~BN07 PNS Anatomy.ppt

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  • Cervical plexus Phrenic nerve: respiratory control Brachial Plexus Lumbar Plexus Sacral Plexus

Transcript

  • 1. The Peripheral Nervous System Lecture 7
  • 2. Peripheral N. S.
    • Cranial Nerves - 12 pair
    • Spinal Nerves - 31 pair
    • Somatic Division
      • Sensory info
      • Body Movement
    • Autonomic division - Homeostasis
      • regulation ~
  • 3. Cranial Nerves
    • From ventral surface
      • numbered anterior  posterior
    • Sensory, motor, or mixed
    • Mnemonic ~
  • 4. Oh Oh Oh To Touch And Feel Very Green Vegetables A H Olfactory Optic Oculomotor Trochlear Trigeminal Abducens Facial Vestibulococlear Glossopharangeal Vagus Accessory (Spinal) Hypoglossal I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII On Old Olympus Towering Top A Famous Vocal German Viewed Some Hops
  • 5. Spinal Nerves
    • 1 pair for each vertebral segment
    • 8 pr. cervical (C1-C8)
    • 12 pr. thoracic (T1-T12)
    • 5 pr. lumbar (L1-L5)
    • 5 pr. sacral (S1-S5)
    • 1 pr coccygeal ~
  • 6. Spinal Nerves
    • Thoracic nerves relatively small
        • back & ribs
    • Cervical, lumbar, & sacral: large nerves
        • rest of the body
    • All Interconnect
      • after leaving vertebral canal
      • form 4 major plexuses
        • cervical, brachial, lumbar, sacral ~
  • 7. Somatic Nervous System
    • Sensory input
      • receptors  DRG  dorsal SC
      • Dorsal column-medial lemniscal pathway
      • Spinolthalamic tract
    • Motor output
      • Receptors  ventral horns  muscles
      • Corticospinal tract
      • Rubrospinal tract ~
  • 8. Dermatomes
    • Sensory innervation
      • each spinal nerve has receptive field
    • Overlap at distal branches
      • redundancy
      • retain some sensation even if a complete spinal nerve destroyed ~
  • 9. Somatic N.S.: Motor Output
  • 10. The Lateral Pathway
    • Voluntary movement
      • distal limbs
      • 2 tracts
    • Corticospinal tract
        • about 1 million axons
    • Rubrospinal tract
        • small part of pathway ~
  • 11. Motor N.S.
    • Striate muscle
      • uninterrupted neuron
        •  motor neuron
      • nerve-dependent
    • Excitatory only at neuroeffector synapse
      • NT is acetylcholine (ACh)
        • cholinergic
      • Nicotine = direct agonist (AG)
      • Curare = direct antagonist (ANT) ~
  • 12. Somatic Motor N. S. Spinal Cord Motor Neuron Effector ACh
  • 13.
    • Homeostasis
    • Effectors
      • Smooth Muscle
      • Cardiac Muscle
      • Glands ~
    Autonomic N. S.
  • 14.
    • Not nerve-dependent
    • Sympathetic
      • Emergency, flight/fight
    • Parasympathetic
      • Conservation / vegetative ~
    Autonomic Subdivisions
  • 15. Effector Autonomic N. S.: General Features Ganglion Preganglionic neuron Postganglionic neuron
  • 16. Effector Autonomic N. S.: General Features ACh
    • Nicotinic
      • different R-subtype than neuromuscular ~
  • 17. Effector Autonomic N. S.: General Features ACh
    • Neuroeffector junction
      • Different NT for each division ~
  • 18. Pharmacology of Autonomic NS
    • Preganglionic neuron
        • releases ACh
    • Different NT at effectors
      • sympathetic division: NE
        • Norepinephrine (or noradrenaline)
      • parasympathetic division: ACh ~
  • 19. Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic
    • Sympathetic
      • ganglia near spinal cord
      • interconnected ---> active together
      • long-lasting effects
    • Parasympathetic
      • ganglia near effector
      • discrete ---> active independently
      • transient effects
    • Antagonistic regulation ~
  • 20. Effector Responses
    • Effector Sympathetic Parasympathetic
    • Heart + -
    • Respiration + -
    • GI - +
    • Immune system - +
    • Sweat glands + no input
    • Iris + (radial) + (sphincter) ~
  • 21. Parasympathetic Sympathetic ACh Post- Pre- Adrenal Glands Glands Smooth muscle NE
  • 22. Sympathetic Arousal Syndrome
    • Fight or flight situations
      • Diffuse sympathetic activation
    • Adrenal glands
      • releases NE into blood
      • maintains sympathetic arousal
    • Parasympathetic rebound
      • antagonistic regulation ~