CENTRAL TEXAS COLLEGE
                                SYLLABUS FOR BIOL 2421
                                   MICROBIOLO...
E.     Provide background of microbiology and give students a knowledge base for
              which to draw on for critic...
B.     You must take excellent notes during class. This means much more than simply
            copying anything the instr...
80% of what we experience personally
            95% of what we teach to someone else

     H.     There are NO planned Ex...
Determination of Semester Grade:
            Percentage    Points                  Grade

            90%-100%       630-7...
not yet taken the examination is considered a form a cheating. Likewise, seeking
            information from an individua...
H.       Cellular Phones and Beepers: Cellular phones and beepers will be turned off
              while the student is in...
VII.   COURSE COMPETENCIES (BROAD OBJECTIVES)

       At the completion of the course, students should be able to:

      ...
VIII. Course Outline and Learning Objectives
      A.    Chapter 1. The main themes of microbiology

            1.    Lea...
e.     Compare bright-field, dark-field, phase-contrast, and fluorescence
                          microscopy as to field...
i.     Compare the four groups of eucaryotic microorganisms (fungi,
                         algae, protozoa, helminthes) ...
H.     Chapter 8. Microbial metabolism

            1.    Learning Outcomes: After completing each chapter you should be a...
J.     Chapter 10. Genetic engineering

            1.    Learning Outcomes: After completing each chapter you should be a...
i.     What are some advantages and disadvantages of ionizing
                         radiation?
                  j.    ...
h.     Differentiate between exogenous and endogenous infections.
                  i.     Which body cells or tissues are...
o.     Outline the major phases of phagocytosis.
                   p.     Briefly describe the three major types of inter...
it becomes effective, and what immune cells and substances are
            involved.




BIOL 2421                        ...
Summer Lecture Schedule.

June 5          Course Introduction /Chapter 1
June 6          Chapter 2
June 7          Chapter...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

BIOL2421SU06V2.doc

3,453 views
3,339 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,453
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

BIOL2421SU06V2.doc

  1. 1. CENTRAL TEXAS COLLEGE SYLLABUS FOR BIOL 2421 MICROBIOLOGY Semester Hours Credit: 4 INSTRUCTOR: Timothy Anderson, Ph.D. OFFICE: NS1031 PHONE: 526-1633 OFFICE HOURS: Monday-Thursday 10-12 noon. Lecture: Monday-Thursday 12:30-2:30 PM, Lab: Monday-Thursday 8-10 AM, or 2.45-4.45 PM EMAIL: Timothy.Anderson@ctcd.edu I. INTRODUCTION A. An introduction to microorganisms (microbes) and their relationships to humans, the rest of the living world, and their non-living environment. Examination of the fundamental principles of microbiology, to include the morphology , physiology, genetics, and classification of microbes and their relationships to soil, food, water, industry, disease, and immunology. Human pathogens are used as examples wherever and whenever it is possible to do so. B. BIOL 2421 is designed for nursing and all health-related majors. It is required for pre-medicine and nursing students. It is also a science elective for those seeking the associate of science degree. C. This course is occupationally related and serves as preparation for careers in medicine, nursing, allied health, public health, and similar occupations. D. Prerequisite: Because Microbiology (BIOL 2421) an Advanced Biology course, a college-level Biology course is a required Prerequisite for taking this course as stated in the CTC Catalog. Biology 1406 will satisfy this requirement. Alternatively, successful completion of a Biology CLEP test will meet the biology prerequisite. II. COURSE OUTCOMES A. Instill an appreciation and understanding of microbiology as a science. B. Teach the history of microbiology and its importance to evolution, genetics, medicine, and related fields. C. Demonstrate proper microbial techniques and apply their use in various situations. D. Develop critical thinking and analysis of data. 6/5/06
  2. 2. E. Provide background of microbiology and give students a knowledge base for which to draw on for critical thinking. III. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS A. Required Text(s): Kathleen Park Talaro, Foundations in Microbiology, Basic Principles. 5th edition. 2005. McGraw Hill Publisher. ISBN 0072950773. Kathleen Park Talaro. Student Study Art Notebook. For Foundations in Microbiology, Basic Principles. 5th edition. 2005. McGraw Hill Publisher. ISBN 0072978082. Students are required to bring this book with them to each lecture session. B. Required Laboratory Manual: Alfred E. Brown. Bensons’s Microbiological Applications. Laboratory manual in general microbiology. Short version. 9th edition. McGraw Hill Publisher. ISBN 0072823976. C. Course Microbiology Web site: You will find useful links, exam review questions, a copy of the course syllabus and lecture schedule on this site. Go to the CTC home page and click on “Faculty and Staff”, then on the drop down menu which reads “Instructional Departments”, select Science & MLT and hit “GO”; then click on “Faculty” and you will see my name, Dr. Timothy Anderson. Click on my name and that will take you to the Web site designed for this course. D. Other Instructional Material: Live cultures of various microbes, microscopes, prepared slides for microscopy, staining equipment, culture media, and other materials for laboratory investigations of microbes. E. Tutoring: Tutoring is available through Project Pass, Bldg. 106, Room 108. The contact number is 254-526-1580. This tutoring is free of charge but you must register. Tutoring time slots fill up fast so if you think you may require help I suggest you sign up early before all of the available slots are filled. IV. COURSE REQUIREMENTS Students are expected to put in 100% effort to understand the concepts presented in general microbiology. This effort will include reading the text in advance of lecture, attendance in all classes, attentiveness and participation in class, maintenance of excellent class notes and regular study. Details are provided below: A. You will be given a lecture schedule which details the reading requirements. Reading should always be done before the corresponding lecture to ensure that you have the appropriate background to understand the lecture material. BIOL 2421 2
  3. 3. B. You must take excellent notes during class. This means much more than simply copying anything the instructor writes on the board. You must include enough in your notes that you could repeat the lecture for someone else in your own words. C. Regular and punctual attendance is essential for success in this course. Attendance will be taken at the beginning of each lecture and laboratory session. Students arriving LATE to class are responsible for seeking out the instructor at the end of the class session and amending the attendance record. Failure to have the attendance sheet amended, for any reason, constitutes an absence. Students who exceed the maximum 2 permissible number of absences (as defined in the CTC Catalog) WILL BE dismissed from the course with a grade of “FN”. Lecture and laboratory sessions will begin promptly at the designated hour, and students are required to be in the classroom or laboratory on time. Students who are consistently tardy and/or absent will be counseled and further penalties will result if the behavior continues. D. If you must be absent from any class meeting, it is YOUR responsibility to find out what happened in class while you were gone. Make friends with one or more other students in class so that you can ask them what happened and secure any assignments which were given during your absence. Absence on a previous class day is NO EXCUSE for not having completed homework for the current class. The policy governing missed exams and quizzes is detailed below in the appropriate section. E. This course, like most other science courses, builds on itself and on past courses. Concepts presented at the beginning of the course will recur, be expanded on and provide the foundation for later material. If you do poorly on an exam, it is important that you go back over the material to be sure that you understand it. If you do not, it will likely come back to haunt you later in the course. Your exam will be available for review in the instructors’ office for a period of 1 week following the scheduled exam week. F. Office hours are posted on your instructor’s office door. You are welcome to come by if you have any questions about anything in lecture, or if you wish to ask about something that interests you. If you do not understand something, office hours are the time and place to be sure of getting help. If the office hours conflict with your schedule, your instructor will make an appointment to meet with you at a mutually convenient time. G. The following excerpt comes from your textbook and I think you will find it invaluable. The pyramid of learning is as follows. We remember about: 10% of what we read 20% of what we hear 30% of what we see 50% of what we see and hear 70% of what we discuss with others BIOL 2421 3
  4. 4. 80% of what we experience personally 95% of what we teach to someone else H. There are NO planned Extra credit possibilities.. V. METHODS OF EVALUATIONS A. 2 Lab Exams (100 points each) 200 points 2 Lecture Exams (100 points each) 200 points 1 Comprehensive Final 300 points 1 Research paper review 100 points 1 Dropped grade -100 points ------------- 700 total possible You may drop your lowest grade on only 1 (one) of the following: Lecture exam I OR Lecture Exam II OR Lab exam I OR drop a grade of “0” for a missed exam, (100 points total). If you miss an exam for any reason there is NO dropping your lowest exam grade. All students must write the Final lab exam and the Final comprehensive lecture exam. Remember there is no dropping these two exam grades. There are no exceptions. All exams must be written in your registered class time. To keep track of your current average in the course, make a chart for yourself showing points possible and points earned. Divide the total points you have earned by the total possible as of that date and find your percentage. Assignment Name Points Possible Points Earned BIOL 2421 4
  5. 5. Determination of Semester Grade: Percentage Points Grade 90%-100% 630-700 points A 80%-89% 560-629 points B 70%-79% 490-559 points C 60%-69% 420-558 points D 0%-59% 0-419 points F B. Make-up lecture examinations and lab examinations WILL NOT be given! If you have a legitimate conflict with a regularly scheduled lecture exam time, you must contact the instructor at least 24 hours in advance to arrange to take the exam early but not after the scheduled exam. Emergencies include any event that causes you to miss the exam: car problems, car wrecks, sick children, being sick yourself, oversleeping……….etc. C. All exams are announced in advance; a complete schedule is contained in the course syllabus. You must write the exam during the lab or lecture time for which you are officially registered. There are no exceptions. Exams are primarily graded by Scantron machine (100AS). Bring a Scantron sheet to each exam. If ever there is a discrepancy between an answer in your exam booklet and an answer on your Scantron sheet, the answer on your Scantron sheet will be used. D. Bonus 21 points (3%) The instructor has the right to add from 0 to 3% to your final grade based on your attendance, participation, and preparedness for both lecture and lab classes. This is earned and is not a guarantee to anyone. VI. NOTES AND ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FROM THE INSTRUCTOR A. Instructor’s Office Hours: Students are welcome to visit the instructor in his office (NS 1031) during his regularly scheduled office hours (listed in p. 1 of this syllabus). B. Contacting the Instructor: The instructor may be reached during his regularly scheduled office hours at 526-1633. When the instructor is not in his office, messages may be left with the Science Department secretary or on the Science Department answering machine at 526-1288. Students will refrain from calling the instructor at his home. C. Unethical Behavior: Cheating in any form will not be tolerated. Individuals observed to be cheating on an examination will receive an automatic grade of zero on that particular examination, and may, depending on the instructor, receive an “F” in the course. Giving information about an examination to someone who has BIOL 2421 5
  6. 6. not yet taken the examination is considered a form a cheating. Likewise, seeking information from an individual who has already taken the examination is considered a form of cheating. Individuals observed to be giving or seeking such information will receive a grade of zero on that particular examination. D. Arriving Late to Take and Examination: Students will have a maximum of one hour to take lecture exams (two hours for the final exam) and one hour and 20 minutes to take laboratory exams, starting with the time that the exam booklets are passed out. Students arriving late to take an examination will not be given any additional time to take the exam; they will return their exam booklets at the same time as students who arrived on time. E. Course Withdrawal: It is the student’s responsibility to officially withdraw from a course if circumstances prevent attendance. Any student who desires to, or must, officially withdraw from a course after the first scheduled class meeting must file a Central Texas College Application for Withdrawal (CTC Form 59). The withdrawal form must be signed by the student. CTC Form 59 will be accepted at any time prior to Friday of the 12th week of classes during the 16-week fall and spring semesters. The deadline for sessions of other lengths is: 10-week sessions Friday of the 7th week 8 – Week sessions Friday of the 6th week 5 - Week sessions Friday of the 3rd week The equivalent date (75% of the semester) will be used for sessions of other lengths. The specific last day to withdraw is published each semester in the Schedule Bulletin. A student who officially withdraws will be awarded the grade of “W” provided the student’s attendance and academic performance are satisfactory at the time of official withdrawal. Students must file a withdrawal application with the College before they may be considered for withdrawal. A student may not withdraw from a class for which the instructor has previously issued the student a grade of “FN” for nonattendance. F. Administrative Withdrawal: An administrative withdrawal may be initiated when the student fails to meet College attendance requirements. The instructor will assign the appropriate grade in CTC Form 59 for submission to the registrar. G. Incomplete Grade: The College catalog states, “An incomplete grade may be given in those cases where the student has completed the majority of the coursework but, because of personal illness, death in the immediate family, or military orders, the student is unable to complete the requirements for a course. …”Prior approval from the instructor is required before the grade of “IP” for Incomplete is recorded. A student who merely fails to show for the final examination will receive a zero for the final and an “F” for the course. BIOL 2421 6
  7. 7. H. Cellular Phones and Beepers: Cellular phones and beepers will be turned off while the student is in the classroom or laboratory. If your cell phone rings or buzzes while taking an exam consider your exam finished at that time and I will collect it. If there is a reason why you should be contacted leave your number with Student Life Services, 254-526-1258, and they will come to notify you. Under no circumstances should you ever leave the classroom to take a call. If you do leave the class you will be marked absent for that days attendance records and not permitted to return. I. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): Students requiring accommodations for disabilities are responsible for notifying the instructor. Reasonable accommodations will be granted in full compliance with federal and state law and Central Texas College policy. J. Instructor Discretion: The instructor reserves the right of final decision in course requirements. K. Civility: Individuals are expected to be cognizant of what a constructive educational experience is and respectful of those participation in a learning environment. Failure to do so can result in disciplinary action up to and including expulsion. Any type of student behavior that interferes with the rights of fellow students will not be tolerated, and students engaging in such behavior will be asked to leave the classroom. Such behavior includes, but is not limited to, (1) incessant chatting with a fellow student will other students are attempting to hear the instructor, (2) popping bubble gum, and (3) habitually asking irrelevant questions. Civility includes the following: • Being in class on time • Staying in class for the entire class period • Leaving class early only after informing your instructor – prior to class – of an unavoidable conflict requiring your early departure; if possible, position yourself close to the door for minimum disruption of the class • Making sure your cellular phone is turned off, so that it does not ruing during the class • Avoiding such uncivil conduct as talking, sleeping, reading papers/magazines, or working on some other class homework assignment • Using socially acceptable language in classroom discussions • Not making disparaging or degrading remarks about other students L. Letters of Reference: Letters will be written on a case by case basis. M Appointments: If you have an appointment it must be scheduled outside class time. Do not show up for a class and then ask to leave early. Most appointments are known in advance and it is YOUR responsibility to adjust your schedule accordingly. If this is not possible you may still receive credit for the missed lecture or lab by attending another scheduled section. BIOL 2421 7
  8. 8. VII. COURSE COMPETENCIES (BROAD OBJECTIVES) At the completion of the course, students should be able to: 1. Define microbiology and state 2. Define and give examples of: Sporadic, Endemic, Epidemic, and Pandemic diseases. 3. Draw 10 bacterial structures and name their function. 4. Define antigenic shift and antigenic drift. Giving examples of each. 5. List and describe the Scientific Method. 6. Who and why was Robert Koch important in the study of Microbiology. 7. Discuss in detail how bacterial cell wall structure and how cell wall composition affect Gram staining and antibiotic action. 8. List and describe Koch’s postulates. 9. What is the normal microbial flora? List 5 examples each of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. 10. What is the importance of antibiotic resistance and how does it develop. 11. What is a microbial pathogen and what makes it pathogenic. 12. List 5 host defense mechanisms against infection. 13. Describe transcription and translation in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes and explain the role of each in protein synthesis. 14. Describe 4 methods of sterilization. 15. Describe the genetic code as it relates to DNA structure and protein 16. Name three differences between DNA and RNA. 17. What is a food-borne pathogent? Give 3 examples and the disease that each causes. 18. How are bacteria isolated, cultivated, and stored? 19. Demonstrate the aseptic technique. 20. Use observations to form hypotheses and design experiments to test hypotheses. 21. After completion of microbiology labs, use knowledge of subject with critical analysis to analyze the results of each. 22. What are plasmids, phage, and transposons? Why are they important. 23. Describe epidemiology and state its importance. 24. Identify common microorganisms with a microscope. Use oil immersion when necessary. 25. Demonstrate the proper use and care of the microscope and name the function of all parts of the microscope. 26. What is a vaccine? List 4 types, how they are made, and the diseases they prevent. 27. Compare and contrast anaerobic and aerobic respiration. 28. What is an emerging pathogen and give examples? 29. Identify an unknown bacterial sample. 30. Determine bacterial counts. BIOL 2421 8
  9. 9. VIII. Course Outline and Learning Objectives A. Chapter 1. The main themes of microbiology 1. Learning Outcomes: After completing each chapter you should be able to answer the following questions. a. Explain the important contributions microorganisms make in the earth’s ecosystem. b. Describe 5 different ways in which humans exploit microorganisms for our benefit. c. Identify the groups of microorganisms included in the scope of microbiology and explain the criteria for including these groups in the field. d. Differentiate between a hypothesis and a theory. e. Differentiate between taxonomy, classification, and nomenclature. f. Compare the new domain system with the five-kingdom system. B. Chapter 2. From atoms to cells 1. Learning Outcomes: After completing each chapter you should be able to answer the following questions. a. How are mass number and atomic number derived? b. Define isotope, atomic nucleus, electron orbitals, and shells, polarity, anion, cation. c. Distinguish between the general reactions in covalent, ionic, and hydrogen bonds. d. Define solution, solvent, solute, acid, or base. e. Characterize and draw the basic structure of a carbohydrate, triglyceride, amino acid, and nucleotide. f. Outline the general structure of a cell, and describe the characteristics of cells that qualify them as living. C. Chapter 3. Tools of the laboratory 1. Learning Outcomes: After completing each chapter you should be able to answer the following questions. a. Describe briefly whit is involved in the Five I’s b. Explain what is involved in isolating microorganisms and why it is necessary to do this. c. Differentiate among the ingredients and functions of enriched, selective, and differential media. d. Contrast the concepts of magnification, refraction and resolution. BIOL 2421 9
  10. 10. e. Compare bright-field, dark-field, phase-contrast, and fluorescence microscopy as to field appearance, specimen appearance, light source, and uses. f. Compare and contrast the optical compound microscope with electron microscope. g. Evaluate the following preparations in terms of showing microbial size, shape, motility, and differentiation: spore stain, negative stain, simple stain, hanging drop slide, and Gram stain. D. Chapter 4. Procaryotic profiles 1. Learning Outcomes: After completing each chapter you should be able to answer the following questions. a. Name several general characteristics that could be used to define the prokaryotes. b. Describe the structure of a flagellum and how it operates. c. List and describe the components of the cell envelope. d. Differentiate between pili and fimbriae. e. Compare the cell envelopes of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. f. Compare and describe the composition of the bacterial chromosome and plasmids. g. What characteristics are used to classify bacteria? h. How is the species level in bacteria defined? i. Name several ways in which bacteria are medically and ecologically important. j. Explain the characteristics of Archaea. E. Chapter 5. Eucaryotic cells and microorganisms 1. Learning Outcomes: After completing each chapter you should be able to answer the following questions. a. Review the major similarities and differences between procaryotic and eucaryotic cells. b. Describe the anatomy and functions of each of the major eucaryotic organelles. c. Define mitosis and meiosis and explain their function. e. Differentiate between the yeast hypha types of different fungal cells. f. Describe the functional types of hyphae. g. How are fungi classified” Give an example of a member of each fungus division and describe its structure and importance. h. Describe the principal characteristics of algae that separate them from protozoa. BIOL 2421 10
  11. 11. i. Compare the four groups of eucaryotic microorganisms (fungi, algae, protozoa, helminthes) in cellular structure. j. Discuss the adaptations of parasitic worms to their lifestyles, and explain why these adaptations are necessary or advantageous to the worms’ survival. F. Chapter 6. An introduction to the viruses 1. Learning Outcomes: After completing each chapter you should be able to answer the following questions. a. Describe 10 unique characteristics of viruses. b. Describe the general structure of viruses. c. What are bacteriophages, (prophage and temperate phage), their structure and mode of reproduction? d. How are viruses classified? What are virus families? e. Compare and contrast the main phases in the lytic multiplication cycle in bacteriophages and animal viruses. f. Describe several cytopathic effects of viruses. g. What does it mean for a virus to be persistent or latent, and how are these events important. h. Describe the three main techniques for cultivating viruses. G. Chapter 7. Elements of microbial nutrition, ecology, and growth 1. Learning Outcomes: After completing each chapter you should be able to answer the following questions. a. Differentiate between micronutrients and macronutrients. Give examples of each. b. Compare autotrophs and heterotrophs with respect to the form of carbon-based nutrients they require. c. Compare and contrast passive and active forms of transport. d. Compare the effects of isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic solution on a bacterial cell. e. What are mesophiles, psychrophiles and thermophiles? What are obligate intracellular parasites, and give examples of them. f. Where do superoxide ions and hydrogen peroxide originate? What are their toxic effects? g. Define symbiosis and differentiate among mutualism, commensalisms, synergism, parasitism and antagonism. Give examples. h. Explain the relationship between colony counts and colony- forming units. Be able to calculate their values. i. Contrast the various methods of detecting and counting microbial populations and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. BIOL 2421 11
  12. 12. H. Chapter 8. Microbial metabolism 1. Learning Outcomes: After completing each chapter you should be able to answer the following questions. a. Describe the chemistry of enzymes and explain how the apoenzyme forms. b. Differentiate among the chemical composition and functions of various cofactors. Provide examples of each type. c. Explain what an allosteric enzyme is and how negative feedback works. d. Explain how oxidation of a substrate proceeds without oxygen. e. Describe the roles played by ATP and NAD in metabolism. f. Discuss the relationship of: anabolism to catabolism; glycolysis to fermentation: and electron transport to oxidative phosphorylation. g. Outline the basic steps in glycolysis, indicating where ATP is used and given off. h. What is the source of ATP in the TCA cycle? i. Summarize the chemiosomotic theory of ATP formation. j. How are aerobic and anaerobic respiration different? I. Chapter 9. Microbial genetics 1. Learning Outcomes: After completing each chapter you should be able to answer the following questions. a. Compare the genetic material of eukaryotes, bacteria, and viruses in terms of general structure, size and mode of replication. b. Describe what is meant by the antiparallel arrangement of DNA. c. Explain the following relationship: DNA formats RNA, which makes protein. d. What message does a gene provide? How is the language of the gene expressed? e. Compare the structure and functions of DNA and RNA. f. Compare and contrast the actions of DNA and RNA polymerase. g. Summarize how bacterial and eucaryotic cells differ in gene structure, transcription, and translation. h. Compare DNA viruses with RNA viruses in their general methods of nucleic acid synthesis and viral replication. i. What is an operon? Describe the functions of regulators, promoters, and operators. j. Explain the ideas behind the Ames test and what it is used for. k. Describe the principal types of mutations. l. Compare conjugation, transformation, and transduction on the basis of general method, nature of donor, and nature of recipient. BIOL 2421 12
  13. 13. J. Chapter 10. Genetic engineering 1. Learning Outcomes: After completing each chapter you should be able to answer the following questions. a. Describe the principles of a Southern blot and PCR and how they are conducted. b. What are restriction length polymorphisms, and how are they used? c. Explain how electrophoresis works and the general way that DNA is sized. d. Briefly describe the functions of DNA synthesizers and sequencers. e. Go through the basic steps of the Sanger method to sequence DNA. f. What characteristics of plasmids and bacteriophages make them good cloning vectors? g. Describe the principles behind recombinant DNA technology. h. Outline the main steps in cloning a gene i. What characteristics of bacteria make them good cloning hosts? j. Briefly outline the purposes and significant steps in a gene therapy procedure. k. Describe the molecular mechanisms by which a DNA antisense molecule could work as a genetic medicine. l. What is a gene map? m. Describe what a DNA fingerprint is, why, and how restriction fragments can be used to form a unique DNA pattern. K. Chapter 11. Physical and chemical control of microbes 1. Learning Outcomes: After completing each chapter you should be able to answer the following questions. a. Compare sterilization with disinfection and sanitization. Describe the relationship of the concepts of sepsis, asepsis, and antisepsis. b. Explain the effects of a tuberculocide, pseudomonicide, and virustatic agent. c. Briefly explain how the type and number of organisms will influence the effectiveness of exposure to antimicrobial agents. d. Describe four modes of action of antimicrobial agents, and give a specific example of how each works. e. Summarize the nature, mode of action, and effectiveness of moist and dry heat. f. Explain the concepts of TDT and TDP, using examples. g. What do you see as a basic flaw in tyndallization? h. What is the purpose and the target organisms of pasteurization. BIOL 2421 13
  14. 14. i. What are some advantages and disadvantages of ionizing radiation? j. Why is hydrogen peroxide solution so effective against anaerobes? k. Give the uses and disadvantages of the heavy metal chemical agents, glutaraldehyde, and the sterilizing gases. L. Chapter 12. Drugs, microbes, host. 1. Learning Outcomes: After completing each chapter you should be able to answer the following questions. a. Differentiate between antibiotics and synthetic drugs. b. Differentiate between narrow-spectrum and broad-spectrum antibiotics. c. What is the major source of antibiotics? d. Explain the major modes of action of antimicrobial drugs, and give an example of each. e. Summarize the modes of action and applications of the major groups of antibacterial drugs (antibiotics and synthetics), antifungal drugs, antiparasitic drugs, and antiviral drugs. f. Explain the phenomenon of drug resistance from the standpoint of microbial genetics. g. Explain four general ways that microbes evade the effects of drugs. h. Generally overview the adverse effects of antimicrobic drugs on the host. i. Outline the steps in antimicrobic susceptibility testing (Kirby- Bauer, E test). j. Summarize the primary considerations in choosing an antimicrobic drug. M. Chapter 13. Microbe-human interactions 1. Learning Outcomes: After completing each chapter you should be able to answer the following questions. a. Differentiate between contamination, infection, and disease. b. How are infectious diseases different from other diseases? c. Explain several ways that true pathogens differ from opportunistic pathogens. d. Distinguish between Pathogenicity and virulence. e. Define virulence factors, and give examples of them in gram- positive and gram-negative bacteria, viruses, and parasites. f. Describe the course of infection from contact with the pathogen to its exit from the host. g. Fore each portal of entry, give a vehicle that carries the pathogen and the course it must travel to invade the tissues. BIOL 2421 14
  15. 15. h. Differentiate between exogenous and endogenous infections. i. Which body cells or tissues are affected by hemolysins, leukocidins, hyaluronidase, kinases, tetanus toxin, pertusis toxin, and enterotoxin? j. Compare and contrast: systemic versus local infections; primary versus secondary infections; infection versus intoxication. k. What are the differences between signs and symptoms? l. Explain what it means to be a carrier of an infectious disease. m. Describe four ways that humans can be carriers. n. Outline the science of epidemiology and the work of an epidemiologist. o. Distinguish between mechanical and biological vectors, giving one example of each. p. Explain the precise difference between communicable and non- communicable infectious diseases, direct and indirect modes of transmission, vectors and vehicles as modes of transmission. q. Nosocomial infections can arise from what two general sources? r. List the main features of Koch’s postulates. N. Chapter 14. The nature of host defenses 1. Learning Outcomes: After completing each chapter you should be able to answer the following questions. a. Explain the functions of the three lines of defense. b. What is the difference between nonspecific host defenses and immune responses? c. Describe the main elements of the process through which the immune system distinguishes self from nonself. d. Trace the complete cycle of a bacterium through the immune compartments, starting with the blood, the RES, the lymphatics, and the ECF. e. What are the main components of the reticuloendothelial system? f. Prepare a simplified outline of the cell lines of hemopoiesis. g. Differentiate between granulocytes and agranulocytes. h. Differentiate between the two lymphocyte types and between humoral and cell-mediated immunity. i. What are platelets, their functions, and their association with inflammation? j. Explain the processes of diapedesis and chemotaxis, and show how they interrelate. k. What is lymph, and how is it formed? l. Differentiate between the terms pyogenic and pyrogenic. m. Briefly account for the origins and actions of the major types of inflammatory mediators and cytokines. n. Describe the events that give rise to macrophages. BIOL 2421 15
  16. 16. o. Outline the major phases of phagocytosis. p. Briefly describe the three major types of interferon, their sources, and their biological effects. q. Describe the general complement reaction in terms of a cascade. O. Chapter 15. The acquisition of specific immunity and its applications 1. Learning Outcomes: After completing each chapter you should be able to answer the following questions. a. What function do receptors play in specific immune responses? b. Describe the major histocompatibility complex, and explain how it participates in immune reactions. c. What constitutes a clone of lymphocytes? d. Explain the clonal selection theory of antibody specificity and diversity. e. Trace the development of the B-cell receptor from gene to cell surface. f. Trace the origin and development of B lymphocytes; of T lymphocytes. g. Describe three ways the B cells and T cells are similar and at least five major ways in which they are different. h. What is an antigen or immunogen? i. Differentiate among autoantigens, alloantigens, and heterophile antigens. j. Describe the actions of an antigen-presenting cell. k. Trace the immune response system, beginning with the entry of a T-cell dependent antigen, antigen processing, presentation, the cooperative response among the macrophage and lymphocytes, and the reactions of activated B and T cells. l. How are B cells activated, and what events are involved in the process? m. What are the functions of plasma cells, clonal expansion, and memory cells? n. Describe the structure of immunoglobulin. o. Describe four ways that antibodies function in immunity. p. Contrast the primary and secondary response to AG. q. Explain the type, order of appearance, and amount of immunoglobulin in each response and the reasons for them. r. Summarize the function of each category of T cell and the types of receptors with which they are associated. Define cytokines and interleukins, and provide some examples of them. s. How do cytotoxic cells kill their target? t. What is natural killer cell, and what are its functions? u. Contract active and passive immunity in terms of how each is acquired, how long it lasts, whether memory is triggered, how soon BIOL 2421 16
  17. 17. it becomes effective, and what immune cells and substances are involved. BIOL 2421 17
  18. 18. Summer Lecture Schedule. June 5 Course Introduction /Chapter 1 June 6 Chapter 2 June 7 Chapter 4 June 8 Chapter 5 June 12 Chapter 6 June 13 Exam 1/Chapter 7 June 14 Chapter 7 June 15 Chapter 3 June 19 Chapter 8/ Lab Test I June 20 Chapter 8 June 21 Chapter 9 June 22 Chapter 9 June 26 Exam II/Chapter 11 June 27 Chapter 11 June 28 Chapter 12 June 29 Chapter 13/Review Paper Due July 3 Chapter 14 July 5 Chapter 15/ Lab Final July 6 Final Exam Lab Exercises. These will be assigned on a day to day basis. 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 33 ,34 ,36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 52, 53, 54, 55. Important Dates to Remember. June 5 2006. First day of Class June 8 2006 Last Day to Drop June 23. Last Day to Withdraw July 4 2006. Independence Holiday July 6 Final Exam BIOL 2421 18

×