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Lecture presentation #1

  1. 1. Introduction and Tissues Human Anatomy BIOL 1010 Liston Campus
  2. 2. What is Anatomy? <ul><li>Anatomy (= morphology): study of body’s structure </li></ul><ul><li>Physiology: study of body’s function </li></ul><ul><li>Structure reflects Function!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Branches of Anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gross: Large structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface: Landmarks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Histology: Cells and Tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developmental: Structures change through life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embryology: Structures form and develop before birth </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Hierarchy of Structural Organization <ul><li>Each of these build upon one another to make up the next level: </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical level </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Organ </li></ul><ul><li>Organ system </li></ul><ul><li>Organism </li></ul>
  4. 4. Hierarchy of Structural Organization <ul><li>Chemical level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms combine to make molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 macromolecules in the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleic acids </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Hierarchy of Structural Organization <ul><li>Cellular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made up of cells and cellular organelles (molecules) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cells can be eukaryotic or prokaryotic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organelles are structures within cells that perform dedicated functions (“small organs”) </li></ul></ul></ul>http://cmweb.pvschools.net/~bbecke/newell/Cells.html
  6. 6. Hierarchy of Structural Organization <ul><li>Tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of cells that work together to perform a specialized function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 basic types of tissue in the human body: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Epithelium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connective tissue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle tissue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nervous tissue </li></ul></ul></ul>www.emc.maricopa.edu
  7. 7. Hierarchy of Structural Organization <ul><li>Organ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made up of tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pancreas, etc…… </li></ul></ul></ul>Pg 181
  8. 8. Hierarchy of Structural Organization <ul><li>Organ system (11) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made up of a group of related organs that work together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integumentary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skeletal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nervous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endocrine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphatic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digestive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urinary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive </li></ul></ul></ul>Circulatory Pg 341 Urinary System
  9. 9. Hierarchy of Structural Organization <ul><li>Organism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual human, animal, plant, etc…… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made up all of the organ systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work together to sustain life </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Anatomical Directions <ul><li>Anatomical position </li></ul><ul><li>Regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Axial vs. Appendicular </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anatomical Directions-It’s all Relative! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior (ventral) vs. Posterior (dorsal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medial vs. Lateral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior (cranial) vs. Inferior (caudal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superficial vs. Deep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proximal vs. Distal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anatomical Planes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal = Coronal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transverse = Horizontal = Cross Section </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sagittal </li></ul></ul>Pg 5
  11. 11. Reference Point Anterior – (ventral) Closer to the front surface of the body Posterior – (dorsal) Closer to the rear surface of the body Frontal Plane Medial – Lying closer to the midline Lateral – Lying further away from the midline Sagittal Plane Superior – (cranial) Closer to the head in relation to the entire body (More General) Inferior – (caudal) Away from the head or towards the lower part of the body Horizontal Plane Superficial – Towards the surface Deep – Away from the surface Surface of body or organ Proximal – Closer to the origin of a body part (More Specific) Distal – Further away from the origin of a body part Origin of a structure
  12. 12. 4 Types of Tissue <ul><li>Epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Connective </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous </li></ul>
  13. 13. Tissues: groups of cells closely associated that have a similar structure and perform a related function <ul><li>Four types of tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epithelial = covering/lining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connective = support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle = movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nervous = control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most organs contain all 4 types </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue has non-living extracellular material between its cells </li></ul>
  14. 14. EPITHELIAL TISSUE: sheets of cells cover a surface or line a cavity <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ion Transport </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Characteristics of Epithelium <ul><li>Cellularity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specialized contacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joined by cell junctions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polarity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apical vs. Basal surfaces differ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supported by connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Avascular </li></ul><ul><li>Innervated </li></ul><ul><li>Highly regenerative </li></ul>
  16. 16. Classification of Epithelium- based on number of layers and cell shape <ul><li>Layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stratified layers characterized by shape of apical layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psuedostratified </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shapes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Squamous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuboidal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Columnar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitional </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Types of Epithelium <ul><li>Simple squamous (1 layer) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs, blood vessels, ventral body cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simple cuboidal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kidney tubules, glands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simple columnar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stomach, intestines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pseudostratified columnar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory passages (ciliated version) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stratified squamous (>1 layer) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epidermis, mouth, esophagus, vagina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Named so according to apical cell shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regenerate from below </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep layers cuboidal and columnar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transitional (not shown) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thins when stretches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hollow urinary organs </li></ul></ul>All histology pictures property of BIOL 1010 Lab
  18. 18. Special Epithelium <ul><li>Endothelium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple squamous epithelium that lines vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. lymphatic & blood vessel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mesothelium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple squamous epithelium that forms the lining of body cavities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. pleura, pericardium, peritoneum </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Features of Apical Surface of Epithelium <ul><li>Microvilli: (ex) in small intestine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finger-like extensions of the plasma membrane of apical epithelial cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase surface area for absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cilia : (ex) respiratory tubes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whip-like, motile extension of plasma membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moves mucus, etc. over epithelial surface 1-way </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Features of Lateral Surface of Epithelium <ul><li>Cells are connected to neighboring cells via: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contour of cells -wavy contour fits together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell Junctions (3 common) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desmosomes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins hold cells together to maintain integrity of tissue </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tight Junctions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma membrane of adjacent cells fuse, nothing passes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gap junction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins allow small molecules to pass through </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Features of the Basal Surface of Epithelium <ul><li>Basement membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheet between the epithelial and connective tissue layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attaches epithelium to connective tissue below </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made up of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basal lamina: thin, non-cellular, supportive sheet made of proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superficial layer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acts as a selective filter </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assists epithelial cell regeneration by moving new cells </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reticular fiber layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deeper layer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Glands <ul><li>Epithelial cells that make and secrete a product </li></ul><ul><li>Products are water-based and usually contain proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Classified as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicellular vs. multicellular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exocrine vs. Endocrine </li></ul></ul>Page 138
  23. 23. Glands: epithelial cells that make and secrete a water-based substance w/proteins <ul><li>Exocrine Glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secrete substance onto body surface or into body cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity is local </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have ducts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicellular or Multicellular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(ex) goblet cells, salivary, mammary, pancreas, liver </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Glands: epithelial cells that make and secrete a water-based substance w/proteins <ul><li>Endocrine Glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secrete product into blood stream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Either stored in secretory cells or in follicle surrounded by secretory cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones travel to target organ to increase response (excitatory) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No ducts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(ex) pancreas, adrenal, pituitary, thyroid </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. 4 Types of Tissue <ul><li>Epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Connective </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous </li></ul>
  26. 26. 4 Types of Connective Tissue <ul><li>Connective Tissue Proper </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Bone Tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Blood </li></ul>
  27. 27. Connective Tissue (CT): most abundant and diverse tissue <ul><li>Four Classes </li></ul><ul><li>Functions include connecting, storing & carrying nutrients, protection, fight infection </li></ul><ul><li>CT contains large amounts of non-living extracellular matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Contains a variety of cells and fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Some types vascularized </li></ul><ul><li>All CT originates from mesenchyme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Embryonic connective tissue </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Fibers in Connective Tissue <ul><li>Fibers For Support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reticular: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>form networks for structure & support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(ex) cover capillaries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collagen: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strongest, most numerous, provide tensile strength </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(ex) dominant fiber in ligaments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elastic : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>long + thin, stretch and retain shape </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(ex) dominant fiber in elastic cartilage </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Components of Connective Tissue <ul><li>Fibroblasts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cells that produce all fibers in CT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>produce + secrete protein subunits to make them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>produce ground matrix </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interstitial (Tissue) Fluid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>derived from blood in CT proper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>medium for nutrients, waste + oxygen to travel to cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>found in ground matrix </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ground Matrix (substance): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>part of extra-cellular material that holds and absorbs interstitial fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made and secreted by fibroblasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>jelly-like with sugar & protein molecules </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. 1) Connective Tissue Proper <ul><li>Two kinds: Loose CT & Dense CT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support and bind to other tissue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hold body fluids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defends against infection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stores nutrients as fat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each function performed by different kind of fibers and cells in specific tissue </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Defense from Infection <ul><li>Areolar tissue below epithelium is body’s first defense </li></ul><ul><li>Cells travel to CT in blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macrophages -eat foreign particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma cells -secrete antibodies, mark molecules for destruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mast cells -contain chemical mediators for inflammation response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White Blood Cells = neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils-fight infection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ground substance + cell fibers-slow invading microorganisms </li></ul>
  32. 32. Loose CT Proper <ul><li>Areolar CT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All types of fibers present </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All typical cell types present </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounds blood vessels and nerves </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Specialized Loose CT Proper <ul><li>Adipose tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loaded with adipocytes, highly vascularized, high metabolic activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulates, produces energy, supports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in hypodermis under skin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reticular CT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains only reticular fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms caverns to hold free cells, forms internal “skeleton” of some organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in bone marrow, holds blood cells, lymph nodes, spleen </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Dense/Fibrous Connective Tissue <ul><li>Contains more collagen </li></ul><ul><li>Can resist extremely strong pulling forces </li></ul><ul><li>Regular vs. Irregular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular-fibers run same direction, parallel to pull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(eg) fascia, tendons, ligaments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irregular-fibers thicker, run in different directions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(eg) dermis, fibrous capsules at ends of bones </li></ul></ul></ul>Dense regular Dense irregular
  35. 35. Components of CT Proper Summarized Cells Matrix Fibroblasts Gel-like ground substance Defense cells -macrophages -white blood cells Collagen fibers Reticular fibers Elastic fibers Adipocytes
  36. 36. 2) Cartilage <ul><li>Chondroblasts produce cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Chondrocytes mature cartilage cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reside in lacunae </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More abundant in embryo than adult </li></ul><ul><li>Firm, Flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Resists compression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(eg) trachea, meniscus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avascular (chondrocytes can function w/ low oxygen) </li></ul><ul><li>NOT Innervated </li></ul><ul><li>Perichondrium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dense, irregular connective tissue around cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>growth/repair of cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resists expansion during compression of cartilage </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Cartilage in the Body <ul><li>Three types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyaline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>most abundant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fibers in matrix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>support via flexibility/resilience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(eg) at limb joints, ribs, nose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elastic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>many elastic fibers in matrix too </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>great flexibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(eg) external ear, epiglottis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibrocartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>resists both compression and tension </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(eg) meniscus, annulus fibrosus </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Components of Cartilage Summarized Cells Matrix Chondrocytes Gel-like ground substance Chondroblasts (in growing cartilage) Lots of water Fibroblasts Some have collagen and elastic fibers
  39. 39. 3) Bone Tissue: (a bone is an organ) <ul><li>Well-vascularized </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>support (eg) pelvic bowl, legs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protect (eg) skull, vertebrae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mineral storage (eg) calcium, phosphate (inorganic component) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>movement (eg) walk, grasp objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blood-cell formation (eg) red bone marrow </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Bone Tissue <ul><li>Osteoblasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secrete organic part of bone matrix </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Osteocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mature bone cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sit in lacunae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain bone matrix </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Osteoclasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Degrade and reabsorb bone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Periosteum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External layer of CT that surrounds bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outer: Dense irregular CT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inner: Osteoblasts, osteoclasts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Endosteum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal layer of CT that lines cavities and covers trabeculae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts </li></ul></ul>academic.kellogg.cc.mi.us/.../skeletal.htm
  41. 41. Compact Bone <ul><li>External layer </li></ul><ul><li>Osteon (Haversian system) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel to the long axis of the bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups of concentric tubules (lamella) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lamella = layer of bone matrix where all fibers run in the same direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adjacent lamella fibers run in opposite directions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haversian Canal runs through center of osteon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains blood vessels and nerves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connected to each other by perforating (Volkman) canals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Interstitial lamellae fills spaces and forms periphery </li></ul>www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/.../CartilageandBone03.htm
  42. 42. <ul><li>Spongy bone (cancellous bone): internal layer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trabeculae : small, needle-like pieces of bone form honeycomb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>each made of several layers of lamellae + osteocytes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no canal for vessels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>space filled with bone marrow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>not as dense, no direct stress at bone’s center </li></ul></ul></ul>Bone Anatomy: Spongy bone
  43. 43. Shapes of Bones <ul><li>Flat = skull, sternum, clavicle </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular = pelvis, vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>Short = carpals, patella </li></ul><ul><li>Long = femur, phalanges, metacarpals, humerus </li></ul>
  44. 44. Anatomy of a Long Bone <ul><li>Diaphysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medullary Cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient Artery & Vein </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 Epiphyses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epiphyseal Plates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epiphyseal Artery & Vein </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Periosteum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not cover epiphyses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endosteum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Covers trabeculae of spongy bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lines medullary cavity of long bones </li></ul></ul>training.seer.cancer.gov/.../illu_long_bone.jpg
  45. 45. 2 Types of Bone Formation <ul><li>Intramembranous Ossification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Membrane bones: most skull bones and clavicle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoblasts in membrane secrete osteoid that mineralizes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endochondral Ossification : All other bones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begins with a cartilaginous model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartilage calcifies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medullary cavity is formed by action of osteoclasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epiphyses grow and eventually calcify </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Epiphyseal plates remain cartilage for up to 20 years </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Bone Growth & Remodeling <ul><li>GROWTH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appositional Growth = widening of bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bone tissue added on surface by osteoblasts of periosteum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medullary cavity maintained by osteoclasts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lengthening of Bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Epiphyseal plates enlarge by chondroblasts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Matrix calcifies (chondrocytes die and disintegrate) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bone tissue replaces cartilage on diaphysis side </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>REMODELING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to mechanical stresses on bones, their tissue needs to be replaced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoclasts- take up bone ( = breakdown) release Ca 2++ , PO 4 to body fluids from bone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoblasts -form new bone by secreting osteoid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideally osteoclasts & osteoblasts work at the same rate! </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Components of Bone Tissue Summarized Cells Matrix Osteblasts Gel-like ground substance calcified with inorganic salts Fibroblasts Collagen fibers Osteocytes Osteoclasts
  48. 48. 4) Blood: Atypical Connective Tissue <ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transports waste, gases, nutrients, hormones through cardiovascular system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps regulate body temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects body by fighting infection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Derived from mesenchyme </li></ul><ul><li>Hematopoiesis : production of blood cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in red bone marrow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In adults, axial skeleton, girdles, proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Blood Cells <ul><li>Erythrocytes: (RBC) small, oxygen-transporting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most abundant in blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no organelles, filled w/hemoglobin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pick up O 2 at lungs, transport to rest of body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leukocytes: (WBC) complete cells , 5 types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fight against infectious microorganisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stored in bone marrow for emergencies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>*Platelets = Thrombocytes : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fragments of cytoplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plug small tears in vessel walls, initiates clotting </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Components of Blood Summarized Cells Matrix Erythrocytes (red blood cells) Plasma (liquid matrix) Leukocytes (white blood cells) NO fibers *Platelets (cell fragments)
  51. 51. 4 Types of Tissue <ul><li>Epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Connective </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous </li></ul>
  52. 52. Muscle Tissue <ul><li>Muscle cells/fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elongated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain many myofilaments: Actin & Myosin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance of posture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint Stabilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat Generation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three types: Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth </li></ul>
  53. 53. Skeletal Muscle Tissue (each skeletal muscle is an organ) <ul><li>Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long and cylindrical, in bundles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multinucleate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obvious Striations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Skeletal Muscles-Voluntary </li></ul><ul><li>Connective Tissue Components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endomysium -surrounds fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perimysium -surrounds bundles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epimysium -surrounds the muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attached to bones, fascia, skin </li></ul><ul><li>Origin & Insertion </li></ul>academic.kellogg.cc.mi.us/.../muscular.htm
  54. 54. Cardiac Muscle <ul><li>Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Branching, chains of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single or Binucleated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Striations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connected by Intercalated discs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cardiac Muscle-Involuntary </li></ul><ul><li>Myocardium-heart muscle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pumps blood through vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Connective Tissue Component </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endomysium: surrounding cells </li></ul></ul>www.answers.com
  55. 55. Smooth Muscle Tissue <ul><li>Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single cells, uninucleate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No striations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smooth Muscle-Involuntary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 layers-opposite orientation (peristalsis) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Found in hollow organs, blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Connective Tissue Component </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endomysium: surrounds cells </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. 4 Types of Tissue <ul><li>Epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Connective </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous </li></ul>
  57. 57. Nervous Tissue <ul><li>Neurons : specialized nerve cells conduct impulses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell body, dendrite, axon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characterized by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No mitosis (cell replication) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longevity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High metabolic rate </li></ul></ul>www.morphonix.com
  58. 58. Nervous Tissue: control <ul><li>Support cells (= Neuroglial) : nourishment, insulation, protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite cells -surround cell bodies within ganglia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schwann cells -surround axons (PNS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microglia -phagocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oligodendrocytes -produce myelin sheaths around axons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ependymal cells -line brain/spinal cord, ciliated, help circulate CSF </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brain, spinal cord, nerves </li></ul>
  59. 59. Integumentary System <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical, thermal, chemical, UV </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cushions & insulates deeper organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention of water loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermoregulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salts, urea, water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory reception </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Microanatomy - Layers of the Skin <ul><li>Epidermis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epithelium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dermis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connective tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypodermis / subcutis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose connective tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchors skin to bone or muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Skin Appendages = outgrowths of epidermis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hair follicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweat and Sebaceous glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nails </li></ul></ul>www.uptodate.com/.../Melanoma_anatomy.jpg
  61. 61. Cell Layers of the Epidermis <ul><li>Stratum corneum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dead keratinocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stratum lucidum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only in “thick” skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dead keratinocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stratum granulosum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water proofing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stratum spinosum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resists tears and tension </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stratum basale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Melanocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keratinocytes (in all layers) </li></ul></ul>15minbeauty.blogspot.com
  62. 62. Layers of the Dermis <ul><li>Highly innervated </li></ul><ul><li>Highly vascularized </li></ul><ul><li>Collagen & Elastic fibers </li></ul><ul><li>2 layers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Papillary layer (20%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Areolar CT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collagen & Elastic fibers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Innervation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hair follicles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reticular layer (80%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dense irregular CT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sebum </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.5 million sweat glands!! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth muscle fibers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Innervation </li></ul></ul></ul>www.uptodate.com/.../Melanoma_anatomy.jpg
  63. 63. Hypodermis <ul><li>Also called superficial fascia </li></ul><ul><li>Areolar & Adipose Connective Tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Store fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchor skin to muscle, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulation </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Structure of Tubular Organs <ul><li>LUMEN </li></ul><ul><li>Tunica Mucosa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lamina epithelialis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lamina propria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lamina muscularis mucosa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tunica Submucosa </li></ul><ul><li>Tunica Muscularis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner circular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer longitudinal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tunica Adventitia / Serosa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adventitia – covers organ directly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serosa – suspends organ in the peritoneal cavity </li></ul></ul>

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