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Lecture presentation #1
Lecture presentation #1
Lecture presentation #1
Lecture presentation #1
Lecture presentation #1
Lecture presentation #1
Lecture presentation #1
Lecture presentation #1
Lecture presentation #1
Lecture presentation #1
Lecture presentation #1
Lecture presentation #1
Lecture presentation #1
Lecture presentation #1
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Lecture presentation #1
Lecture presentation #1
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Lecture presentation #1
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Lecture presentation #1

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  • 1. Introduction and Tissues Human Anatomy BIOL 1010 Liston Campus
  • 2. What is Anatomy?
    • Anatomy (= morphology): study of body’s structure
    • Physiology: study of body’s function
    • Structure reflects Function!!!
    • Branches of Anatomy
      • Gross: Large structures
      • Surface: Landmarks
      • Histology: Cells and Tissues
      • Developmental: Structures change through life
      • Embryology: Structures form and develop before birth
  • 3. Hierarchy of Structural Organization
    • Each of these build upon one another to make up the next level:
    • Chemical level
    • Cellular
    • Tissue
    • Organ
    • Organ system
    • Organism
  • 4. Hierarchy of Structural Organization
    • Chemical level
      • Atoms combine to make molecules
      • 4 macromolecules in the body
        • Carbohydrates
        • Lipids
        • Proteins
        • Nucleic acids
  • 5. Hierarchy of Structural Organization
    • Cellular
      • Made up of cells and cellular organelles (molecules)
        • Cells can be eukaryotic or prokaryotic
        • Organelles are structures within cells that perform dedicated functions (“small organs”)
    http://cmweb.pvschools.net/~bbecke/newell/Cells.html
  • 6. Hierarchy of Structural Organization
    • Tissue
      • Collection of cells that work together to perform a specialized function
      • 4 basic types of tissue in the human body:
        • Epithelium
        • Connective tissue
        • Muscle tissue
        • Nervous tissue
    www.emc.maricopa.edu
  • 7. Hierarchy of Structural Organization
    • Organ
      • Made up of tissue
        • Heart
        • Brain
        • Liver
        • Pancreas, etc……
    Pg 181
  • 8. Hierarchy of Structural Organization
    • Organ system (11)
      • Made up of a group of related organs that work together
        • Integumentary
        • Skeletal
        • Muscular
        • Nervous
        • Endocrine
        • Cardiovascular
        • Lymphatic
        • Respiratory
        • Digestive
        • Urinary
        • Reproductive
    Circulatory Pg 341 Urinary System
  • 9. Hierarchy of Structural Organization
    • Organism
      • An individual human, animal, plant, etc……
      • Made up all of the organ systems
      • Work together to sustain life
  • 10. Anatomical Directions
    • Anatomical position
    • Regions
      • Axial vs. Appendicular
    • Anatomical Directions-It’s all Relative!
      • Anterior (ventral) vs. Posterior (dorsal)
      • Medial vs. Lateral
      • Superior (cranial) vs. Inferior (caudal)
      • Superficial vs. Deep
      • Proximal vs. Distal
    • Anatomical Planes
      • Frontal = Coronal
      • Transverse = Horizontal = Cross Section
      • Sagittal
    Pg 5
  • 11. Reference Point Anterior – (ventral) Closer to the front surface of the body Posterior – (dorsal) Closer to the rear surface of the body Frontal Plane Medial – Lying closer to the midline Lateral – Lying further away from the midline Sagittal Plane Superior – (cranial) Closer to the head in relation to the entire body (More General) Inferior – (caudal) Away from the head or towards the lower part of the body Horizontal Plane Superficial – Towards the surface Deep – Away from the surface Surface of body or organ Proximal – Closer to the origin of a body part (More Specific) Distal – Further away from the origin of a body part Origin of a structure
  • 12. 4 Types of Tissue
    • Epithelium
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Nervous
  • 13. Tissues: groups of cells closely associated that have a similar structure and perform a related function
    • Four types of tissue
      • Epithelial = covering/lining
      • Connective = support
      • Muscle = movement
      • Nervous = control
    • Most organs contain all 4 types
    • Tissue has non-living extracellular material between its cells
  • 14. EPITHELIAL TISSUE: sheets of cells cover a surface or line a cavity
    • Functions
      • Protection
      • Secretion
      • Absorption
      • Ion Transport
  • 15. Characteristics of Epithelium
    • Cellularity
      • Composed of cells
    • Specialized contacts
      • Joined by cell junctions
    • Polarity
      • Apical vs. Basal surfaces differ
    • Supported by connective tissue
    • Avascular
    • Innervated
    • Highly regenerative
  • 16. Classification of Epithelium- based on number of layers and cell shape
    • Layers
      • Simple
      • Stratified
        • Stratified layers characterized by shape of apical layer
      • Psuedostratified
    • Shapes
      • Squamous
      • Cuboidal
      • Columnar
      • Transitional
  • 17. Types of Epithelium
    • Simple squamous (1 layer)
      • Lungs, blood vessels, ventral body cavity
    • Simple cuboidal
      • Kidney tubules, glands
    • Simple columnar
      • Stomach, intestines
    • Pseudostratified columnar
      • Respiratory passages (ciliated version)
    • Stratified squamous (>1 layer)
      • Epidermis, mouth, esophagus, vagina
      • Named so according to apical cell shape
      • Regenerate from below
      • Deep layers cuboidal and columnar
    • Transitional (not shown)
      • Thins when stretches
      • Hollow urinary organs
    All histology pictures property of BIOL 1010 Lab
  • 18. Special Epithelium
    • Endothelium
      • Simple squamous epithelium that lines vessels
      • e.g. lymphatic & blood vessel
    • Mesothelium
      • Simple squamous epithelium that forms the lining of body cavities
      • e.g. pleura, pericardium, peritoneum
  • 19. Features of Apical Surface of Epithelium
    • Microvilli: (ex) in small intestine
      • Finger-like extensions of the plasma membrane of apical epithelial cell
      • Increase surface area for absorption
    • Cilia : (ex) respiratory tubes
      • Whip-like, motile extension of plasma membrane
      • Moves mucus, etc. over epithelial surface 1-way
  • 20. Features of Lateral Surface of Epithelium
    • Cells are connected to neighboring cells via:
      • Contour of cells -wavy contour fits together
      • Cell Junctions (3 common)
        • Desmosomes
          • Proteins hold cells together to maintain integrity of tissue
        • Tight Junctions
          • Plasma membrane of adjacent cells fuse, nothing passes
        • Gap junction
          • Proteins allow small molecules to pass through
  • 21. Features of the Basal Surface of Epithelium
    • Basement membrane
      • Sheet between the epithelial and connective tissue layers
      • Attaches epithelium to connective tissue below
      • Made up of:
        • Basal lamina: thin, non-cellular, supportive sheet made of proteins
          • Superficial layer
          • Acts as a selective filter
          • Assists epithelial cell regeneration by moving new cells
        • Reticular fiber layer
          • Deeper layer
          • Support
  • 22. Glands
    • Epithelial cells that make and secrete a product
    • Products are water-based and usually contain proteins
    • Classified as:
      • Unicellular vs. multicellular
      • Exocrine vs. Endocrine
    Page 138
  • 23. Glands: epithelial cells that make and secrete a water-based substance w/proteins
    • Exocrine Glands
      • Secrete substance onto body surface or into body cavity
      • Activity is local
      • Have ducts
      • Unicellular or Multicellular
      • (ex) goblet cells, salivary, mammary, pancreas, liver
  • 24. Glands: epithelial cells that make and secrete a water-based substance w/proteins
    • Endocrine Glands
      • Secrete product into blood stream
      • Either stored in secretory cells or in follicle surrounded by secretory cells
      • Hormones travel to target organ to increase response (excitatory)
      • No ducts
      • (ex) pancreas, adrenal, pituitary, thyroid
  • 25. 4 Types of Tissue
    • Epithelium
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Nervous
  • 26. 4 Types of Connective Tissue
    • Connective Tissue Proper
    • Cartilage
    • Bone Tissue
    • Blood
  • 27. Connective Tissue (CT): most abundant and diverse tissue
    • Four Classes
    • Functions include connecting, storing & carrying nutrients, protection, fight infection
    • CT contains large amounts of non-living extracellular matrix
    • Contains a variety of cells and fibers
    • Some types vascularized
    • All CT originates from mesenchyme
      • Embryonic connective tissue
  • 28. Fibers in Connective Tissue
    • Fibers For Support
      • Reticular:
        • form networks for structure & support
        • (ex) cover capillaries
      • Collagen:
        • strongest, most numerous, provide tensile strength
        • (ex) dominant fiber in ligaments
      • Elastic :
        • long + thin, stretch and retain shape
        • (ex) dominant fiber in elastic cartilage
  • 29. Components of Connective Tissue
    • Fibroblasts:
      • cells that produce all fibers in CT
      • produce + secrete protein subunits to make them
      • produce ground matrix
    • Interstitial (Tissue) Fluid
      • derived from blood in CT proper
      • medium for nutrients, waste + oxygen to travel to cells
      • found in ground matrix
    • Ground Matrix (substance):
      • part of extra-cellular material that holds and absorbs interstitial fluid
      • Made and secreted by fibroblasts
      • jelly-like with sugar & protein molecules
  • 30. 1) Connective Tissue Proper
    • Two kinds: Loose CT & Dense CT
      • Functions
        • Support and bind to other tissue
        • Hold body fluids
        • Defends against infection
        • Stores nutrients as fat
      • Each function performed by different kind of fibers and cells in specific tissue
  • 31. Defense from Infection
    • Areolar tissue below epithelium is body’s first defense
    • Cells travel to CT in blood
      • Macrophages -eat foreign particles
      • Plasma cells -secrete antibodies, mark molecules for destruction
      • Mast cells -contain chemical mediators for inflammation response
      • White Blood Cells = neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils-fight infection
    • Ground substance + cell fibers-slow invading microorganisms
  • 32. Loose CT Proper
    • Areolar CT
      • All types of fibers present
      • All typical cell types present
      • Surrounds blood vessels and nerves
  • 33. Specialized Loose CT Proper
    • Adipose tissue
      • Loaded with adipocytes, highly vascularized, high metabolic activity
      • Insulates, produces energy, supports
      • Found in hypodermis under skin
    • Reticular CT
      • Contains only reticular fibers
      • Forms caverns to hold free cells, forms internal “skeleton” of some organs
      • Found in bone marrow, holds blood cells, lymph nodes, spleen
  • 34. Dense/Fibrous Connective Tissue
    • Contains more collagen
    • Can resist extremely strong pulling forces
    • Regular vs. Irregular
      • Regular-fibers run same direction, parallel to pull
        • (eg) fascia, tendons, ligaments
      • Irregular-fibers thicker, run in different directions
        • (eg) dermis, fibrous capsules at ends of bones
    Dense regular Dense irregular
  • 35. Components of CT Proper Summarized Cells Matrix Fibroblasts Gel-like ground substance Defense cells -macrophages -white blood cells Collagen fibers Reticular fibers Elastic fibers Adipocytes
  • 36. 2) Cartilage
    • Chondroblasts produce cartilage
    • Chondrocytes mature cartilage cells
      • Reside in lacunae
    • More abundant in embryo than adult
    • Firm, Flexible
    • Resists compression
      • (eg) trachea, meniscus
    • Avascular (chondrocytes can function w/ low oxygen)
    • NOT Innervated
    • Perichondrium
      • dense, irregular connective tissue around cartilage
      • growth/repair of cartilage
      • resists expansion during compression of cartilage
  • 37. Cartilage in the Body
    • Three types:
      • Hyaline
        • most abundant
        • fibers in matrix
        • support via flexibility/resilience
        • (eg) at limb joints, ribs, nose
      • Elastic
        • many elastic fibers in matrix too
        • great flexibility
        • (eg) external ear, epiglottis
      • Fibrocartilage
        • resists both compression and tension
        • (eg) meniscus, annulus fibrosus
  • 38. Components of Cartilage Summarized Cells Matrix Chondrocytes Gel-like ground substance Chondroblasts (in growing cartilage) Lots of water Fibroblasts Some have collagen and elastic fibers
  • 39. 3) Bone Tissue: (a bone is an organ)
    • Well-vascularized
    • Function:
      • support (eg) pelvic bowl, legs
      • protect (eg) skull, vertebrae
      • mineral storage (eg) calcium, phosphate (inorganic component)
      • movement (eg) walk, grasp objects
      • blood-cell formation (eg) red bone marrow
  • 40. Bone Tissue
    • Osteoblasts
      • Secrete organic part of bone matrix
    • Osteocytes
      • Mature bone cells
      • Sit in lacunae
      • Maintain bone matrix
    • Osteoclasts
      • Degrade and reabsorb bone
    • Periosteum
      • External layer of CT that surrounds bone
        • Outer: Dense irregular CT
        • Inner: Osteoblasts, osteoclasts
    • Endosteum
      • Internal layer of CT that lines cavities and covers trabeculae
      • Contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts
    academic.kellogg.cc.mi.us/.../skeletal.htm
  • 41. Compact Bone
    • External layer
    • Osteon (Haversian system)
      • Parallel to the long axis of the bone
      • Groups of concentric tubules (lamella)
      • Lamella = layer of bone matrix where all fibers run in the same direction
        • Adjacent lamella fibers run in opposite directions
      • Haversian Canal runs through center of osteon
        • Contains blood vessels and nerves
        • Connected to each other by perforating (Volkman) canals
    • Interstitial lamellae fills spaces and forms periphery
    www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/.../CartilageandBone03.htm
  • 42.
    • Spongy bone (cancellous bone): internal layer
      • Trabeculae : small, needle-like pieces of bone form honeycomb
        • each made of several layers of lamellae + osteocytes
        • no canal for vessels
        • space filled with bone marrow
        • not as dense, no direct stress at bone’s center
    Bone Anatomy: Spongy bone
  • 43. Shapes of Bones
    • Flat = skull, sternum, clavicle
    • Irregular = pelvis, vertebrae
    • Short = carpals, patella
    • Long = femur, phalanges, metacarpals, humerus
  • 44. Anatomy of a Long Bone
    • Diaphysis
      • Medullary Cavity
      • Nutrient Artery & Vein
    • 2 Epiphyses
      • Epiphyseal Plates
      • Epiphyseal Artery & Vein
    • Periosteum
      • Does not cover epiphyses
    • Endosteum
      • Covers trabeculae of spongy bone
      • Lines medullary cavity of long bones
    training.seer.cancer.gov/.../illu_long_bone.jpg
  • 45. 2 Types of Bone Formation
    • Intramembranous Ossification
      • Membrane bones: most skull bones and clavicle
      • Osteoblasts in membrane secrete osteoid that mineralizes
    • Endochondral Ossification : All other bones
      • Begins with a cartilaginous model
      • Cartilage calcifies
      • Medullary cavity is formed by action of osteoclasts
      • Epiphyses grow and eventually calcify
        • Epiphyseal plates remain cartilage for up to 20 years
  • 46. Bone Growth & Remodeling
    • GROWTH
      • Appositional Growth = widening of bone
        • Bone tissue added on surface by osteoblasts of periosteum
        • Medullary cavity maintained by osteoclasts
      • Lengthening of Bone
        • Epiphyseal plates enlarge by chondroblasts
        • Matrix calcifies (chondrocytes die and disintegrate)
        • Bone tissue replaces cartilage on diaphysis side
    • REMODELING
      • Due to mechanical stresses on bones, their tissue needs to be replaced
        • Osteoclasts- take up bone ( = breakdown) release Ca 2++ , PO 4 to body fluids from bone
        • Osteoblasts -form new bone by secreting osteoid
      • Ideally osteoclasts & osteoblasts work at the same rate!
  • 47. Components of Bone Tissue Summarized Cells Matrix Osteblasts Gel-like ground substance calcified with inorganic salts Fibroblasts Collagen fibers Osteocytes Osteoclasts
  • 48. 4) Blood: Atypical Connective Tissue
    • Function:
      • Transports waste, gases, nutrients, hormones through cardiovascular system
      • Helps regulate body temperature
      • Protects body by fighting infection
    • Derived from mesenchyme
    • Hematopoiesis : production of blood cells
      • Occurs in red bone marrow
      • In adults, axial skeleton, girdles, proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur
  • 49. Blood Cells
    • Erythrocytes: (RBC) small, oxygen-transporting
      • most abundant in blood
      • no organelles, filled w/hemoglobin
      • pick up O 2 at lungs, transport to rest of body
    • Leukocytes: (WBC) complete cells , 5 types
      • fight against infectious microorganisms
      • stored in bone marrow for emergencies
    • *Platelets = Thrombocytes :
      • fragments of cytoplasm
      • plug small tears in vessel walls, initiates clotting
  • 50. Components of Blood Summarized Cells Matrix Erythrocytes (red blood cells) Plasma (liquid matrix) Leukocytes (white blood cells) NO fibers *Platelets (cell fragments)
  • 51. 4 Types of Tissue
    • Epithelium
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Nervous
  • 52. Muscle Tissue
    • Muscle cells/fibers
      • Elongated
      • Contain many myofilaments: Actin & Myosin
    • FUNCTION
      • Movement
      • Maintenance of posture
      • Joint Stabilization
      • Heat Generation
    • Three types: Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth
  • 53. Skeletal Muscle Tissue (each skeletal muscle is an organ)
    • Cells
      • Long and cylindrical, in bundles
      • Multinucleate
      • Obvious Striations
    • Skeletal Muscles-Voluntary
    • Connective Tissue Components:
      • Endomysium -surrounds fibers
      • Perimysium -surrounds bundles
      • Epimysium -surrounds the muscle
    • Attached to bones, fascia, skin
    • Origin & Insertion
    academic.kellogg.cc.mi.us/.../muscular.htm
  • 54. Cardiac Muscle
    • Cells
      • Branching, chains of cells
      • Single or Binucleated
      • Striations
      • Connected by Intercalated discs
    • Cardiac Muscle-Involuntary
    • Myocardium-heart muscle
      • Pumps blood through vessels
    • Connective Tissue Component
      • Endomysium: surrounding cells
    www.answers.com
  • 55. Smooth Muscle Tissue
    • Cells
      • Single cells, uninucleate
      • No striations
    • Smooth Muscle-Involuntary
      • 2 layers-opposite orientation (peristalsis)
    • Found in hollow organs, blood vessels
    • Connective Tissue Component
      • Endomysium: surrounds cells
  • 56. 4 Types of Tissue
    • Epithelium
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Nervous
  • 57. Nervous Tissue
    • Neurons : specialized nerve cells conduct impulses
      • Cell body, dendrite, axon
    • Characterized by:
      • No mitosis (cell replication)
      • Longevity
      • High metabolic rate
    www.morphonix.com
  • 58. Nervous Tissue: control
    • Support cells (= Neuroglial) : nourishment, insulation, protection
      • Satellite cells -surround cell bodies within ganglia
      • Schwann cells -surround axons (PNS)
      • Microglia -phagocytes
      • Oligodendrocytes -produce myelin sheaths around axons
      • Ependymal cells -line brain/spinal cord, ciliated, help circulate CSF
    • Brain, spinal cord, nerves
  • 59. Integumentary System
    • Functions
      • Protection
        • Mechanical, thermal, chemical, UV
      • Cushions & insulates deeper organs
      • Prevention of water loss
      • Thermoregulation
      • Excretion
        • Salts, urea, water
      • Sensory reception
  • 60. Microanatomy - Layers of the Skin
    • Epidermis
      • Epithelium
    • Dermis
      • Connective tissue
    • Hypodermis / subcutis
      • Loose connective tissue
      • Anchors skin to bone or muscle
    • Skin Appendages = outgrowths of epidermis
      • Hair follicles
      • Sweat and Sebaceous glands
      • Nails
    www.uptodate.com/.../Melanoma_anatomy.jpg
  • 61. Cell Layers of the Epidermis
    • Stratum corneum
      • Dead keratinocytes
    • Stratum lucidum
      • Only in “thick” skin
      • Dead keratinocytes
    • Stratum granulosum
      • Water proofing
    • Stratum spinosum
      • Resists tears and tension
    • Stratum basale
      • Sensory receptors
      • Melanocytes
      • Keratinocytes (in all layers)
    15minbeauty.blogspot.com
  • 62. Layers of the Dermis
    • Highly innervated
    • Highly vascularized
    • Collagen & Elastic fibers
    • 2 layers:
      • Papillary layer (20%)
        • Areolar CT
        • Collagen & Elastic fibers
        • Innervation
        • Hair follicles
      • Reticular layer (80%)
        • Dense irregular CT
        • Glands
          • sebum
          • 2.5 million sweat glands!!
        • Smooth muscle fibers
        • Innervation
    www.uptodate.com/.../Melanoma_anatomy.jpg
  • 63. Hypodermis
    • Also called superficial fascia
    • Areolar & Adipose Connective Tissue
    • Functions
      • Store fat
      • Anchor skin to muscle, etc.
      • Insulation
  • 64. Structure of Tubular Organs
    • LUMEN
    • Tunica Mucosa
      • Lamina epithelialis
      • Lamina propria
      • Lamina muscularis mucosa
    • Tunica Submucosa
    • Tunica Muscularis
      • Inner circular
      • Outer longitudinal
    • Tunica Adventitia / Serosa
      • Adventitia – covers organ directly
      • Serosa – suspends organ in the peritoneal cavity

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