2. Body Cavities <ul><li>Dorsal body cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Ventral body cavity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoracic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 Pleural </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mediastinum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided by Diaphragm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abdominopelvic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abdominal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pelvic </li></ul></ul></ul>www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Body_cavity Remove frame       
  3. 3. Serous membrane = Serosa <ul><li>Simple squamous epithelium + areolar connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>2 Layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer layer = PARIETAL serosa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner layer = VISCERAL serosa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Between them = Serous Cavity containing Serous Fluid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serous fluid is blood filtrate + secretions by 2 layers of membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows movement of organs with reduced friction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Serous Membranes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pleural = surrounds lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pericardium = surrounds heart, slightly modified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peritoneal = surrounds some abdominal organs </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Pleural Cavities <ul><li>Surround the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Pleural fluid secreted by pleural membranes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds layers together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces friction of organs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefit of Compartmentalization </li></ul>pg 159
  5. 5. Pleural Cavities <ul><li>2 Layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visceral pleura (inner) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>root of lungs marks transition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>external surface of lungs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parietal pleura (outer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>inner surface of thoracic wall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>superior surface of diaphragm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lateral surface of mediastinum </li></ul></ul></ul>pg 161
  6. 6. Pleural Abnormalities <ul><li>Pleural Effusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess fluid in the pleural cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 20X </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually less than 1 ml of fluid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pneumothorax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air located in pleural space </li></ul></ul>Pg 238
  7. 7. Divisions of Mediastinum <ul><li>Superior (to heart) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains: thymus, cranial vena cava, trachea, esophagus, nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inferior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior (to heart) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains: thymus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior (to heart) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains: aorta, esophagus, trachea, bronchi, nerves, caudal vena cava, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains: heart + pericardium </li></ul></ul></ul>pg 177
  8. 8. Boundaries of Mediastinum <ul><li>Lateral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>parietal pleura of lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anterior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ventral parietal pleura </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Posterior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dorsal parietal pleura </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Superior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dome of the neck </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inferior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>diaphragmatic pleura </li></ul></ul>pg 159
  9. 9. Respiratory Tract <ul><li>Upper Respiratory Tract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior to Larynx </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lower Respiratory Tract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larynx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trachea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary Bronchi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary Bronchi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rest of Bronchial Tree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs </li></ul></ul>pg 168 pg 992
  10. 10. Trachea = windpipe <ul><li>Starts at Larynx and travels through mediastinum </li></ul><ul><li>Located Anterior to Esophagus </li></ul><ul><li>Trachea terminates into 2 primary bronchi entering lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Walls contain 16-20 “C” shaped rings Hyaline Cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Trachealis Muscle (smooth muscle and soft CT) </li></ul><ul><li>Layers (deep to superficial) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mucosa = Ciliated Psuedostratified Epithelium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Submucosa- contains seromucous glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adventitia – made of connective tissue, contains cartilage rings </li></ul></ul>pg 966
  11. 11. Bronchial Tree <ul><li>Primary (main) Bronchi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bifurcation of trachea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basically the same structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartilage rings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior to pulmonary vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right is wider, vertical, shorter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary (lobar) Bronchi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each primary bronchi divides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same structure as primary bronchi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right lung has 3, Left has 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tertiary (segmental) Bronchi </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 23 divisions </li></ul>pg 168
  12. 12. Bronchial Tree (continued) <ul><li>Bronchioles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>further divisions, < 1 mm diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Terminal Bronchioles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>further divisions, 0.5 mm diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Respiratory Zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory Bronchioles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alveolar Ducts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alveolar Sacs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Terminal bunches of Alveoli </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory exchange chamber </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Among alveoli are blood vessels, nerves, lymphatics </li></ul></ul></ul>www.nlm.nih.gov /.../ency/imagepages/1103.htm
  13. 13. Respiratory Zone (continued) <ul><li>Lining the Walls of Alveoli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory Membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type I cells = simple squamous epithelial cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basal lamina and fine areolar CT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Covered with capillaries and elastic fibers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type II cells = cuboidal epithelial cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secrete fluid containing surfactant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dust Cells (macrophages) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gas exchange </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen into blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide into alveoli </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Throughout Bronchial Tree <ul><li>Psuedostratified columnar changes to simple columnar to simple cuboidal </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilage rings replaced by cartilage plates once bronchi enter the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth muscle and Elastic fibers remain important </li></ul><ul><li>In Bronchioles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ciliated mucosa disappears, replaced by macrophages in alveoli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartilage disappears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth muscle forms bands around smallest bronchi and bronchioles (not found around alveoli) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. LUNGS (continued) <ul><li>Located in Pleural Compartments </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral to Mediastinum </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apex posterior to clavicle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Base lays on Diaphragm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costal Surface = Ant, Lat, Post surfaces contact ribs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Left Lung = 2 lobes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oblique Fissure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac Notch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Right Lung = 3 lobes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oblique fissure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal fissure </li></ul></ul>pg 168
  16. 16. LUNGS <ul><li>Hilus- medial indentation </li></ul><ul><li>Root of Lung = structures enter each lung </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Pulmonary Veins = carries O 2 -rich blood from each lung to heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Pulmonary Artery = carries O 2 -poor blood to each lung </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary Bronchus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerve plexus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– Lymph Vessels </li></ul></ul>pg 164
  17. 17. Lung Lobes <ul><li>Lobes are anatomically + functionally separate </li></ul><ul><li>Lung lobes divided into Lobules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functionally separate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separated by dense CT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary in size </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stroma = lung tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Areolar CT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many elastic fibers </li></ul></ul>pg 178
  18. 18. Esophagus <ul><li>Esophagus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharynx to Stomach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passes thru diaphragm at esophageal hiatus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior to vertebrae, Posterior to trachea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Layers of Esophagus (deep to superficial) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mucosa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stratified squamous epithelium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lamina propria (loose CT) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscularis mucosae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Submucosa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loose connective tissue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secretes mucus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscularis Externa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Circular/Longitudinal layers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skeletal m, Mix, then Smooth m </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adventitia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fibrous CT </li></ul></ul></ul>pg 212
  19. 19. The Diaphragm <ul><li>Skeletal Muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Dome-shaped (relaxed) </li></ul><ul><li>Flattens (contracts) </li></ul><ul><li>Divides thoracic & abdominopelvic cavities </li></ul><ul><li>Attachments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>O: Inferior Internal rib cage, Lumbar vertebrae (by crura) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I: Central tendon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Innervated by right + left PHRENIC Nerves </li></ul>pg 136
  20. 20. Action of the Diaphragm <ul><li>Primary muscle of respiration (involuntary) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contraction during inspiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases volume of thoracic cavity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreases pressure of thoracic cavity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air moves into lungs (high  low pressure) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Forced contraction (voluntary) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for defecation, urination, labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreases volume of abdominal cavity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases pressure in abdominal cavity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pushes on abdominal organs to move contents out </li></ul></ul></ul>pg 136
  21. 21. Thoracic Cavity Capacity is Increased by: <ul><li>Contraction of diaphragm </li></ul><ul><li>Intercostal muscles elevate ribs </li></ul><ul><li>Rib elevation causes the sternum to move anteriorly </li></ul>pg 135
  22. 22. Openings of Diaphragm <ul><li>Posterior  Anterior </li></ul><ul><li>Aortic Hiatus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aorta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Azygos vein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoracic duct </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Esophageal Hiatus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Esophagus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vagus nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Caval Opening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inferior Vena Cava </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right Phrenic Nerve </li></ul></ul>pg 157
  23. 23. Vena Cava <ul><li>Superior Vena Cava </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in Superior mediastinum, right side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receives blood from regions above diaphragm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed from Rt + Lft Brachiocephalic Veins cranially </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Azygos Vein empties into it just superior to heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empties into Right Atrium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inferior Vena Cava </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in Inferior mediastinum (right side), runs through abdomen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Returns blood to heart from regions below diaphragm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed from Rt + Lft Common Iliac Veins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empties into Right Atrium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widest blood vessel in body </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Veins of Thoracic Cavity <ul><li>Vena Cavae </li></ul><ul><li>Azygos Vein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ unpaired” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>right side of vertebral bodies (at level of T 12 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>runs superiorly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>empties into Sup. Vena Cava </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>drains right posterior intercostal veins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects to hemiazygos and accessory hemiazygos that drain left side </li></ul></ul>pg 153
  25. 25. Thymus Gland <ul><li>Lymphatic Organ </li></ul><ul><li>2-lobed w/lobules </li></ul><ul><li>Sits on heart and great vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Immature lymphocytes mature into T-lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Secretes Thymic Hormones: help T-lymphocytes gain immunocompetence </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases in size w/age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional tissue is replaced with fatty tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contains lobes and lobules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capsule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medulla </li></ul></ul>pg 206

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