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  1. 1. The phrase Open Educational Resources OER was first adopted in 2002 by UNESCO. Open educational resources and educational materials are offered freely and openly so that anyone can use. The OER include: <ul><ul><li>Content learning courses, course materials, modules, content, learning objects, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools: Software for the creation, delivery, use and improvement of open learning content, including search and organization of content, content management systems (LMS), content development tools, and online learning communities, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources Deployment: intellectual property licenses to promote open publishing of materials, design principles and local adaptation of content. </li></ul></ul>(Wikipedia. 01/16/2009) Open Educational Resources
  2. 2. OER initiatives in higher education Around the world there are currently over 2500 open access courses available ( opencoureswares ) from over 200 universities: <ul><ul><li>EEUU: 1700
  3. 3. China: 451
  4. 4. Japan: 350
  5. 5. France: 178 </li></ul></ul>More open educational resource projects are emerging at educational institutions in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, Hungary, India, Iran, Ireland, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Thailand, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Vietnam.
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>The English language Wikipedia ( http://wikipedia.org/ ) contains over 1 300 000 articles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Math World ( http://mathworld.wolfram.com/ ) contains 12 632 entries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rice’s Connexions project currently hosts 3 461 open learning objects ( http://cnx.org/ ) available for mixing and matching into study units or full courses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Textbook Revolution ( http://textbookrevolution.org/ ) contains links to 260 freely available, copyright-clean textbooks. </li></ul></ul>OER initiatives outside higher education OER initiatives outside higher education OER initiatives outside higher education OER initiatives outside higher education
  7. 7. Tree models: <ul><ul><li>MIT OCW offers a very structured. In 2007 offered a total of 1800 courses (new and revisions of previous courses). It has the necessary funding for the sustainability of their project (Foundation, vendor participation and partnerships, ...). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>La USU OCW ofrece un modelo que tiene el personal y los voluntarios. En dos años ha llevado a cabo 50 cursos. USU OCW inmediatamente identifica y elimina todos de propiedad de terceros el contenido de los cursos, en sustitución de algunos de estos contenidos con materiales equivalentes propiedad de USU. (Wiley) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rice is a model of self. Receive contributions from around the world. At present 179 courses and 3 525 modules available today. </li></ul></ul>Sustainability in Open Education
  8. 8. While the UNESCO definition of the term states that teachers are the primary audience of open educational resources and that students are secondary users, in practice learners make up the great majority of users. MIT OCW, one of the most popular collections of open educational resources, reports that only 16% of its users are educators (Carson, 2006) . Sustainability in Open Education
  9. 9. Management costs: <ul><ul><li>Production: human resources, workflow processes, supporting technology. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution to end-users (various channels and media: Internet, digital, USB, ...). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visibility and availability for use (location, ...). </li></ul></ul>Sustainability in Open Education
  10. 10. Funding models from Downes: <ul><ul><li>Endowment model - based on interest earned by a fund </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Membership model - is invited to contribute a certain sum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Donations model - donations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion model - free until a predetermined threshold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributor-pay model - pays for the cost of maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sponsorship model - various formules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional model - the institution responsible for the costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governmental model – direct funding by government agencies. </li></ul></ul>Sustainability in Open Education
  11. 11. Funding models from Dholakai: <ul><ul><li>Replacement model - the institution replaces tools. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foundation model - it could seek on-going funding from foundations, philanthropic institutions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Segmentation model - can simultaneously provide value-added services to specific user segments and charge them for the services. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary support - A revenue model based on voluntary support. </li></ul></ul>Sustainability in Open Education
  12. 12. Resources: <ul><ul><li>Advancing Sustainability of Open Educational Resources (Koohang and Harman, 10 pages) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On the Sustainability of Open Educational Resource Initiatives in Higher Education) (Wiley, 20 pages) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Models for Sustainable Open Educational Resources (Downes, 16 pages) </li></ul></ul>Sustainability in Open Education