~BN02 Organization of NS.ppt

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~BN02 Organization of NS.ppt

  1. 1. Organization of the Nervous System Lecture 2
  2. 2. The Central Nervous System <ul><li>CNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinal cord ~ </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>Somatic Nervous System - SNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory & Motor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Autonomic Nervous System - ANS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetic Division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic Division </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cranial Nerves - 12 Pair </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal Nerves - 31 Pair ~ </li></ul>
  4. 4. Divisions of the Brain <ul><li>Different schemes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 major subdivisions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forebrain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Telencephalon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Diencephalon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Midbrain - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Mesencephalon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hindbrain </li></ul><ul><ul><li> 4. Metencephalon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Myelencephalon ~ </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Dorsal - toward the back </li></ul><ul><li>Ventral - toward the stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior & Posterior </li></ul><ul><li>Rostral & Caudal ~ </li></ul>Terminology
  6. 6. In reference to the BRAIN Dorsal Ventral Anterior Posterior Rostral Caudal Inferior Superior
  7. 7. Brainstem & spinal cord Ventral Dorsal Rostral Caudal Anterior Posterior Superior Inferior
  8. 8. Neural Axis
  9. 9. Terminology <ul><li>Medial - toward the midline </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral - away from the midline </li></ul><ul><li>Ipsilateral - same side </li></ul><ul><li>Contralateral - opposite side </li></ul><ul><li>Decussate - crossover ~ </li></ul>
  10. 10. Terminology <ul><li>Afferent - toward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Efferent - away from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor ~ </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Coronal or frontal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cross-section - salami </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sagittal - side view </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hot-dog bun </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Horizontal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>top view ~ </li></ul></ul>Planes
  12. 12. Coronal Section
  13. 13. Horizontal Section
  14. 14. Mid-sagittal Section
  15. 15. Telencephalon <ul><li>Cortical areas </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber systems </li></ul><ul><li>Landmarks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fissures /Sulci </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lobes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gyri ~ </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Superior surface Longitudinal Fissure (sulcus)
  17. 17. Central Lateral
  18. 18. Frontal Parietal Occipital Temporal
  19. 19. M1 S1 A1 Gyri Superior temporal gyrus Postcentral gyrus Precentral gyrus
  20. 20. The Meninges <ul><li>Tough connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Dura mater - tough outer layer </li></ul><ul><li>Arachnoid membrane - soft middle layer </li></ul><ul><li>Pia mater - soft inner layer, next to brain ~ </li></ul>
  21. 21. Subarachnoid space <ul><li>Gap between arachnoid membrane and pia mater </li></ul><ul><li>Filled with CSF </li></ul><ul><li>Brain floats in CSF ~ </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Dura mater </li></ul><ul><li>Arachnoid membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Subarachnoid space CSF </li></ul><ul><li>Pia mater </li></ul>The Meninges Brain
  23. 23. Ventricular System <ul><li>4 interconnected ventricles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chambers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>manufactured in choroid plexus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>125 ml, t 1/2 = 3 hrs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hydrocephalus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blockage of CSF flow ~ </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Ventricular System L V L V 3 rd Lateral Ventricles Third Ventricle Fourth Ventricle 4 th Cerebral Aqueduct Central Canal

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