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  • 1. Human Anatomy (BIOL 1010) E. Goffe [email_address] Office 1132F (Providence)
  • 2. What is Anatomy?
    • Anatomy (= morphology): study of body’s structure
    • Physiology: study of body’s function
    • Structure reflects Function!!!
    • Branches of Anatomy
      • Gross: Large structures
      • Surface: Landmarks
      • Histology: Cells and Tissues
      • Developmental: Structures change through life
      • Embryology: Structures form and develop before birth
  • 3. Hierarchy of the Body
    • Molecules  made of chemicals (4 macromolecules in body)
      • carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
    • Cells  made of molecules
      • cells and organelles
    • Tissue  made of cells
      • epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous
    • Organs  made of tissues
      • made of >1 type of tissue
    • Systems  made of organs
      • 11 systems in human body
    • Organisms  made of systems
    Pg 3
  • 4. Anatomical Directions
    • Anatomical position
    • Regions
      • Axial vs. Appendicular
    • Anatomical Directions-It’s all Relative!
      • Anterior (ventral) vs. Posterior (dorsal)
      • Medial vs. Lateral
      • Superior (cranial) vs. Inferior (caudal)
      • Superficial vs. Deep
      • Proximal vs. Distal
    • Anatomical Planes
      • Frontal = Coronal
      • Transverse = Horizontal = Cross Section
      • Sagittal
    Pg 6
  • 5. Embryology: growth and development of the body before birth
    • 38 weeks from conception to birth
    • Prenatal period
      • Embryonic : weeks 1-8
      • Fetal : weeks 9-38
    • Basic adult body plan shows by 2 nd month
      • Skin = epidermis, dermis
      • Outer body wall=muscle, vertebral column and spinal cord
      • Body cavity and digestive tubes
      • Kidney and gonads
      • Limbs=skin, muscle, bone
  • 6. Weeks 5-8 and Fetal Period
    • Second month, tadpole  person
      • Tail disappears
      • Head enlarges
      • Extremities form ( day 28, limb buds appear )
      • Eyes, nose, ears form
      • Organs in place
    • Fetal Period
      • Rapid growth and maturation
      • Organs grow and increase in complexity & competence
  • 7. 4 Types of Tissue
    • Epithelium
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Nervous
  • 8. Tissues: groups of cells closely associated that have a similar structure and perform a related function
    • Four types of tissue
      • Epithelial = covering/lining
      • Connective = support
      • Muscle = movement
      • Nervous = control
    • Most organs contain all 4 types
    • Tissue has non-living extracellular material between its cells
  • 9. EPITHELIAL TISSUE: sheets of cells cover a surface or line a cavity (tissue type #1)
    • Functions
      • Protection
      • Secretion
      • Absorption
      • Ion Transport
      • Slippery Surface
  • 10. Characteristics of Epithelium
    • Cellularity
    • Specialized Contacts
    • Polarity
      • Apical vs. Basal
    • Supported by Connective Tissue
    • Avascular
    • Innervated
    • Regenerative
  • 11. Classification of Epithelium- based on number of layers and cell shape
    • Layers
      • Simple
      • Stratified
      • Psuedostratified
    • Stratified layers characterized by shape of apical layer
    • Shapes
      • Squamous
      • Cuboidal
      • Columnar
      • Transitional
    Pg 71
  • 12. Can You Identify the Classes of Epithelium? A B C D E Quiz!!
  • 13. Features of Apical Surface of Epithelium
    • Microvilli: (ex) in small intestine
      • Finger-like extensions of the plasma membrane of apical epithelial cell
      • Increase surface area for absorption
    • Cilia : (ex) respiratory tubes
      • Whip-like, motile extension of plasma membrane
      • Moves mucus, etc. over epithelial surface 1-way
    • Flagella: (ex) spermatoza
      • Extra long cilia
      • Moves cell
  • 14. Features of Lateral Surface of Epithelium
    • Cells are connected to neighboring cells via:
      • Proteins -link cells together, interdigitate
      • Contour of cells -wavy contour fits together
      • Cell Junctions
        • Desmosomes -adhesive spots on lateral sides linked by
        • proteins/filaments, holds tissues together
        • Tight Junctions -at apical area, plasma membrane of
        • adjacent cells fuse, nothing passes
        • Gap junction - spot-like junction occurring anywhere
        • made of hollow cylinders of protein, lets small molecules pass
  • 15. Pg 80 Desomosomes
  • 16. Features of the Basal Surface of Epithelium
    • Basement membrane = Sheet between the epithelial and connective tissue layers
      • Attaches epithelium to connective tissue below
      • Basal lamina: thin, non-cellular, supportive sheet Made of proteins
        • Superficial layer
        • Acts as a selective filter
        • Assists epithelial cell regeneration by moving new cells
      • Reticular fiber layer
        • Deeper layer
        • Support
  • 17. Name that Epithelial Feature! (name and location on cell)
    • Cilia
    • Tight junction
    • Microvilli
    • Basement membrane
    2 3 4 1  3  1  2  4
  • 18. Glands: epithelial cells that make and secrete a water-based substance w/proteins
    • Exocrine Glands
      • Secrete substance onto body surface or into body cavity
      • Have ducts (simple vs. compound)
      • Unicellular ( goblet cells ) or Multicellular (tubular, alveolar, tubuloalveolar)
      • (ex) salivary, mammary,
      • pancreas, liver
    Goblet cell in small intestine
  • 19. Glands: epithelial cells that make and secrete a water-based substance w/proteins
    • Endocrine Glands
      • Secrete product into blood stream
      • Either stored in secretory cells or in follicle surrounded by secretory cells
      • Hormones travel to target organ to increase response (excitatory)
      • No ducts
      • (ex) pancreas, adrenal,
      • pituitary, thyroid
    Thyroid gland: hormone in follicles (F) released into capillaries (C)
  • 20. 4 Types of Connective Tissue
    • Connective Tissue Proper
    • Cartilage
    • Bone Tissue
    • Blood
  • 21. Connective Tissue (CT): most abundant and diverse tissue (tissue type #2)
    • Four Classes
    • Functions include connecting, storing & carrying nutrients, protection, fight infection
    • CT contains large amounts of non-living extracellular matrix
    • Some types vascularized
    • All CT originates from mesenchyme
  • 22. 1) Connective Tissue Proper
    • Two kinds: Loose CT & Dense CT
    • Prototype: Loose Areolar Tissue
      • Underneath epithelial tissue
      • Functions
        • Support and bind to other tissue
        • Hold body fluids
        • Defends against infection
        • Stores nutrients as fat
      • Each function performed by different kind of fiber in tissue
  • 23. Fibers in Connective Tissue
    • Fibers For Support
      • Reticular: form networks for structure & support (ex) cover capillaries
      • Collagen: strongest, most numerous, provide tensile strength
      • (ex) dominant fiber in ligaments
      • Elastic : long + thin, stretch and retain shape
      • (ex) dominant fiber in elastic cartilage
  • 24. In Connective Tissue Proper
    • Fibroblasts: cells that produce all fibers in CT, produce + secrete protein subunits to make them, produce ground matrix
    • Interstitial (Tissue) Fluid : derived from blood in CT proper; medium for nutrients, waste + oxygen to travel to cells; found in ground matrix
    • Ground Matrix (substance): part of extra-cellular material that holds and absorbs interstitial fluid, jelly-like with sugar & protein molecules
  • 25. Defense from Infection
    • Areolar tissue below epithelium is body’s first defense
    • Cells travel to CT in blood
      • Macrophages -eat foreign particles
      • Plasma cells -secrete antibodies, mark molecules for destruction
      • Mast cells -contain chemical mediators for inflammation response
      • White Blood Cells = neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils-fight infection
    • Ground substance + cell fibers-slow invading microorganisms
  • 26. Areolar Connective Tissue Model Pg 85 Histological slide
  • 27. Specialized Loose CT Proper
    • Adipose tissue -loaded with adipocytes, highly vascularized, high metabolic activity
      • Insulates, produces energy, supports
        • (eg) in hypodermis under skin
    • Reticular CT -contains only reticular fibers
      • Forms caverns to hold free cells
        • (eg) bone marrow, holds blood cells
      • Forms internal “skeleton” of some organs
        • (eg) lymph nodes, spleen
  • 28. Dense/Fibrous Connective Tissue
    • Contains more collagen
    • Can resist extremely strong pulling forces
    • Regular vs. Irregular
      • Regular-fibers run same direction, parallel to pull
        • (eg) fascia, tendons, ligaments
      • Irregular-fibers thicker, run in different directions
        • (eg) dermis, fibrous capsules at ends of bones
    Dense regular Dense irregular
  • 29. Components of CT Proper Summarized Cells Matrix Fibroblasts Gel-like ground substance Defense cells -macrophages -white blood cells Collagen fibers Reticular fibers Elastic fibers Adipocytes
  • 30. 2) Cartilage
    • Chondroblasts produce cartilage
    • Chondrocytes mature cartilage cells
    • More abundant in embryo than adult
    • Firm, Flexible
    • Resists compression
      • (eg) trachea, meniscus
    • 80% water
    • Avascular (chondrocytes can function w/low oxygen)
    • NOT Innervated
    • Perichondrium -dense, irregular connective tissue around cartilage
      • growth/repair of cartilage
      • resists expansion during compression of cartilage
  • 31. Cartilage in the Body
    • Three types:
      • Hyaline
        • most abundant
        • fibrils in matrix
        • support via flexibility/resilience
        • (eg) at limb joints, ribs, nose
      • Elastic
        • many elastic fibers in matrix too
        • great flexibility
        • (eg) external ear, epiglottis
      • Fibrocartilage
        • resists both compression and tension
        • (eg) meniscus, annulus fibrosus
    Pg 125
  • 32. Histology of Cartilage
    • Hyaline Cartilage
  • 33. Histology of Cartilage
    • Elastic Cartilage
  • 34. Histology of Cartilage
    • Fibrocartilage
  • 35. Components of Cartilage Summarized Cells Matrix Chondrocytes Gel-like ground substance Chondroblasts (in growing cartilage) Lots of water Some have collagen and elastic fibers
  • 36. 3) Bone Tissue: (a bone is an organ)
    • Well-vascularized
    • Function:
      • support (eg) pelvic bowl, legs
      • protect (eg) skull, vertebrae
      • mineral storage (eg) calcium, phosphate (inorganic component)
      • movement (eg) walk, grasp objects
      • blood-cell formation (eg) red bone marrow
    • Osteoblasts : secrete organic part of bone matrix
    • Osteocytes : mature bone cells, maintain bone matrix
    • Periosteum: external layer of CT surrounds bone
    • Endosteum : internal layer of CT lines cavities and covers trabeculae
  • 37.
    • Compact bone: dense, external layer
      • Haversian system = osteon
        • long, cylindrical structures run parallel to long axis of bone
        • within each osteon, groups of concentric tubes (lamella)
        • Lamella : layer of bone matrix all fibers run in same direction
        • fibers on each lamella runs in opposite directions to one near it
        • Haversian canal -runs through center of osteon, contain blood vessels and nerves
        • Interstitial Lamella- pieces of bone matrix between osteon
        • Osteocytes between osteons
    Bone Anatomy: Compact bone Pg 128
  • 38. Haversian System = Osteon lamella osteon Pg 131 Pg 132 lamella
  • 39.
    • Spongy bone (cancellous bone): internal layer
      • Trabeculae : small, needle-like pieces of bone form honeycomb
        • each made of several layers of lamellae + osteocytes
        • no canal for vessels
        • space filled with bone marrow
        • not as dense, no direct stress at bone’s center
    Bone Anatomy: Spongy bone Pg 130
  • 40. 1 2 3 4 Spongy Bone Compact Bone Lamella Haversian canal  2  1  3  4
  • 41. Histology of Bone
    • “ Ground” Compact Bone
  • 42. Components of Bone Tissue Summarized Cells Matrix Osteocytes Gel-like ground substance calcified with inorganic salts Osteoblasts Collagen fibers
  • 43. 4) Blood: Atypical Connective Tissue
    • Function:
      • Transports waste, gases, nutrients, hormones through cardiovascular system
      • Helps regulate body temperature
      • Protects body by fighting infection
    • Derived from mesenchyme
    • Hematopoiesis : production of blood cells
      • Occurs in red bone marrow
      • In adults, axial skeleton, girdles, proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur
  • 44. Blood Cells
    • Erythrocytes: (RBC) small, oxygen-transporting
      • most abundant in blood
      • no organelles, filled w/hemoglobin
      • pick up O 2 at lungs, transport to rest of body
    • Platelets = Thrombocytes : fragments of cytoplasm
      • plug small tears in vessel walls, initiates clotting
    • Leukocytes: (WBC) complete cells , 5 types
      • fight against infectious microorganisms
      • stored in bone marrow for emergencies
  • 45. Histology of Blood and Vessel
    • Blood Smear
  • 46. Histology of Blood Vessels Artery Vein
  • 47. Components of Blood Summarized Cells Matrix Erythrocytes (red blood cells) Plasma (liquid matrix) Leukocytes (white blood cells) NO fibers Platelets
  • 48. Muscle Tissue (tissue type #3)
    • Muscle cells/fibers
      • Elongated
      • Contain many myofilaments: Actin & Myosin
    • FUNCTION
      • Movement
      • Maintenance of posture
      • Joint Stabilization
      • Heat Generation
    • Three types: Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth
  • 49. Skeletal Muscle Tissue (each skeletal muscle is an organ)
    • Cells
      • Long and cylindrical, in bundles
      • Multinucleate
      • Obvious Striations
    • Skeletal Muscles-Voluntary
    • Connective Tissue Components:
      • Endomysium -surrounds fibers
      • Perimysium -surrounds bundles
      • Epimysium -surrounds the muscle
    • Attached to bones, fascia, skin
    • Origin & Insertion
    pg 235
  • 50. Cardiac Muscle
    • Cells
      • Branching, chains of cells
      • Single or Binucleated
      • Striations
      • Connected by Intercalated discs
    • Cardiac Muscle-Involuntary
    • Myocardium-heart muscle
      • Pumps blood through vessels
    • Connective Tissue Component
      • Endomysium: surrounding cells
    Pg 244
  • 51. Smooth Muscle Tissue
    • Cells
      • Single cells, uninucleate
      • No striations
    • Smooth Muscle-Involuntary
      • 2 layers-opposite orientation (peristalsis)
    • Lines hollow organs, blood vessels
    • Connective Tissue Component
      • Endomysium: surrounds cells
    Pg 246
  • 52. Histology of Muscle Tissue SMOOTH CARDIAC SKELETAL
  • 53. Nervous Tissue
    • Neurons : specialized nerve cells conduct impulses
      • Cell body, dendrite, axon
    • Interneuron: between motor & sensory neuron in CNS
    • Characterized by:
      • No mitosis (cell replication)
      • Longevity
      • High metabolic rate
    pg 322
  • 54. Nervous Tissue: control
    • Support cells (= Glial) : nourishment, insulation, protection
      • Satellite cells -surround cell bodies within ganglia
      • Schwann cells -surround axons
      • Microglia -phagocytes
      • Oligodendrocytes -produce myelin sheaths around axons
      • Ependymal cells -line brain/spinal cord, ciliated,help circulate CSF
    • Brain, spinal cord, nerves
  • 55. Neuronal Anatomy
    • Synapse: cell junction where neurons communicate
    • One direction: presynaptic neuron, postsynaptic neuron
    • Presynaptic neuron
      • Synaptic vesicles fuses w/presynaptic membrane
      • Neurotransmitters released,
      • diffuse across
      • synaptic cleft, bind to
      • postsynaptic membrane
      • ٠ Creates impulse
      • (action potential) in
      • that neuron
      • ٠ Cycle repeats
    pg 325
  • 56. Histology of Neuron
  • 57. Integumentary System
    • Skin
      • Epidermis = epithelium
      • Dermis = connective tissue
    • Hypodermis = connective tissue
    • Skin Appendages = outgrowths of epidermis
      • Hair follicles
      • Sweat and Sebaceous glands
      • Nails
  • 58. Integumentary System
    • Functions
      • Protection
        • Mechanical, thermal, chemical, UV
      • Cushions & insulates deeper organs
      • Prevention of water loss
      • Thermoregulation
      • Excretion
        • Salts, urea, water
      • Sensory reception
  • 59. Layers of the Epidermis
    • Stratum corneum
      • Dead keratinocytes
    • Stratum lucidum
      • Dead keratinocytes
    • Stratum granulosum
      • Keratinocytes
      • Tonofilaments
      • Lamellated & keratohyaline granules
    • Stratum spinosum
      • Keratinocytes
      • Tonofilaments
      • Langerhans cells
    • Stratum basale
      • Keratinocytes
      • Melanocytes
      • Merkel receptors
  • 60. Dermis
    • Highly innervated
    • Highly vascularized
    • Collagen & Elastic fibers
    • Many cell types
      • Fibroblasts
      • Macrophages
      • Mast cells
      • White blood cells
    • Papillary layer (20%)
      • Areolar CT
      • Hair follicles
    • Reticular layer (80%)
      • Dense Irregular CT
      • Glands
        • Sebaceous glands
        • Sweat glands
      • Smooth muscle fibers
  • 61. Hypodermis
    • Also called superficial fascia
    • Areolar & Adipose Connective Tissue
    • Functions
      • Store fat
      • Anchor skin to muscle, etc.
      • Insulation
  • 62. “ May I please be excused? My brain is full!!”

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