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    2 2 Presentation Transcript

    • Human Anatomy (BIOL 1010) E. Goffe [email_address] Office 1132F (Providence)
    • What is Anatomy?
      • Anatomy (= morphology): study of body’s structure
      • Physiology: study of body’s function
      • Structure reflects Function!!!
      • Branches of Anatomy
        • Gross: Large structures
        • Surface: Landmarks
        • Histology: Cells and Tissues
        • Developmental: Structures change through life
        • Embryology: Structures form and develop before birth
    • Hierarchy of the Body
      • Molecules  made of chemicals (4 macromolecules in body)
        • carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
      • Cells  made of molecules
        • cells and organelles
      • Tissue  made of cells
        • epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous
      • Organs  made of tissues
        • made of >1 type of tissue
      • Systems  made of organs
        • 11 systems in human body
      • Organisms  made of systems
      Pg 3
    • Anatomical Directions
      • Anatomical position
      • Regions
        • Axial vs. Appendicular
      • Anatomical Directions-It’s all Relative!
        • Anterior (ventral) vs. Posterior (dorsal)
        • Medial vs. Lateral
        • Superior (cranial) vs. Inferior (caudal)
        • Superficial vs. Deep
        • Proximal vs. Distal
      • Anatomical Planes
        • Frontal = Coronal
        • Transverse = Horizontal = Cross Section
        • Sagittal
      Pg 6
    • Embryology: growth and development of the body before birth
      • 38 weeks from conception to birth
      • Prenatal period
        • Embryonic : weeks 1-8
        • Fetal : weeks 9-38
      • Basic adult body plan shows by 2 nd month
        • Skin = epidermis, dermis
        • Outer body wall=muscle, vertebral column and spinal cord
        • Body cavity and digestive tubes
        • Kidney and gonads
        • Limbs=skin, muscle, bone
    • Weeks 5-8 and Fetal Period
      • Second month, tadpole  person
        • Tail disappears
        • Head enlarges
        • Extremities form ( day 28, limb buds appear )
        • Eyes, nose, ears form
        • Organs in place
      • Fetal Period
        • Rapid growth and maturation
        • Organs grow and increase in complexity & competence
    • 4 Types of Tissue
      • Epithelium
      • Connective
      • Muscle
      • Nervous
    • Tissues: groups of cells closely associated that have a similar structure and perform a related function
      • Four types of tissue
        • Epithelial = covering/lining
        • Connective = support
        • Muscle = movement
        • Nervous = control
      • Most organs contain all 4 types
      • Tissue has non-living extracellular material between its cells
    • EPITHELIAL TISSUE: sheets of cells cover a surface or line a cavity (tissue type #1)
      • Functions
        • Protection
        • Secretion
        • Absorption
        • Ion Transport
        • Slippery Surface
    • Characteristics of Epithelium
      • Cellularity
      • Specialized Contacts
      • Polarity
        • Apical vs. Basal
      • Supported by Connective Tissue
      • Avascular
      • Innervated
      • Regenerative
    • Classification of Epithelium- based on number of layers and cell shape
      • Layers
        • Simple
        • Stratified
        • Psuedostratified
      • Stratified layers characterized by shape of apical layer
      • Shapes
        • Squamous
        • Cuboidal
        • Columnar
        • Transitional
      Pg 71
    • Can You Identify the Classes of Epithelium? A B C D E Quiz!!
    • Features of Apical Surface of Epithelium
      • Microvilli: (ex) in small intestine
        • Finger-like extensions of the plasma membrane of apical epithelial cell
        • Increase surface area for absorption
      • Cilia : (ex) respiratory tubes
        • Whip-like, motile extension of plasma membrane
        • Moves mucus, etc. over epithelial surface 1-way
      • Flagella: (ex) spermatoza
        • Extra long cilia
        • Moves cell
    • Features of Lateral Surface of Epithelium
      • Cells are connected to neighboring cells via:
        • Proteins -link cells together, interdigitate
        • Contour of cells -wavy contour fits together
        • Cell Junctions
          • Desmosomes -adhesive spots on lateral sides linked by
          • proteins/filaments, holds tissues together
          • Tight Junctions -at apical area, plasma membrane of
          • adjacent cells fuse, nothing passes
          • Gap junction - spot-like junction occurring anywhere
          • made of hollow cylinders of protein, lets small molecules pass
    • Pg 80 Desomosomes
    • Features of the Basal Surface of Epithelium
      • Basement membrane = Sheet between the epithelial and connective tissue layers
        • Attaches epithelium to connective tissue below
        • Basal lamina: thin, non-cellular, supportive sheet Made of proteins
          • Superficial layer
          • Acts as a selective filter
          • Assists epithelial cell regeneration by moving new cells
        • Reticular fiber layer
          • Deeper layer
          • Support
    • Name that Epithelial Feature! (name and location on cell)
      • Cilia
      • Tight junction
      • Microvilli
      • Basement membrane
      2 3 4 1  3  1  2  4
    • Glands: epithelial cells that make and secrete a water-based substance w/proteins
      • Exocrine Glands
        • Secrete substance onto body surface or into body cavity
        • Have ducts (simple vs. compound)
        • Unicellular ( goblet cells ) or Multicellular (tubular, alveolar, tubuloalveolar)
        • (ex) salivary, mammary,
        • pancreas, liver
      Goblet cell in small intestine
    • Glands: epithelial cells that make and secrete a water-based substance w/proteins
      • Endocrine Glands
        • Secrete product into blood stream
        • Either stored in secretory cells or in follicle surrounded by secretory cells
        • Hormones travel to target organ to increase response (excitatory)
        • No ducts
        • (ex) pancreas, adrenal,
        • pituitary, thyroid
      Thyroid gland: hormone in follicles (F) released into capillaries (C)
    • 4 Types of Connective Tissue
      • Connective Tissue Proper
      • Cartilage
      • Bone Tissue
      • Blood
    • Connective Tissue (CT): most abundant and diverse tissue (tissue type #2)
      • Four Classes
      • Functions include connecting, storing & carrying nutrients, protection, fight infection
      • CT contains large amounts of non-living extracellular matrix
      • Some types vascularized
      • All CT originates from mesenchyme
    • 1) Connective Tissue Proper
      • Two kinds: Loose CT & Dense CT
      • Prototype: Loose Areolar Tissue
        • Underneath epithelial tissue
        • Functions
          • Support and bind to other tissue
          • Hold body fluids
          • Defends against infection
          • Stores nutrients as fat
        • Each function performed by different kind of fiber in tissue
    • Fibers in Connective Tissue
      • Fibers For Support
        • Reticular: form networks for structure & support (ex) cover capillaries
        • Collagen: strongest, most numerous, provide tensile strength
        • (ex) dominant fiber in ligaments
        • Elastic : long + thin, stretch and retain shape
        • (ex) dominant fiber in elastic cartilage
    • In Connective Tissue Proper
      • Fibroblasts: cells that produce all fibers in CT, produce + secrete protein subunits to make them, produce ground matrix
      • Interstitial (Tissue) Fluid : derived from blood in CT proper; medium for nutrients, waste + oxygen to travel to cells; found in ground matrix
      • Ground Matrix (substance): part of extra-cellular material that holds and absorbs interstitial fluid, jelly-like with sugar & protein molecules
    • Defense from Infection
      • Areolar tissue below epithelium is body’s first defense
      • Cells travel to CT in blood
        • Macrophages -eat foreign particles
        • Plasma cells -secrete antibodies, mark molecules for destruction
        • Mast cells -contain chemical mediators for inflammation response
        • White Blood Cells = neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils-fight infection
      • Ground substance + cell fibers-slow invading microorganisms
    • Areolar Connective Tissue Model Pg 85 Histological slide
    • Specialized Loose CT Proper
      • Adipose tissue -loaded with adipocytes, highly vascularized, high metabolic activity
        • Insulates, produces energy, supports
          • (eg) in hypodermis under skin
      • Reticular CT -contains only reticular fibers
        • Forms caverns to hold free cells
          • (eg) bone marrow, holds blood cells
        • Forms internal “skeleton” of some organs
          • (eg) lymph nodes, spleen
    • Dense/Fibrous Connective Tissue
      • Contains more collagen
      • Can resist extremely strong pulling forces
      • Regular vs. Irregular
        • Regular-fibers run same direction, parallel to pull
          • (eg) fascia, tendons, ligaments
        • Irregular-fibers thicker, run in different directions
          • (eg) dermis, fibrous capsules at ends of bones
      Dense regular Dense irregular
    • Components of CT Proper Summarized Cells Matrix Fibroblasts Gel-like ground substance Defense cells -macrophages -white blood cells Collagen fibers Reticular fibers Elastic fibers Adipocytes
    • 2) Cartilage
      • Chondroblasts produce cartilage
      • Chondrocytes mature cartilage cells
      • More abundant in embryo than adult
      • Firm, Flexible
      • Resists compression
        • (eg) trachea, meniscus
      • 80% water
      • Avascular (chondrocytes can function w/low oxygen)
      • NOT Innervated
      • Perichondrium -dense, irregular connective tissue around cartilage
        • growth/repair of cartilage
        • resists expansion during compression of cartilage
    • Cartilage in the Body
      • Three types:
        • Hyaline
          • most abundant
          • fibrils in matrix
          • support via flexibility/resilience
          • (eg) at limb joints, ribs, nose
        • Elastic
          • many elastic fibers in matrix too
          • great flexibility
          • (eg) external ear, epiglottis
        • Fibrocartilage
          • resists both compression and tension
          • (eg) meniscus, annulus fibrosus
      Pg 125
    • Histology of Cartilage
      • Hyaline Cartilage
    • Histology of Cartilage
      • Elastic Cartilage
    • Histology of Cartilage
      • Fibrocartilage
    • Components of Cartilage Summarized Cells Matrix Chondrocytes Gel-like ground substance Chondroblasts (in growing cartilage) Lots of water Some have collagen and elastic fibers
    • 3) Bone Tissue: (a bone is an organ)
      • Well-vascularized
      • Function:
        • support (eg) pelvic bowl, legs
        • protect (eg) skull, vertebrae
        • mineral storage (eg) calcium, phosphate (inorganic component)
        • movement (eg) walk, grasp objects
        • blood-cell formation (eg) red bone marrow
      • Osteoblasts : secrete organic part of bone matrix
      • Osteocytes : mature bone cells, maintain bone matrix
      • Periosteum: external layer of CT surrounds bone
      • Endosteum : internal layer of CT lines cavities and covers trabeculae
      • Compact bone: dense, external layer
        • Haversian system = osteon
          • long, cylindrical structures run parallel to long axis of bone
          • within each osteon, groups of concentric tubes (lamella)
          • Lamella : layer of bone matrix all fibers run in same direction
          • fibers on each lamella runs in opposite directions to one near it
          • Haversian canal -runs through center of osteon, contain blood vessels and nerves
          • Interstitial Lamella- pieces of bone matrix between osteon
          • Osteocytes between osteons
      Bone Anatomy: Compact bone Pg 128
    • Haversian System = Osteon lamella osteon Pg 131 Pg 132 lamella
      • Spongy bone (cancellous bone): internal layer
        • Trabeculae : small, needle-like pieces of bone form honeycomb
          • each made of several layers of lamellae + osteocytes
          • no canal for vessels
          • space filled with bone marrow
          • not as dense, no direct stress at bone’s center
      Bone Anatomy: Spongy bone Pg 130
    • 1 2 3 4 Spongy Bone Compact Bone Lamella Haversian canal  2  1  3  4
    • Histology of Bone
      • “ Ground” Compact Bone
    • Components of Bone Tissue Summarized Cells Matrix Osteocytes Gel-like ground substance calcified with inorganic salts Osteoblasts Collagen fibers
    • 4) Blood: Atypical Connective Tissue
      • Function:
        • Transports waste, gases, nutrients, hormones through cardiovascular system
        • Helps regulate body temperature
        • Protects body by fighting infection
      • Derived from mesenchyme
      • Hematopoiesis : production of blood cells
        • Occurs in red bone marrow
        • In adults, axial skeleton, girdles, proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur
    • Blood Cells
      • Erythrocytes: (RBC) small, oxygen-transporting
        • most abundant in blood
        • no organelles, filled w/hemoglobin
        • pick up O 2 at lungs, transport to rest of body
      • Platelets = Thrombocytes : fragments of cytoplasm
        • plug small tears in vessel walls, initiates clotting
      • Leukocytes: (WBC) complete cells , 5 types
        • fight against infectious microorganisms
        • stored in bone marrow for emergencies
    • Histology of Blood and Vessel
      • Blood Smear
    • Histology of Blood Vessels Artery Vein
    • Components of Blood Summarized Cells Matrix Erythrocytes (red blood cells) Plasma (liquid matrix) Leukocytes (white blood cells) NO fibers Platelets
    • Muscle Tissue (tissue type #3)
      • Muscle cells/fibers
        • Elongated
        • Contain many myofilaments: Actin & Myosin
      • FUNCTION
        • Movement
        • Maintenance of posture
        • Joint Stabilization
        • Heat Generation
      • Three types: Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth
    • Skeletal Muscle Tissue (each skeletal muscle is an organ)
      • Cells
        • Long and cylindrical, in bundles
        • Multinucleate
        • Obvious Striations
      • Skeletal Muscles-Voluntary
      • Connective Tissue Components:
        • Endomysium -surrounds fibers
        • Perimysium -surrounds bundles
        • Epimysium -surrounds the muscle
      • Attached to bones, fascia, skin
      • Origin & Insertion
      pg 235
    • Cardiac Muscle
      • Cells
        • Branching, chains of cells
        • Single or Binucleated
        • Striations
        • Connected by Intercalated discs
      • Cardiac Muscle-Involuntary
      • Myocardium-heart muscle
        • Pumps blood through vessels
      • Connective Tissue Component
        • Endomysium: surrounding cells
      Pg 244
    • Smooth Muscle Tissue
      • Cells
        • Single cells, uninucleate
        • No striations
      • Smooth Muscle-Involuntary
        • 2 layers-opposite orientation (peristalsis)
      • Lines hollow organs, blood vessels
      • Connective Tissue Component
        • Endomysium: surrounds cells
      Pg 246
    • Histology of Muscle Tissue SMOOTH CARDIAC SKELETAL
    • Nervous Tissue
      • Neurons : specialized nerve cells conduct impulses
        • Cell body, dendrite, axon
      • Interneuron: between motor & sensory neuron in CNS
      • Characterized by:
        • No mitosis (cell replication)
        • Longevity
        • High metabolic rate
      pg 322
    • Nervous Tissue: control
      • Support cells (= Glial) : nourishment, insulation, protection
        • Satellite cells -surround cell bodies within ganglia
        • Schwann cells -surround axons
        • Microglia -phagocytes
        • Oligodendrocytes -produce myelin sheaths around axons
        • Ependymal cells -line brain/spinal cord, ciliated,help circulate CSF
      • Brain, spinal cord, nerves
    • Neuronal Anatomy
      • Synapse: cell junction where neurons communicate
      • One direction: presynaptic neuron, postsynaptic neuron
      • Presynaptic neuron
        • Synaptic vesicles fuses w/presynaptic membrane
        • Neurotransmitters released,
        • diffuse across
        • synaptic cleft, bind to
        • postsynaptic membrane
        • ٠ Creates impulse
        • (action potential) in
        • that neuron
        • ٠ Cycle repeats
      pg 325
    • Histology of Neuron
    • Integumentary System
      • Skin
        • Epidermis = epithelium
        • Dermis = connective tissue
      • Hypodermis = connective tissue
      • Skin Appendages = outgrowths of epidermis
        • Hair follicles
        • Sweat and Sebaceous glands
        • Nails
    • Integumentary System
      • Functions
        • Protection
          • Mechanical, thermal, chemical, UV
        • Cushions & insulates deeper organs
        • Prevention of water loss
        • Thermoregulation
        • Excretion
          • Salts, urea, water
        • Sensory reception
    • Layers of the Epidermis
      • Stratum corneum
        • Dead keratinocytes
      • Stratum lucidum
        • Dead keratinocytes
      • Stratum granulosum
        • Keratinocytes
        • Tonofilaments
        • Lamellated & keratohyaline granules
      • Stratum spinosum
        • Keratinocytes
        • Tonofilaments
        • Langerhans cells
      • Stratum basale
        • Keratinocytes
        • Melanocytes
        • Merkel receptors
    • Dermis
      • Highly innervated
      • Highly vascularized
      • Collagen & Elastic fibers
      • Many cell types
        • Fibroblasts
        • Macrophages
        • Mast cells
        • White blood cells
      • Papillary layer (20%)
        • Areolar CT
        • Hair follicles
      • Reticular layer (80%)
        • Dense Irregular CT
        • Glands
          • Sebaceous glands
          • Sweat glands
        • Smooth muscle fibers
    • Hypodermis
      • Also called superficial fascia
      • Areolar & Adipose Connective Tissue
      • Functions
        • Store fat
        • Anchor skin to muscle, etc.
        • Insulation
    • “ May I please be excused? My brain is full!!”