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  1. Pelvis and Contents Reproductive Organs
  2. Bones of the Pelvis <ul><li>Pelvic / hip girdle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attaches the lower limbs to spine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supports the viscera of the pelvis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transmits the weight of the upper body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contents: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paired hip bones (coxal bone) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unite with each other anteriorly and with the sacrum posteriorly </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bony pelvis: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Os coxae, sacrum and coccyx </li></ul></ul></ul>Use lab work to learn bony landmarks of pelvis pg 366
  3. Os Coxae <ul><li>Each pelvic bone during childhood: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ilium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superior region </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ishium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Posteroinferior region </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pubis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior region </li></ul></ul></ul>pg 366, 381 pg 380
  4. True and False Pelves <ul><li>Separated by the pelvic brim </li></ul><ul><li>False Pelvis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior to the pelvic brim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iliac blades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contains abdominal organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attachment for muscles and ligaments to body wall </li></ul></ul><ul><li>True Pelvis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inferior to the pelvic brim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space contains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>part colon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rectum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bladder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>uterus/ovaries (females) </li></ul></ul></ul>pg 366
  5. <ul><li>Pelvic Diaphragm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>levator ani and coccygeus muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports pelvic organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seals inferior opening of bony pelvis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifts to help release feces during defecation </li></ul></ul>pg 392
  6. Sexual Dimorphism <ul><li>Males </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cavity is narrow, deep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller inlet and outlet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bones heavier, thicker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pubic angle more acute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ischial tuberosities longer, face more medially </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coccyx less moveable, more curved </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tilted forward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cavity is broad, shallow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pelvic inlet oval and outlet round </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bones are lighter, thinner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pubic angle larger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ischial tuberosities shorter, more everted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coccyx more moveable, straighter </li></ul></ul>
  7. Sexual Dimorphism Female Male pg 386
  8. Perineum <ul><li>Anus and external genitalia </li></ul><ul><li>Diamond shaped </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pubic symphysis anteriorly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ischial tuberosities laterally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coccyx posteriorly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Females: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External genitalia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Males: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrotum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Root of penis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anus </li></ul></ul>pg 443-4
  9. Embryonic Development of the Sex Organs <ul><li>Begin at week 5 as masses of gonadal ridges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop into the gonads </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sexually indifferent! </li></ul><ul><li>Both ducts are present in embryo, but only one develops: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Male </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mesonephric (Wolffian) ducts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vas deferens, epididymis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Female </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paramesonephric (Müllerian) ducts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uterus, oviduct, vagina </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. External genitalia develops from same structures <ul><li>Embryonic structure Male Female </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Labioscrotal swelling Scrotum Labia major </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urethral folds Penile Urethra Labia minor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genital tubercle Penis Clitoris </li></ul></ul>
  11. Descent of the Gonads <ul><li>Male Development: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testes partially descend at 3 months, finish at 7 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enter the scrotum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaginal process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outpocketing of the peritoneal cavity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually closes off </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forms tunica vaginalis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gubernaculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fibrous cord </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extends from the testis to floor of scrotal sac </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final teste descent: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shortening of gubernaculum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in intra-abdominal pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Testosterone stimulation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. Descent of the Gonads <ul><li>Female Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Descend only into the pelvis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broad ligament blocks further descent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gubernaculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guides ovaries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attached to labia major </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Becomes: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Round ligament of the uterus (inferior portion) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ovarian ligament (superior portion) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaginal process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outpocketing of peritoneum guides descent </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. Puberty <ul><li>Between ages 10 and 15 </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive organs grow to their adult size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduction becomes possible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes occur due to the increase in reproductive hormones in each individual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testosterone in males </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estrogens in females </li></ul></ul>
  14. Dimporhism at Puberty <ul><li>Males </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age 13 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enlargement of the testes and scrotum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary sex characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appearance of pubic, axillary, and facial hair </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enlargement of larynx </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oily skin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in body size and musculature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age 11 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budding of breasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary sex characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in subcutaneous fat (hips and breasts) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Widening and lightening of the bones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oily skin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hair in pubic and axillary region </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Menarche </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Menstruation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Happens 1-2 years later </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. Reproductive System <ul><li>Overall function is to produce offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Genitalia = sex organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary = Gonads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ovaries, testes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produce the sex cells / gametes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm, eggs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secrete sex hormones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary = Accessory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glands, ducts, external genitalia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nourish and transport of gametes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. Male Reproductive System
  17. Male Reproductive System <ul><li>Primary sex organ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gonads = testes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lie in the scrotum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm-producing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary sex organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External Genitalia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Penis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scrotum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ducts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Epididymis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Efferent ductules </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Duct of epididymis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vas deferens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ejaculatory duct </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urethra </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seminal vesicle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prostate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bulbourethral </li></ul></ul></ul>pg 365
  18. Scrotum <ul><li>Sac of skin and fascia </li></ul><ul><li>Hangs at the root of the penis </li></ul><ul><li>Contains the testes </li></ul><ul><li>Septum in midline divides right and left halves </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dartos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inside skin of scrotum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth muscle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for wrinkling of scrotal skin (warms) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cremaster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extends into scrotum from spermatic cord </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fibers from internal oblique </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skeletal muscle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for elevating and lowering the testes (warming and cooling) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. Testes <ul><li>Lie within the scrotum </li></ul><ul><li>Tunica vaginalis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light sac partly covering each testes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tunica albuginea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibrous capsule of the testes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep to tunica vaginalis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divides testes into lobules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lobules contain seminiferous tubules </li></ul></ul></ul>pg 408
  20. Reproductive Duct System <ul><li>Seminiferous tubules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ sperm factories” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location of spermatogenesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Converge into……. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tubulus rectus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Straight tube that conveys sperm into…. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rete testis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead to the…… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Efferent ductules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead to epididymis …. </li></ul></ul>pg 408
  21. Reproductive Duct System <ul><li>Epididymis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site of sperm maturation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth muscle layer leads to ejaculation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Head </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contain the efferent ductules </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tube from rete testes to duct of epididymis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ciliated simple columnar epithelium </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body and Tail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Duct of epididymis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highly coiled </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leads into the vas deferens </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pseudostratified columnar epithelium with stereocilia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resorb testicular fliud </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer nutrients and secretions to sperm stored in the epididymis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. Reproductive Duct System <ul><li>Vas Deferens (Ductus Deferens) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores and transports sperm during ejaculation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Runs from epididymis to ejaculatory duct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ED then runs within the prostate gland and empties into the prostatic urethra </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Layers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pseudostratified epithelium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lamina propria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thick muscularis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adventitia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vasectomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cut vas deferns, close off ends </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm STILL produced, but cannot exit the body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reversible sometimes! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. Reproductive Duct System <ul><li>Spermatic Cord </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collective name for structures associated with the scrotum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passes through inguinal canal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vas Deferens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Testicular arteries and veins (pampiniform plexus) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphatic vessels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cremaster muscle fibers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nerves </li></ul></ul></ul>pg 235
  24. Reproductive Duct System pg 408
  25. Reproductive Duct System pg 365
  26. Cell Division <ul><li>Mitosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Events in which replicated DNA of original cell is divided into 2 new cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell division with chromosome duplication and division  2 daughter cells = parent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have Diploid = 2n number of chromosomes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in body (somatic) cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Meiosis = Reductional division </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Events that reduce the number of chromosomes (1/2 of the parent) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have Haploid = n number of chromosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in sex cells </li></ul></ul>
  27. Spermatogenesis <ul><li>Production of sperm </li></ul><ul><li>Stages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stem cells = Spermatogonia (2n) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of 2 daughter cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type A become precursor cells (2n) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type B become primary spermatocytes (2n) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meiosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary spermatocytes undergo Meiosis I </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 secondary spermatocytes (n) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary spermatocytes undergo Meiosis II </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 spermatids (n) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spermiogenesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spermatids differentiate into sperm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm cell (spermatozoan) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Head (acrosome), tail and midpiece </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled by FSH (pituitary gland) and testosterone (testes) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  28. Spermatogenesis
  29. Within Seminiferous Tubules <ul><li>Sustentacular cells (Sertoli cells) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surround the spermatogenic cells in the lumen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide nutrients to spermatogenic cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move cells toward tubule lumen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secrete testicular fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phagocytize cytoplasm shed by developing spermatids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secrete Androgen-binding protein (concentrates testosterone) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secrete Inhibin (hormone slows rate of sperm production) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blood-testis barrier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In tight junctions between the sustentacular cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent escape of membrane antigens from sperm into the bloodstream </li></ul></ul>
  30. Within Seminiferous Tubules <ul><li>Myoid cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Layers of smooth muscle cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contract to squeeze sperm thru tubules and out of testis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interstitial cells (Leydig cells) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make and secrete male sex hormone (androgens) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In CT between tubules </li></ul></ul>
  31. Accessory Glands <ul><li>Seminal Vesicles (2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lie on posterior surface of the bladder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joins the vas deferens to form an ejaculator duct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracts during ejaculation to empty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretion contains: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fructose to nourish sperm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prostaglandins to stimulate contraction of the uterus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suppress immune response in females </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm motility enhancers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes that clot ejaculated semen in vagina, then liquefy it so sperm can swim out </li></ul></ul></ul>pg 365
  32. Accessory Glands <ul><li>Prostate gland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inferior to bladder, anterior to rectum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encircles the first part of the urethra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracts during ejaculation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretion contains: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Substances that enhance sperm motility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes that liquefy ejaculated sperm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Bulbourethral gland (2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inferior to prostate gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within urogenital diaphragm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empties into spongy urethra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce a mucus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neutralize urine in urethra </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lubricate semen for passage </li></ul></ul></ul>pg 365
  33. Penis <ul><li>Male external genitalia </li></ul><ul><li>Delivers sperm into the female reproductive tract </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Root </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attached end </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crura </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anchored to pubic arch, covered by ischiocavernosus muscle </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bulb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secured to urogenital diaphragm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body / Shaft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free; not attached </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glans penis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enlarged tip </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepuce / Foreskin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loose cuff around glans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spongy urethra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tube within penis </li></ul></ul></ul>pg 439
  34. Penis <ul><li>Erectile bodies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 cylindrical bodies around the spongy urethra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thick tube covered by DCT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Filled with smooth muscle, CT, and vascular spaces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corpus spongiosum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Midventral erectile body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distally forms the glans penis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proximally forms the bulb of the penis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corpora cavernosa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paired, dorsal erectile bodies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proximal ends are the crura of the penis (crus) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Covered by ischiocavernosus muscle </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make up most of the mass of the penis </li></ul></ul></ul>pg 439
  35. Penis Innervation and Vasculature <ul><li>Arterial supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Branches of internal pudendal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Innervation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Branches of pudendal from sacral plexus provides sensory innervation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Engorgement of blood in erectile bodies = erection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contraction of smooth muscle in ducts and glands and bulbospongiosum muscle = ejaculation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomic from inferior hypogastric plexus </li></ul></ul></ul>pg 449 pg 447
  36. Female Reproductive System
  37. Female Reproductive System <ul><li>Primary Sex Organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovaries = gonads </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary Sex Organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External Genitalia = vulva </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Labia major + minor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mons pubis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clitoris </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ducts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uterine tube = oviducts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vagina </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater vestibular gland </li></ul></ul></ul>pg 365
  38. Anatomy <ul><li>Ovaries (2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce and store ova (eggs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce estrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tunica albuginea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fibrous capsule that surrounds the ovary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germinal epithelium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Covers the tunica albuginea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mesothelium </li></ul></ul></ul>pg 365
  39. Anatomy <ul><li>Ovaries are retroperitoneal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounded by peritoneal cavity and held in place by mesentery and ligaments from peritoneum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ligaments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad ligament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supports uterus and oviducts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspensory ligament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attaches ovaries to lateral pelvic wall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovarian ligament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anchors the ovary to the uterus medially </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Round ligament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Part of broad ligament </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attaches uterus to labia majorum </li></ul></ul></ul>pg 365
  40. Oogenesis: production of eggs (ova) <ul><li>Stem cells = oogonia undergo Mitosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All of female’s oogonia produced while fetus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oogonia become oocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oogonia begin Meiosis I are called primary oocytes (2n) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meiosis I is stalled before birth and until ovulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During ovulation, Meiosis I completed and Meiosis II begins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once Meiosis II begins, primary oocytes now called secondary oocytes (n) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meiosis II is completed when sperm penetrates plasma membrane of the egg </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When Meiosis II is completed, secondary oocyte is now called ovum (egg) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meiosis II results in 4 daughter cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 ovum and 3 polar bodies (degenerate) </li></ul></ul>
  41. Oogenesis Begins and stalls until ovulation Meiosis 2 completes upon sperm penetration of secondary oocyte
  42. Uterine Tubes <ul><li>Also called oviducts, fallopian tubes </li></ul><ul><li>Begins laterally near ovary and ends medially at uterus </li></ul><ul><li>3 parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infundibulum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral, funnel shaped portion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fimbrae on edges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ampulla </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medial to infundibulum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded portion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Site where fertilization occurs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isthmus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medial part of the tube </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Visceral Peritoneum, Smooth Muscle, Ciliated simple columnar epithelium </li></ul>pg 414
  43. Movement of Ova <ul><li>Through the oviduct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receives oocyte after ovulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peristaltic waves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cilia lining tube </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains cells to nourish ova </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ectopic pregnancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implantation of embryo outside of the uterus </li></ul></ul>
  44. Uterus <ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receive, retain, nourish fertilized egg (=zygote) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 layers of wall: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perimetrium (outer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Myometrium (middle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endometrium (inner) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Portions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isthmus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Location: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior to rectum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posterosuperior to bladder </li></ul></ul>pg 414
  45. Cervix <ul><li>Location: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Below the isthmus of the uterus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered the narrow neck of the uterus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projects into the vagina </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeps uterus closed and fetus within it during pregnancy (collagen) </li></ul></ul>pg 414
  46. Vagina <ul><li>Location: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inferior to the uterus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior to the rectum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior to the urethra and bladder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Birth canal </li></ul><ul><li>3 layers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adventitia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscularis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mucosa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rugae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Vaginal orifice </li></ul><ul><li>Hymen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension of mucosa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incomplete wall / diaphragm </li></ul></ul>pg 414
  47. Female External Genitalia = “Vulva” <ul><li>Mons pubis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rounded pad over the pubic symphysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Labia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fatty skin folds with hair </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller, hairless folds inside major </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 parts: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vestibule </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>created by labia minor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>opening for urethra and vagina </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central tendon </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perineal body </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fourchette </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Junction of labia minor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>pg 443, 439
  48. Female External Genitalia = “Vulva” <ul><li>Clitoris </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior to vestibule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of erectile tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homologous to the penis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Components: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crura </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prepuce </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corpus cavernosa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No corpus spongiosum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Bulbs of vestibule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engorge with blood to help grip the penis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greater vestibular glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Either side of vaginal opening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secrete mucus to make intercourse possible </li></ul></ul>pg 443, 439
  49. Vasculature and Innervation <ul><li>Vasculature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uterine arteries from internal iliac and arcuate branches = uterus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovarian arteries from abdominal aorta and ovarian branches of uterine arteries = ovaries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Innervation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Branches of Pudendal nerve (hypogastric plexus & pelvic splanchnic nerves) </li></ul></ul>pg 432 pg 317
  50. Fertilization: sperm meets egg Path of sperm: Seminiferous tubules  tubulus rectus  rete testis  efferent ductules  duct of epididymis  vas deferens  ejaculatory duct  urethra  female’s vagina  uterus  oviduct Path of egg: ovary  peritoneal cavity  infundibulum (oviduct)  oviduct The meeting: Sperm + egg meet in uterine tube  sperm penetrates egg = fertilization Zygote  uterus for implantation in uterine wall

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