~BN22 hormonal control.ppt
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  • Same mechanism as peptide NTs - K
  • Can also alter transmission of ions across the membrane - K

~BN22 hormonal control.ppt Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Hormonal Control of Behavior Lecture 22
  • 2. Chemical Control of Brain
    • Point-to-point control
      • closed-circuit
      • synapse
      • fast, short-lived, local ~
  • 3. Chemical Control of Brain
    • Diffuse control
      • widespread control
      • slower, longer lasting
    • Diffuse modulatory systems
    • Neuroendocrine system ~
  • 4. Hormones & Behavior?
    • Responses to a changing environment
    • detect stimulus  make response
    • Effectors
      • muscles
      • glands
    • Autonomic N.S.
      • Homeostasis ~
  • 5. 2 Types of Glands
    • Exocrine
      • ducts
      • sweat, tears, etc.
    • Endocrine
      • ductless
      • hormones
      • released into blood ~
  • 6. Neurohormones
    • Interact with nervous system
    • Chemical message
      • Neurotransmitters (NTs)
      • Hormones
      • Pheromones
    • What’s the difference? ~
  • 7. Neurohormones
    • Similarities
      • chemical messengers
      • act at receptors
      • influence behavior
    • Differences
      • medium
      • distance traveled
      • time course ~
  • 8. Neurohormone Properties
    • Neurons release molecules into blood
      • Long distances
      • Slower
      • Longer lasting effects
      • Widespread ~
  • 9. Function
    • Developmental
      • sex differentiation
      • testosterone, estradiol
    • Regulatory
      • Insulin, CCK, etc.
      • Vasopressin, Oxytocin ~
  • 10. Types of Neurohormones
    • Amino acid-derived hormones
      • e.g. epinephrine
      • released from adrenal medulla
    • Protein & Peptide Hormones
      • Bind to membrane receptors
      • Activate the 2nd messenger system ~
  • 11. Types of Neurohormones
    • Steroid Hormones
      • Derived from cholesterol
      • Soluble in lipids
      • Bind to cytoplasmic receptors
        • regulates gene expression
      • e.g. sex hormones ~
  • 12. Neuroendocrine System
    • Brain
    • Hypothalamus
      • Releasing Hormones
    • Pituitary gland
      • Anterior: tropic hormones
      • Posterior: neurohormones
    • Glands - Hormones ~
  • 13. Pituitary Gland
    • 2 parts
      • different developmental origins
    • Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)
      • no axons from hypothalamus
      • parvocellular neurosecretory cells
      • portal system
    • Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)
      • axons from hypothalamus
      • magnocellular secretory cells ~
  • 14. Anterior Pituitary- Adenohypophysis Posterior Pituitary- Neurohypophysis Hypothalamus Pituitary Stalk Pituitary hypophysis G
  • 15. Supraoptic nucleus PVN Posterior Pituitary
  • 16. Posterior Pituitary: Neurohormones
    • Magnocellular neurosecretory cells
      • Supraoptic & Paraventricular Nuclei
    • Neurons fire  Neurohormones released
      • Transported down axons
      • to posterior pituitary
    • Peptide Neurohormones
      • Oxytocin
      • Vasopressin ~
  • 17. Oxytocin
    • Induces uterine contractions
      • child birth
      • orgasm during sex
    • Triggers lactation
      • “letdown reflex”
      • triggered by touch, sight, sound ~
  • 18. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
    • AKA: Vasopressin
    • Responds to   blood pressure
      • Induces vasoconstriction
      • Promotes water retention
    • Kidney: Renin release
      • Angiotensin I  Angiotensin II
      • to kidneys & subfornical organ ~
  • 19. Subfornical Organ
    • Subfornical organ - SFO
      • Dorsal 3d ventricle
      • lacks blood-brain barrier
      • A II receptors
    • Output to
      • Supraoptic & paraventricular nuclei
      • ADH release
      • lateral hypothalamus (LH)
      • thirst  drinking behavior ~
  • 20. Kidneys SFO Thirst PVN & SON LH Hypothalamus ADH A II
  • 21. ADH (Vasopressin)
    • Alcohol suppresses ADH release
    • Damage  diabetes insipidus
      • Symptoms
        • copius urination
        • intense thirst ~
  • 22. Anterior Hypothalamus
    • Primordial tissue from roof of mouth
    • No axons from hypothalamus
      • Parvocellular neurosecretory cells
      • Releasing hormones
      • triggers release of tropic hormones
    • Tropic hormones  various glands
      • gonads adrenal
        • mammary thyroid ~
  • 23. Hypothalamopituitary Portal System
    • Portal Systems
      • Capillary beds
      • Connected by a vein
      • e.g. hepatic portal vein
    • Hypothalamus  Anterior Pituitary ~
  • 24. RH PVN G
  • 25. PVN RH G TH TH TH TH TH
  • 26. Cortisol Regulation
    • Adrenal glands
      • medulla: NE & E
      • cortex: cortisol
    • Regulation of cortisol
      • steroid
      • fight/flight & immunosuppression
      • stress response
    • Receptors widely distributed ~
  • 27. Cortisol Regulation
    • Hypothalamus
      • Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
    • Anterior pituitary
      • Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)
    • Adrenal cortex
      • Cortisol
    • Negative feedback to hypothalamus
      • cortisol inhibits own release ~
  • 28. Sex Hormones
    • Hypothalamus
      • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone - GRH
      • isolated from pig hypothalami
    • Anterior Pituitary -
      • Gonadotropins
        • Follicle stimulating hormone - FSH
        • Lutenizing hormone - LH ~
  • 29. Gonadotropins: Target Cells
    • Gonads
    • Testes -
      • Androgens -Testosterone
    • Ovaries -
      • Estrogens
      • Estradiol and Progesterone ~
  • 30. Gonadotropin Release Patterns
    • Sex differences
      • FSH & LH both sexes
    • Males  steady
    • Females
      • cyclical
    • Transplant male pituitary into female? ~