Hormonal Control of Behavior Lecture 22
Chemical Control of Brain <ul><li>Point-to-point control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>closed-circuit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>s...
Chemical Control of Brain <ul><li>Diffuse control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>widespread control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>slow...
Hormones & Behavior? <ul><li>Responses to a changing environment </li></ul><ul><li>detect stimulus    make response </li>...
2 Types of Glands <ul><li>Exocrine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ducts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sweat, tears, etc. </li></ul></u...
Neurohormones <ul><li>Interact with nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical message </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurotransmitt...
Neurohormones <ul><li>Similarities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chemical messengers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>act at receptors <...
Neurohormone Properties <ul><li>Neurons release molecules into blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long distances </li></ul></ul><...
Function <ul><li>Developmental </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sex differentiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>testosterone, estradio...
Types of Neurohormones <ul><li>Amino acid-derived hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. epinephrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Types of Neurohormones <ul><li>Steroid Hormones  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Derived from cholesterol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Neuroendocrine System <ul><li>Brain </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Releasing Hormones  </li></ul></...
Pituitary Gland <ul><li>2 parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>different developmental origins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anterior pitu...
Anterior Pituitary- Adenohypophysis Posterior Pituitary- Neurohypophysis Hypothalamus Pituitary Stalk Pituitary hypophysis G
Supraoptic nucleus PVN Posterior Pituitary
Posterior Pituitary: Neurohormones <ul><li>Magnocellular neurosecretory cells  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supraoptic  & Paraven...
Oxytocin  <ul><li>Induces uterine contractions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>child birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>orgasm during ...
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) <ul><li>AKA: Vasopressin </li></ul><ul><li>Responds to    blood pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Subfornical Organ <ul><li>Subfornical organ - SFO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dorsal 3d ventricle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lac...
Kidneys SFO Thirst PVN & SON LH Hypothalamus ADH A II
ADH (Vasopressin) <ul><li>Alcohol suppresses ADH release  </li></ul><ul><li>Damage    diabetes insipidus </li></ul><ul><u...
Anterior Hypothalamus <ul><li>Primordial tissue from roof of mouth </li></ul><ul><li>No axons from hypothalamus </li></ul>...
Hypothalamopituitary Portal System <ul><li>Portal Systems  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capillary beds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
RH PVN G
PVN RH G TH TH TH TH TH
Cortisol Regulation <ul><li>Adrenal glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>medulla: NE & E </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cortex: cortis...
Cortisol Regulation <ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) </li></ul></ul><ul><l...
Sex Hormones <ul><li>Hypothalamus  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gonadotropin-releasing hormone - GRH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>i...
Gonadotropins:  Target Cells <ul><li>Gonads </li></ul><ul><li>Testes - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Androgens -Testosterone </li>...
Gonadotropin Release Patterns <ul><li>Sex differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FSH & LH both sexes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mal...
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  • Same mechanism as peptide NTs - K
  • Can also alter transmission of ions across the membrane - K
  • ~BN22 hormonal control.ppt

    1. 1. Hormonal Control of Behavior Lecture 22
    2. 2. Chemical Control of Brain <ul><li>Point-to-point control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>closed-circuit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>synapse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fast, short-lived, local ~ </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Chemical Control of Brain <ul><li>Diffuse control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>widespread control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>slower, longer lasting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diffuse modulatory systems </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroendocrine system ~ </li></ul>
    4. 4. Hormones & Behavior? <ul><li>Responses to a changing environment </li></ul><ul><li>detect stimulus  make response </li></ul><ul><li>Effectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>glands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Autonomic N.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homeostasis ~ </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. 2 Types of Glands <ul><li>Exocrine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ducts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sweat, tears, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endocrine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ductless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>released into blood ~ </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Neurohormones <ul><li>Interact with nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical message </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurotransmitters (NTs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pheromones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What’s the difference? ~ </li></ul>
    7. 7. Neurohormones <ul><li>Similarities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chemical messengers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>act at receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>influence behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>medium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>distance traveled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>time course ~ </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Neurohormone Properties <ul><li>Neurons release molecules into blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long distances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer lasting effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widespread ~ </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Function <ul><li>Developmental </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sex differentiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>testosterone, estradiol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regulatory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulin, CCK, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vasopressin, Oxytocin ~ </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Types of Neurohormones <ul><li>Amino acid-derived hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. epinephrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>released from adrenal medulla </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protein & Peptide Hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bind to membrane receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activate the 2nd messenger system ~ </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Types of Neurohormones <ul><li>Steroid Hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Derived from cholesterol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soluble in lipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bind to cytoplasmic receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>regulates gene expression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. sex hormones ~ </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Neuroendocrine System <ul><li>Brain </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Releasing Hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pituitary gland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior: tropic hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior: neurohormones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Glands - Hormones ~ </li></ul>
    13. 13. Pituitary Gland <ul><li>2 parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>different developmental origins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no axons from hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>parvocellular neurosecretory cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>portal system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>axons from hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>magnocellular secretory cells ~ </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Anterior Pituitary- Adenohypophysis Posterior Pituitary- Neurohypophysis Hypothalamus Pituitary Stalk Pituitary hypophysis G
    15. 15. Supraoptic nucleus PVN Posterior Pituitary
    16. 16. Posterior Pituitary: Neurohormones <ul><li>Magnocellular neurosecretory cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supraoptic & Paraventricular Nuclei </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neurons fire  Neurohormones released </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transported down axons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to posterior pituitary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peptide Neurohormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxytocin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vasopressin ~ </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Oxytocin <ul><li>Induces uterine contractions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>child birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>orgasm during sex </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Triggers lactation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“letdown reflex” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>triggered by touch, sight, sound ~ </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) <ul><li>AKA: Vasopressin </li></ul><ul><li>Responds to   blood pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Induces vasoconstriction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes water retention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kidney: Renin release </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Angiotensin I  Angiotensin II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to kidneys & subfornical organ ~ </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Subfornical Organ <ul><li>Subfornical organ - SFO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dorsal 3d ventricle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lacks blood-brain barrier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A II receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Output to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supraoptic & paraventricular nuclei </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADH release </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lateral hypothalamus (LH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thirst  drinking behavior ~ </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Kidneys SFO Thirst PVN & SON LH Hypothalamus ADH A II
    21. 21. ADH (Vasopressin) <ul><li>Alcohol suppresses ADH release </li></ul><ul><li>Damage  diabetes insipidus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>copius urination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>intense thirst ~ </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Anterior Hypothalamus <ul><li>Primordial tissue from roof of mouth </li></ul><ul><li>No axons from hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parvocellular neurosecretory cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Releasing hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>triggers release of tropic hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tropic hormones  various glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gonads adrenal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mammary thyroid ~ </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Hypothalamopituitary Portal System <ul><li>Portal Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capillary beds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connected by a vein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. hepatic portal vein </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus  Anterior Pituitary ~ </li></ul>
    24. 24. RH PVN G
    25. 25. PVN RH G TH TH TH TH TH
    26. 26. Cortisol Regulation <ul><li>Adrenal glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>medulla: NE & E </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cortex: cortisol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regulation of cortisol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>steroid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fight/flight & immunosuppression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stress response </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Receptors widely distributed ~ </li></ul>
    27. 27. Cortisol Regulation <ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anterior pituitary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adrenal cortex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cortisol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative feedback to hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cortisol inhibits own release ~ </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Sex Hormones <ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gonadotropin-releasing hormone - GRH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>isolated from pig hypothalami </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anterior Pituitary - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gonadotropins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Follicle stimulating hormone - FSH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lutenizing hormone - LH ~ </li></ul></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Gonadotropins: Target Cells <ul><li>Gonads </li></ul><ul><li>Testes - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Androgens -Testosterone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ovaries - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estrogens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estradiol and Progesterone ~ </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Gonadotropin Release Patterns <ul><li>Sex differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FSH & LH both sexes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Males  steady </li></ul><ul><li>Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cyclical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transplant male pituitary into female? ~ </li></ul>

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