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Eukaryotic Cells and Microorganisms.
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Eukaryotic Cells and Microorganisms.

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  • 1. Foundations in Microbiology Chapter 5 PowerPoint to accompany Fifth Edition Talaro Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 2. Eucaryotic cells and microorganisms Chapter 5
  • 3. 3 Eucaryotic cells
  • 4. Flagella
    • long, sheathed cylinder containing microtubules in a 9+2 arrangement
    • covered by an extension of the cell membrane
    • 10X thicker than procaryotic flagella
    • function in motility
  • 5. Flagella
  • 6. Cilia
    • similar in overall structure to flagella, but shorter and more numerous
    • found only on a single group of protozoa and certain animal cells
    • function in motility, feeding & filtering
  • 7. Glycocalyx
    • an outermost boundary that comes into direct contact with environment
    • usually composed of polysaccharides
    • appears as a network of fibers, a slime layer or a capsule
    • functions in adherence, protection, & signal reception
    • beneath the glycocalyx
      • fungi and most algae have a thick, rigid cell wall
      • protozoa, a few algae, and all animal cells lack a cell wall & have only a membrane
  • 8. Glycocalyx structure
  • 9. Cell wall
    • rigid & provide structural support & shape
    • fungi have thick inner layer of polysaccharide fibers composed of chitin or cellulose & a thin layer of mixed glycans
    • Algae – varies in chemical composition; substances commonly found include cellulose, pectin, mannans, silicon dioxide, & calcium carbonate
  • 10. Cell membrane
    • typical bilayer of phospholipids and proteins
    • sterols confer stability
    • serve as selectively permeable barriers in transport
    • eucaryotic cells also contain membrane-bound organelles that account for 60-80% of their volume
  • 11. nucleus
    • compact sphere, most prominent organelle of eucaryotic cell
    • nuclear envelope is composed of two parallel membranes separated by a narrow space & is perforated with pores
    • contains chromosomes
    • nucleolus – dark area for rRNA synthesis & ribosome assembly
  • 12. nucleus
  • 13. Mitosis
  • 14. Endoplasmic reticulum
    • Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)– originates from the outer membrane of the nuclear envelop & extends in a continuous network through cytoplasm; rough due to ribosomes, proteins are synthesized & shunted into the ER for packaging & transport. First step in secretory pathway.
    • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)– closed tubular network without ribosomes, functions in nutrient processing, synthesis & storage of lipids, etc.
  • 15. rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)
  • 16. Golgi apparatus
    • consists of a stack of flattened sacs called cisternae
    • closely associated with ER
    • Transistional vesicles from the ER containing proteins go to the Golgi apparatus for modification and maturation
    • Condensing vesicles transport proteins to organelles or secretory proteins to the outside
  • 17. Golgi apparatus
  • 18. Transport process
  • 19. lysosomes
    • vesicles containing enzymes
    • involved in intracellular digestion of food particles & in protection against invading microbes
  • 20. lysosomes
  • 21. mitochondria
    • consists of an outer membrane & an inner membrane with folds called cristae
    • cristae hold the enzymes & electron carriers of areobic respiration
    • divide independently of cell
    • contain DNA and procaryotic ribosomes
    • function in energy production
  • 22. mitochondria
  • 23. chloroplast
    • found in algae & plant cells
    • outer membrane covers inner membrane folded into sacs, thylakoids, stacked into grana
    • larger than mitochondria
    • contain photosynthetic pigments
    • convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy through photosynthesis
    • primary producers of organic nutrients for other organisms
  • 24. chloroplast
  • 25. cytoskeleton
    • flexible framework of proteins, microfilaments & microtubules form network throughout cytoplasm
    • involved in movement of cytoplasm, ameboid movement, transport, & structural support
  • 26. cytoskeleton
  • 27. ribosomes
    • composed of rRNA and proteins
    • 40S and 60S subunits form 80S ribosomes
    • larger than procaryotic ribosomes
    • function in protein synthesis
  • 28. Survey of eucaryotic microbes
    • Fungi
    • Algae
    • Protozoa
    • Parasitic helminths
  • 29. Kingdom Fungi
    • 100,000 species divided into 2 groups:
      • macroscopic fungi ( mushrooms, puffballs, gill fungi)
      • microscopic fungi (molds, yeasts)
    • majority are unicellular or colonial, a few have cellular specialization
  • 30. microscopic fungi
    • exist in 2 morphologies
      • yeast – round ovoid shape, asexual reproduction
      • hyphae – long filamentous fungi or molds
    • some exist in either form – dimorphic – characteristic of pathogens
  • 31. Morphology of yeasts
  • 32. Hyphae or mold
  • 33. Fungal nutrition
    • all are heterotrophic
    • majority are harmless saprobes living off dead plants & animals
    • some are parasites, living on the tissues of other organisms, but none are obligate; mycoses – fungal infections
    • growth temperature 20 o -40 o C
    • extremely widespread distribution in many habitats
  • 34. Fungal Reproduction
    • primarily through spores formed on special reproductive hyphae
      • asexual reproduction – spores are formed through budding or in conidia or sporangiospores
      • sexual reproduction – spores are formed following fusion of male & female strains & formation of sexual structure
    • sexual spores are one basis for classification
  • 35. Asexual mold spores
  • 36. 4 main divisions based on spore type
    • Zygomycota
    • Ascomycota
    • Basidiomycota
    • Deuteromycota – no sexual spores
  • 37. I. Zygospores
  • 38. II. Ascospores
  • 39. III. Basidospores
  • 40. Roles of fungi
    • decomposers of dead plants and animals
    • sources of antibiotics
    • used in making foods & in genetic studies
    • adverse impact – food spoilage, mycoses, toxin production
  • 41. Kingdom Protista
    • algae
    • protozoa
  • 42. Algae
    • photosynthetic organisms
    • kelps, seaweeds, euglenids, green algae, diatoms, dinoflagellates, brown algae, & red seaweeds
    • contain chloroplasts with chlorophyll & other pigments; cell wall; may or may not have flagella
    • microscopic forms are unicellular, colonial, filamentous
    • macroscopic forms are colonial and multicellular
    • most are free-living in fresh and marine water
  • 43. Algae
  • 44. Algae
    • classified according to types of pigments & cell wall
    • provide basis of food web in most aquatic habitats
    • produce large proportion of atmospheric O2
    • used for cosmetics, food & medical products
    • Dinoflagellates cause red tides & give off toxins
  • 45. Protozoa
    • 65,000 species
    • most are unicellular, colonies are rare
    • most have locomoter structures – flagella, cilia, or pseudopods
    • vary in shape
    • lack a cell wall & chloroplasts
    • can exist in trophozoite - motile feeding stage or cyst – a dormant resistant stage
  • 46. Protozoa
  • 47. Protozoa
    • all are heterotrophic,
    • most are free-living in a moist habitat
    • feed by engulfing other microbes & organic matter
    • some are animal parasites & can be spread by insect vectors
    • asexual and sexual reproduction
  • 48. Groups based on locomotion & reproduction
    • Mastigophora – flagellates
    • Sarcodina – amebas
    • Ciliophora – ciliates
    • Apicomplexa – all parasites motility not well developed; produce unique reproductive structures
  • 49. Mastigophora – flagellates
  • 50. Sarcodina – amebas
  • 51. Ciliophora – ciliates
  • 52. Apicomplexa
  • 53. Parasitic Helminths
    • multicellular animals, organs for reproduction, digestion, movement, protection
    • parasitize host tissues
    • have mouthparts for attachment to or digestion of host tissues
    • most have well-developed sex organs that produce eggs and sperm.
    • fertilized eggs go through larval period in or out of host body
  • 54. Major groups of helminths
    • flatworms – flat, no definite body cavity; digestive tract a blind pouch; simple excretory & nervous systems
      • cestodes (tapeworms)
      • trematodes or flukes, are flattened , nonsegmented worms with sucking mouthparts
    • roundworms (nematodes)- round, a complete digestive tract, a protective surface cuticle, spines & hooks on mouth; excretory & nervous systems poorly developed
  • 55. Helminths
    • 50 species parasitize humans
    • acquired though ingestion of larvae or eggs in food; from soil or water; some are carried by insect vectors
    • afflict billions of humans
  • 56.  
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  • 59.