Introduction to Microbiology

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Introduction to Microbiology

  1. 1. Foundations in Microbiology Chapter 1 PowerPoint to accompany Fifth Edition Talaro Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  2. 2. Microbiology <ul><li>The study of of organisms too small to be seen without magnification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>viruses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fungi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protozoa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>helminths (worms) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>algae </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Branches of study within microbiology <ul><li>Immunology </li></ul><ul><li>Public health microbiology & epidemiology </li></ul><ul><li>Food, dairy and aquatic microbiology </li></ul><ul><li>Biotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic engineering & recombinant DNA technology </li></ul>
  4. 4. Microbes are involved in <ul><li>nutrient production & energy flow </li></ul><ul><li>decomposition </li></ul><ul><li>production of foods, drugs & vaccines </li></ul><ul><li>bioremediation </li></ul><ul><li>causing disease </li></ul>
  5. 5. Impact of pathogens <ul><li>Nearly 2,000 different microbes cause diseases </li></ul><ul><li>10 B infections/year worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>13 M deaths from infections/year worldwide </li></ul>
  6. 7. Characteristics of microbes
  7. 9. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek <ul><li>First to observe living microbes </li></ul><ul><li>his single-lens magnified up to 300X </li></ul>(1632-1723)
  8. 11. Scientific Method <ul><li>Form a hypothesis - a tentative explanation that can be supported or refuted by observation & experimentation </li></ul><ul><li>A lengthy process of experimentation, analysis & testing either supports or refutes the hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Results must be published & repeated by other investigators. </li></ul>
  9. 12. <ul><li>If hypothesis is supported by a growing body of evidence & survives rigorous scrutiny, it moves to the next level of confidence - it becomes a theory </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of a theory is so compelling that the next level of confidence is reached - it becomes a Law or principle </li></ul>
  10. 13. Spontaneous generation Early belief that some forms of life could arise from vital forces present in nonliving or decomposing matter. (flies from manure, etc)
  11. 14. Louis Pasteur <ul><li>Showed microbes caused fermentation & spoilage </li></ul><ul><li>Disproved spontaneous generation of m.o. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed aseptic techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed a rabies vaccine. </li></ul>(1822-1895)
  12. 15. Germ theory of disease Many diseases are caused by the growth of microbes in the body and not by sins, bad character, or poverty, etc.
  13. 16. Robert Koch <ul><li>Established a sequence of experimental steps to show that a specific m.o. causes a particular disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed pure culture methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Identified cause of anthrax, TB, & cholera. </li></ul>(1843-1910)
  14. 17. Taxonomy - system for organizing, classifying & naming living things <ul><li>Domain - Archaea, Bacteria & Eukarya </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom - 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum or Division </li></ul><ul><li>Class </li></ul><ul><li>Order </li></ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Genus </li></ul><ul><li>species </li></ul>
  15. 18. 3 domains <ul><li>Eubacteria -true bacteria, peptidoglycan </li></ul><ul><li>Archaea –odd bacteria that live in extreme environments, high salt, heat, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Eukarya- have a nucleus, & organelles </li></ul>
  16. 20. Naming micoorganisms <ul><li>Binomial (scientific) nomenclature </li></ul><ul><li>Gives each microbe 2 names </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genus - noun, always capitalized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>species - adjective, lowercase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both italicized or underlined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escherichia coli (E. coli) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 21. Evolution- living things change gradually over millions of years <ul><li>Changes favoring survival are retained & less beneficial changes are lost. </li></ul><ul><li>All new species originate from preexisting species. </li></ul><ul><li>Closely related organism have similar features because they evolved from common ancestral forms. </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution usually progresses toward greater complexity. </li></ul>

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