Infections in elderly

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aged immunity
common infections in elderly

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Infections in elderly

  1. 1. INFECTIONS IN ELDERLY DR. DOHA RASHEEDY LECTURER OF GERIATRIC MEDICINE DEPARTMENT OF GERIATRIC AND GERONTOLOGY AIN SHAMS UNIVERSITY
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • Infectious diseases have a significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly population even in the modern era of antibiotics. • Waning immunity and the physiologic changes that come with aging make the elderly especially prone to infectious diseases such as pneumonia, urinary tract infection (UTI), and skin and soft tissue infections. • Older adults are more likely to be hospitalized as a result of infectious processes and the longer the hospital stay, the greater the likelihood that they will develop infectious complications. • The clinical presentation of infection in the elderly is often atypical, subtle, and elusive. • This makes early diagnosis and initiating treatment a challenge. • Elderly may not only have fewer symptoms, but might present with nonspecific consequences of infection that on the surface appear unrelated. • Aside from prevention, early diagnosis with rapid institution of antimicrobial therapy is the mainstay of treatment for reducing the high morbidity and mortality of infection in the aged.
  3. 3. EXAMPLES ON NONSPECIFIC SYMPTOMS: • Generalized malaise • Falls • Changes in mental status or cognitive impairment • Anorexia
  4. 4. RISK FACTORS FOR INFECTIONS IN ELDERLY • Immune aging. • comorbid illnesses. • increased exposure to pathogens in institutions. • complications of medical treatment.
  5. 5. AGEING IMMUNITY Immunosenescence increases vulnerability of the elderly to infection. Alterations in the barriers posed by the skin, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract (and other mucosal linings), permitting invasion by pathogenic organisms SKIN: • Epidermal Thinning:(ageing+ chronic disease and malnutrition) • decreases in Langerhans cells, interleukin-1 production, and production and response to epidermal thymocyte-activating factor. • poor perfusion, → increase the risk of damage to the skin and the subsequent development of soft tissue infection such as cellulitis and infected decubitus ulcers. Mucosal surfaces : also adversely affected by age, disease, and lifestyle (e.g., cigarette smoking) with loss of the ciliary action of the epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract and possibly reduction of secretory immunoglobulins).
  6. 6. PRIMARY IMMUNITY Consists of phagocytosis, complement, and natural killer cells. Age in itself may have little effect on this form of immunity. However, acute and chronic diseases, especially malnutrition, may compromise these defense mechanisms.
  7. 7. ACQUIRED IMMUNITY With advancing age, • the percentage of memory cells increases in relation to naive cells as the naive cells undergo a transition to memory cells. • loss of the proliferative capacity of immune cells, and decreased production of specific cytokines (eg, IL-2) that leads to increased risk for intracellular pathogens. • Impaired signal transduction after cytokine binding is also associated with impaired defense against fungal and viral pathogens. • lack of regulatory control of T cells on B cells in the elderly leads to a blunted antibody response. • Decreased antibody response to vaccines, related to reductions in toll-like receptors. and senescence of CD8+ T cells .
  8. 8. •ELDERLY ‘S EXPOSURE TO RESISTANT ORGANISMS: •Elderly are more likely to harbour resistant organisms as more likely to be – Hospitalised – Admitted to nursing home – Exposed to multiple antibiotics •Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). •vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). • fluoroquinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae
  9. 9. COMPLICATION OF TREATMENT • Invasive devices, which include indwelling urinary catheters, intravenous catheters, feeding tubes, and tracheostomies, are more common in the elderly. • These devices compromise host defenses enabling bacteria to enter the body and cause infection. • Chemotherapeutic, immunosuppressive therapy.
  10. 10. OUTCOMES FROM INFECTION IN ELDERLY • the mortality from common infections is 2- to 20-fold higher than in younger adults. • Declines in the host inflammatory response, impaired functional status, presence of comorbid illness, and virulence of the infecting pathogen all contribute to the severity of the infection and increased likelihood of death. • In addition, delay in diagnosis and lack of treatment contribute substantially to mortality from infection in older adults.
  11. 11. THE DELAY IN DIAGNOSING INFECTION IN ELDERLY The clinical findings of infection such as fever, changes in laboratory tests, and physical findings may be atypical in older adults. • the normal baseline temperatures are lower in elderly. The febrile response may be absent or blunted in infected older adults. • Other aspects of the inflammatory response, such as leukocytosis, may be lacking in the older adult patient. • Because of the lack of an inflammatory response, many older adults will not have localizing symptoms or focal findings on physical examination. • For example, typical signs of peritonitis may be unimpressive or absent in the older adult with appendicitis, diverticulitis, or cholecystitis. • the older adult with altered cognitive function may not be able to perceive symptoms of infection or communicate them to their health care provider.
  12. 12. USEFUL INDICATORS OF INFECTION Functional status: is a sensitive indicator of infection in nursing home residents. Acute infection in the elderly often is heralded by a decline in mental or physical function. Difficulty ambulating, frequent falls, incontinence, and delirium Fever: other definitions for fever have been recommended as a more sensitive means of detecting infection in older adults. Dehydration: Dehydration may accompany fever and suggest possible infection in this population. Complete blood count: White blood cell (WBC) count more than 14,000 cells/mm3 • Neutrophils more than 90%
  13. 13. FEVER • Fever, the cardinal feature of infection, is absent in 30 to 50 percent of frail, older adults, even in the setting of serious infections like pneumonia or endocarditis. • The blunted febrile response in older adults is due to changes in multiple systems responsible for thermoregulation: shivering, hypothalamic regulation and thermogenesis by brown adipose tissue are all impaired with advanced age. Fever definition — Relatively healthy, community-dwelling older adults may be appropriately managed using conventional definitions of fever. Fevers >38°C .indicate a potential for serious infection, while hypothermia relative to baseline body temperatures may signify severe infection or even sepsis . Fever in frail elderly patients may be considered as one or more of the following: • Single oral temperature >37.8°C (>100ºF) • Persistent tympanic membrane temperature ≥37.2°C (99.0ºF) • Rectal temperature ≥37.5°C (99.5ºF) • Rise in temperature of ≥1.1°C (≥2°F) above baseline temperature.
  14. 14. PNEUMONIA
  15. 15. There are three types of pneumonia in the elderly: community-acquired, nursing home-acquired, and nosocomial pneumonia. Recent developments in nomenclature include the term healthcare associated pneumonia (HCAP), which was incorporated in the 2005 American Thoracic Society guidelines. HCAP refers to any patient who develops pneumonia in the hospital, resides in a nursing home or residential care facility, receives home wound care, undergoes chronic dialysis, or is exposed to a family member with a multidrug resistant pathogen
  16. 16. RISK FACTORS: 1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and smoking are the most pervasive risk factors for CAP. Smoking cessation for 5 years may reduce excess risk of CAP by almost half. 2. Congestive heart failure 3. diabetes 4. lung cancer 5. immunosuppression 6. Previous pneumonia 7. other malignancies
  17. 17. SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF CAP • Classical: • Cough with or without sputum production, dyspnea, pleurisy chest pain, fever, and chills are blunted or nonexistent in elderly patients who have pneumonia. • Elderly patients are almost twice as likely to have tachypnea as younger patients. • Delirium, dizziness, falls • Sepsis up to septic shock or ARDS
  18. 18. Signs of bacterial pneumonia may include the following: Hyperthermia (fever, typically >38°C)or hypothermia (< 35°C) Tachypnea (>18 respirations/min) Use of accessory respiratory muscles Tachycardia (>100 bpm) or bradycardia (< 60 bpm) Central cyanosis Altered mental status
  19. 19. Local Physical findings may include the following: Adventitious breath sounds, such as rales/crackles, rhonchi, or wheezes Decreased intensity of breath sounds Egophony Whispering pectoriloquy Dullness to percussion Tracheal deviation Lymphadenopathy Pleural friction rub
  20. 20. ORGANISMS CAP: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella catarrhalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae , Atypical: Legionella pneumophilia, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Coxiella burnetti, Mycoplasma pneumoniae Viruses: Influenza A, Parainfluenza . HAP: resistant organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae , MRSA, NHAP: Streptococcus pneumoniae, haemophilus influenzae,Moraxella catarrhalis
  21. 21. SEVERITY OF PNEUMONIA. There are a variety of assessment tools that can assist in determining the severity of pneumonia. CURB-65 The modified American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines. Pneumonia severity index scoring system
  22. 22. PSI Class I (age 50,no coexisting illness, and no adverse clinical findings) And II (PSI 70) are considered for outpatient treatment, and class III (70-90) may be managed either as an inpatient or outpatient Class IV (PSI 91–130) and V (PSI score >130) for inpatient management, the index heavily weights age, assigning men over the age of 70 and women over 80 into risk class III even if there are no other risk factors. It neglects other areas such as social circumstances which are important in deciding whether or not to admit elderly patients.
  23. 23. The authors suggest that the CURB-65 score can stratify patients into 3 different management options: group 1 (score 0 or 1) was found to have a low mortality of 1.5% and can be considered for outpatient management group 2 (score of 2, mortality intermediate 9.2%, can be considered for hospital supervised treatment; group 3 (score 3 or more, mortality high at 22%,) should be considered for intensive care management if appropriate.
  24. 24. CRITERIA: HOSPITALIZATION INDICATIONS IN NURSING HOME RESIDENTS Assumes that patient is willing to be hospitalized Indications for hospitalization (2 or more) 1. Respiratory Rate >30 bpm or 10 bpm over baseline 2. Oxygen Saturation <90% on room air 3. Systolic BP <90 mmhg or 20 mm Hg below baseline 4. Oxygen requirement >3 LPM over baseline 5. Uncontrolled comorbidity • Uncontrolled Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease • Uncontrolled Congestive Heart Failure • Uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus 6. Altered Level of Consciousness • New Somnolence • New or increased agitation 7. Facility unable to care for patient • Vital Signs every 4 hours • Lab access • Parenteral hydration • Licensed nursing available
  25. 25. INVESTIGATIONS • Leucocytosis and increase in band forms develop less frequently in elderly patients and are thus less sensitive in the detection of pneumonia. • a normal CRP value virtually excludes pneumonia, even in the very old. • Blood gas analysis • Microbiology: the question of whether sputum analysis should be done is controversial (recommended by the Infectious Diseases Society of America, but not by the American Thoracic Society). Indeed, the elderly are often too weak to provide an adequate sputum specimen, or too confused to cooperate and the diagnostic yield of sputum analysis is relatively low. • Blood cultures twice • TEST for urinary legionella antigen ,PCR testing for Chlamydia spp, M pneumoniae, and common respiratory viruses are now available, but their clinical usefulness has not yet been established. • BUN, electrolytes, glucose prognostic value
  26. 26. MANAGEMENT: Supportive ttt: 1. Chest percussion 2. Rehydration 3. Bronchodilators 4. Oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation
  27. 27. INSTITUTIONALLY ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA • Initial regimens should be broadly inclusive, followed by step-down therapy to narrower coverage if the causative agent is identified • For MRSA-colonized patients or patients in units with high rates of MRSA, initial regimens should include vancomycin or linezolid until MRSA is excluded. • Patients with improving hospital-acquired pneumonia not caused by nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli (eg, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas) can receive short courses of antibiotics (8 days).
  28. 28. DURATION OF ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY Patients with CAP should be treated for: 1. a minimum of 5 days (level I evidence), 2. should be afebrile for 48–72 h. Most patients with CAP have been treated for 7–10 days longer duration of therapy may be needed if initial therapy was not active against the identified pathogen or if it was complicated by extrapulmonary infection, such as meningitis or endocarditis.
  29. 29. REDUCING THE RISK OF PNEUMONIA • Immunization • Smoking cessation • Aggressive treatment of comorbidities (eg, minimizing aspiration risk in post-stroke patients, limited use of sedative hypnotics) • System changes with attention to infection control may be particularly effective in the nursing home
  30. 30. PATHOGENESIS OF HCAP Colonization of the pharynx with bacteria is the most important step in the pathogenesis of hospital-acquired pneumonia. Pharyngeal colonization is promoted by: • exogenous factors (instrumentation of the upper airway with nasogastric and endotracheal tubes, contamination by dirty hands and equipment) • treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics that promote the emergence of drug-resistant organisms) • patient factors (malnutrition, advanced age, altered consciousness, swallowing disorders, and underlying pulmonary and systemic diseases). • Aspiration of infected pharyngeal or gastric secretions delivers bacteria directly to the lower airway. + Impaired cellular and mechanical defense mechanisms in the lungs of hospitalized patients raise the risk of infection after aspiration has occurred. Observational studies have suggested that elevations of gastric pH due to antacids, H2-receptor antagonists, or enteral feeding is associated with gastric microbial overgrowth, tracheobronchial colonization, and hospital- acquired pneumonia. Sucralfate, a cytoprotective agent that does not alter gastric pH, is associated with a trend toward a lower incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia.
  31. 31. The most common organisms responsible for hospital-acquired pneumonia are P aeruginosa, S aureus, Enterobacter, K pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli. Proteus, Serratia marcescens, H influenzae, and streptococci account for most of the remaining cases. Infection by P aeruginosa and Acinetobacter tend to cause pneumonia in the most debilitated patients, those with previous antibiotic therapy, and those requiring mechanical ventilation. Anaerobic organisms (bacteroides, anaerobic streptococci, fusobacterium) may also cause pneumonia in the hospitalized patient; when isolated, they are commonly part of a polymicrobial flora. Mycobacteria, fungi, chlamydiae, viruses, rickettsiae, and protozoal organisms are uncommon causes of hospital-acquired pneumonia.
  32. 32. CLINICAL FINDINGS SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS The symptoms and signs associated with hospital-acquired pneumonia are nonspecific; however, one or more clinical findings (fever, leukocytosis, purulent sputum, and a new or progressive pulmonary infiltrate on chest radiograph) are present in most patients. Other findings associated with hospital-acquired pneumonia include those listed above for community-acquired pneumonia. The differential diagnosis of new lower respiratory tract symptoms and signs in hospitalized patients includes 1. congestive heart failure 2. Atelectasis 3. Aspiration 4. ARDS 5. pulmonary thromboembolism 6. pulmonary hemorrhage 7. drug reactions
  33. 33. Endotracheal aspiration using a sterile suction catheter and fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage or a protected specimen brush can be used to obtain lower respiratory tract secretions for analysis, most commonly in patients with ventilator- associated pneumonias. Endotracheal aspiration cultures have significant negative predictive value but limited positive predictive value in the diagnosis of specific etiologic agents in patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia. An invasive diagnostic approach using quantitative culture of bronchoalveolar lavage samples or protected specimen brush samples in patients suspected of having ventilator-associated pneumonia leads to significantly less antibiotic use, earlier attenuation of organ dysfunction, and fewer deaths at 14 days
  34. 34. INFLUENZA
  35. 35. VIRAL INFECTIONS OF RESPIRATORY TRACT Influenza types A and B, parainfluenza, coronavirus, and rhinovirus are the cause of most common viral respiratory infections. Influenza type A and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) cause the greatest morbidity and mortality. Influenza types A and B cause epidemics of disease almost every winter. SYMPTOMS & SIGNS: Classic influenza presents with abrupt onset of fever, chills, headache, and myalgia, which are accompanied by pharyngitis, nonproductive cough, and clear, watery nasal congestion. The fever accompanying influenza infection can last from 4-8 days. Common symptoms of RSV infection include rhinorrhea, cough, sputum production, shortness of breath, and wheezing
  36. 36. LABORATORY TESTS Viral culture for influenza using nasopharyngeal swab, is useful in making an etiological diagnosis because the symptoms of influenza may be similar to those of other viruses such as RSV. Rapid antigenic tests, with 80-90% sensitivity and specificity (depending on sample quality), are commercially available to detect influenza types A and B. Unfortunately, the sensitivity of culture for RSV is extremely poor because the shedding of RSV in the oropharynx is low. In addition, RSV is thermo-labile and does not survive long in transit.
  37. 37. PREVENTION Hospitalization and mortality in both community-dwelling elderly and nursing home residents are reduced when vaccine is administered before the influenza season. Side effects of the influenza vaccine are the same for the elderly as for younger individuals: local soreness, low-grade fever, and muscle aches. When influenza occurs in a nursing home, the CDC recommends antiviral prophylaxis for all residents to prevent an epidemic. Prophylaxis should be continued for at least 2 weeks or, if cases continue to occur, until 1 week after the outbreak has ended. Amantadine is not recommended for postexposure prophylaxis .
  38. 38. TREATMENT Treatment of the common cold is symptomatic with acetaminophen, decongestants, and antihistamines. However, many cold remedies contain medications that can cause adverse effects in the elderly or interact with prescription medications. Antiviral treatment for influenza should be administered within 48h, and preferably within 12 h, of symptom onset. The earlier the antivirals are administered, the more effective they are in reducing symptoms and preventing complications. The older antivirals amantadine and rimantidine are active only against influenza type A. The neuraminidase inhibitors zanamivir (inhaled) and oseltamivir are effective against both influenza types A and B. Laninamivir: long acting inhaled neuraminidase inhibitors approved in Japan but not in USA can be used for oseltamivir resistant cases .
  39. 39. If the fever persists for more than 4 days with productive cough and white cell count over 10,000/mcL, secondary bacterial infection should be suspected. Pneumococcal pneumonia is the most common such infection, and staphylococcal pneumonia is the most serious
  40. 40. The treatment of RSV infection in the elderly is supportive, with hydration, oxygenation, and treatment of bronchospasm with bronchodilators. It is unclear whether aerosolized ribavirin affects symptoms in the elderly palivizumab, a monoclonal RSV antibody. Administration of palivizumab prophylactically (parenterally at 15 mg/kg monthly during the season of high transmission) to patient at risk cardiopulmonary conditions. No active vaccination available for RSV to date
  41. 41. TUBERCULOSIS
  42. 42. Most TB in the elderly is a result of reactivation of latent infection and involves the lungs. However, extrapulmonary TB, including miliary disease, is more frequent in the elderly than in younger individuals. Reactivation is thought to occur because of a decline of cell- mediated immunity with age and the co-morbid medical conditions. • Malignancy, diabetes, lymphoreticular cancers, poor nutrition, renal insufficiency as well as chronic institutionalization increase the risk of TB in the elderly
  43. 43. SCREENING FOR LATENT DISEASE • The tuberculin test is the best available screening test to detect previous infection. • It is recommended that only those who have increased risk for TB be screened: 1. residents and employees of nursing homes 2. persons with recent close contact with an active case 3. those who have immigrated within the past 5 years from a country with a high prevalence of TB; 4. and those with certain medical conditions such as diabetes, renal disease, significant weight loss, and immunosuppression. • a 2-step TB test 2 weeks apart should be done if the initial test is negative. • 10 mm of induration as a positive test in most individuals; 5 mm of induration is considered positive in those with HIV infection, persons receiving immunosuppressive therapy, recent contacts of active cases, and patients with a chest x-ray film consistent with prior TB. • interferon- assays
  44. 44. TREATMENT latent disease : If the chest x-ray film does not reveal evidence of active disease in a person with a positive skin test it is recommended that isoniazid (INH) therapy be administered for 6-9 mo. Once-a-day dosing with 300 mg of INH has been shown to decrease the incidence of active TB by at least 60%. patients receiving treatment for latent disease, monthly clinical monitoring for symptoms is essential. Active TB: Therapy for 6 months with two very effective anti-tuberculous agents, isoniazid and rifampin, supplemented during the first 2 months by a third agent, pyrazinamide, is commonly used. In suspected resistant organism a fourth drug (ethambutol) typically is added at the initiation of therapy until drug sensitivity results become available
  45. 45. UTI
  46. 46. URINARY TRACT INFECTION Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common illness in adults age 65 and over. The incidence rate approaches 10 percent in women and 5.3 percent in men over the age of 80. Organisms: Gram-negative bacilli (eg, E. coli, Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp.) are most common but there is an increase in more resistant isolates such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and gram-positive organisms including enterococci (E. fecalis and E. faecium), coagulase-negative staphylococci and Streptococcus agalactiae (group B strep), when compared to young adults.
  47. 47. RISK FACTORS FOR UTI IN ELDERLY Increased risk for UTI in the elderly is associated with: 1. changes of aging, including prostatic hypertrophy and loss of estrogen effect 2. neurogenic bladder from stroke or diabetes, incontinence 3. use of indwelling and condom catheters. 4. Nursing home admission. 5. Diabetes.
  48. 48. Asymptomatic bacteriuria Asymptomatic bacteriuria (> 100,000 colonies/mL on 2 consecutive specimens in an asymptomatic patient) affect 1-6% of men and 10-20% of women over age 60 in the community and 15-35% of men and 25-50% of women in nursing homes. There is no clinical benefit when asymptomatic bacteriuria is treated. Distinguishing asymptomatic from symptomatic infection may be difficult. Reliance on clinical evidence of infection in making a decision to treat is compromised by the frequent absence of fever in infected elderly patients and by the inability of many patients to describe symptoms. However, in the absence of some objective evidence of infection, such as fever, flank pain, or change in cognitive or functional status, no clinical benefit when treated.
  49. 49. TREATMENT Single-agent empiric antimicrobial therapy is appropriate for all patients with presumed UTI. course 7-10days 1. Cystitis in elderly women has traditionally been treated with 7 days of antibiotics; a shorter duration may also be effective, but more studies are needed. Men with UTI usually have a prostatic focus and require 2- 6 weeks of treatment with an antibiotic such as trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole or a quinolone, both of which penetrate well into the prostate. 2. In nursing home patients, breadth of coverage should be based on the antibiotic resistance pattern in the facility. 3. Patients with suspected sepsis from UTI require hospitalization and treatment with a beta-lactam/beta-lactamase combination, a third- generation cephalosporin, or a quinolone such as ciprofloxacin plus aminoglycoside. 4. In catheterized patients, because of the possibility of infection with gram-positive organisms (ie, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and enterococci in up to 20% of patients), it is also appropriate to consider using a beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination or adding vancomycin for empiric treatment. Once culture results are available, the empiric antibiotic regimen should be changed to an appropriate antibiotic with the narrowest spectrum.
  50. 50. GASTROENTERITIS
  51. 51. A decrease in gastric acidity as a result of medications, gastric atrophy, surgery, and systemic illnesses increases the risk of infection with gastrointestinal pathogens. Elderly patients living in nursing homes or other group settings are at particularly high risk because of shared bathrooms and dining facilities, the high prevalence of incontinence, and poor staff compliance with hand- washing practices. Causative organisms: In outpatients with diarrhea, viral pathogens are most common The principal bacterial pathogens causing diarrhea in the elderly are C. difficile, Campylobacter species, Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, and Shigella species. When onset of symptoms is within 12 h of ingestion of contaminated food, the toxins of Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus, or S. aureus may be responsible. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by C. difficile is common in the elderly because of more hospitalizations, nursing home stays, and antibiotic use. Up to 50% of patients older than 65 will develop C. difficile- associated diarrhea after hospitalization and antibiotic use. Much of the problem with C. difficile is due to poor infection control practices.
  52. 52. PSUEDOMEMBRANOS COLITIS • Clinical ranges from mild diarrhoea to life-threatening colitis • Occurs 1/7 to 6/52 after antibiotic exposure • The patient experiencing diarrhea may have crampy lower abdominal pain, anorexia, fever, malaise, and watery or bloody diarrhea. In general, symptoms are not specific enough to identify the causative pathogen • C. difficile can cause severe diarrhea, fever and systemic toxicity • Severely ill may have no diarrhoea due to toxic megacolon • Complications: perforation, peritonitis – high mortality
  53. 53. LABORATORY TESTS •Stool culture: indicated when there is a history of recent travel, recent hospitalization, inflammatory bowel disease, prior antibiotic use or unsafe food ingestion; when illness occurs in a cluster; when fever, dehydration, abdominal pain, or bloody diarrhea is present; when the patient is immunocompromised; when symptoms are severe or prolonged; and when fecal leukocytes or blood are present. •Bacterial cultures for Salmonella, Shigella, E. coli, and Yersinia should always be obtained in patients hospitalized because of diarrhea and in nursing home patients with diarrhea. •A stool examination for ova and parasites should be done when the patient is immunocompromised, has traveled recently, or has prolonged diarrhea. •testing for C. difficile toxin: Suspicion of C. difficile should be high in any hospital or nursing home-acquired diarrhea, especially with history of antibiotic use. •Flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy looking for pseudomembranes should be performed for persistent diarrhea with negative stool studies.
  54. 54. TREATMENT • Treatment focuses on rehydration and electrolyte replacement. • Patients with infectious inflammatory diarrhea, as evidenced by the presence of fecal leukocytes, may be started on empiric antibiotics before culture results. • In other causes of community-acquired or traveler's diarrhea, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or a quinolone can be used. Campylobacter may be resistant to quinolones and require erythromycin. • C. difficile should be treated with oral metronidazole. Recurrent or severe disease may require oral vancomycin, but this should not be used as first-line therapy. • Antimotility drugs should not be given for inflammatory diarrhea.
  55. 55. INFECTED PRESSURE ULCERS
  56. 56. Clinical evidence of infection includes warmth, tenderness, purulent discharge, foul odor and tissue crepitus. Superficial swab cultures collect surface-contaminating organisms, and a positive swab culture does not necessarily mean that the ulcer is infected. Tissue biopsy and culture and fluid irrigation/aspiration cultures are superior alternatives. However, tissue irrigation and aspiration may yield positive results even in non infected ulcers. The most common aerobic isolates obtained from cultures are Proteus mirabilis, enterococci, E. coli, staphylococci, and Pseudomonas. The most common anaerobic isolates are peptostreptococci, Bacteroides, and Clostridia. Bacteremia from infected pressure ulcers is more frequently from anaerobes than aerobes and is associated with a high mortality.
  57. 57. These infections are polymicrobial; 1. the use of a beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination should be strongly considered. 2. Quinolone combined with metronidazole or clindamycin is another option. 3. Because of poor tissue perfusion of infected pressure ulcers, antimicrobial therapy should be administered intravenously in all patients who are extremely ill. 4. Topical treatment is not effective for any infected pressure ulcer.
  58. 58. INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS
  59. 59. Originally known as bacterial endocarditis, it can also be caused by fungi, rickettsia, and chlamydia. IE has become more frequent in older patients, with a majority of patients older than 50 years. IE can be divided into three major groups based on host characteristics: 1. Native valve endocarditis (NVE) 2. Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE); further subdivided into early (i.e., in the first month after valve surgery) and late (occurring thereafter) 3. Endocarditis in IV drug users
  60. 60. ORGANISMS Most cases of NVE are caused by Streptococcus viridans (50%) and Staphylococcus aureus, whereas most cases of IE in IV drug users are caused by S. aureus. Early PVE is thought to be caused by intraoperative contamination with nosocomial pathogens, in particular coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Late PVE is believed to be community acquired and resembles NVE in microbiology.
  61. 61. DIAGNOSIS The major Duke criteria are: 1. Persistently positive blood cultures with microorganisms consistent with IE 1. more than two positive cultures separated by at least 12 hours or more than three cultures at least 1 hour apart or 70% of blood cultures positive if four or more are drawn 2. A single positive blood culture for Coxiella burnetii or IgG antibody titer >1:800 2. Echocardiographic evidence of endocardial involvement The minor Duke criteria are: 1. Predisposing heart condition 2. Fever 3. Vascular phenomena (arterial emboli, septic pulmonary emboli, mycotic aneurysm, Janeway lesions) 4. Immunologic phenomena (glomerulonephritis, Osler nodes, Roth spots, rheumatoid factor) 5. Positive blood cultures (not meeting major criteria) Definitive diagnosis of IE requires two major criteria or one major plus three minor criteria or five minor criteria.
  62. 62. TREATMENT Antimicrobial therapy must be bactericidal and prolonged. Pts with acute endocarditis require antibiotic treatment as soon as three sets of blood culture samples are obtained, but stable pts with subacute disease should have antibiotics withheld until a diagnosis is made. Streptococci: Penicillin G (2–3 mU IV q4h for 4 weeks) Ceftriaxone (2 g/d IV as a single dose for 4 weeks) Vancomycinc (15 mg/kg IV q12h for 4 weeks) Penicillin G (2–3 mU IV q4h) or ceftriaxone (2 g IV qd) for 2 weeks plus gentamicind (3 mg/kg qd IV or IM as a single doseeor divided into equal doses q8h for 2 weeks
  63. 63. Enterococcih Penicillin G (4–5 mU IV q4h) plus gentamicind (1 mg/kg IV q8h), both for 4–6 weeks Can use streptomycin (7.5 mg/kg q12h) in lieu of gentamicin if there is not high-level resistance to streptomycin Ampicillin (2 g IV q4h) plus gentamicind (1 mg/kg IV q8h), both for 4–6 weeks Vancomycinc (15 mg/kg IV q12h) plus gentamicind (1mg/kg IV q8h), both for 4–6 weeks Staphylococci Methicillin-susceptible, Nafcillin or oxacillin (2 g IV q4h for 4–6 weeks) plus (optional) gentamicind (1 mg/kg IM or IV q8h for 3–5 days) Can use penicillin (4 mU q4h) if isolate is penicillin-susceptible Cefazolin (2 g IV q8h for 4–6 weeks) plus (optional) gentamicind (1 mg/kg IM or IV q8h for 3–5 days) Vancomycinc (15 mg/kg IV q12h for 4–6 weeks)
  64. 64. Staphylococci Methicillin-resistant, infecting prosthetic valves Vancomycin (15 mg/kg IV q12h for 6–8 weeks) plus gentamicin (1 mg/kg IM or IV q8h for 2 weeks) plus rifampin (300 mg PO q8h for 6–8 weeks)
  65. 65. HIV IN ELDERLY
  66. 66. INTRODUCTION AIDS is increasing in elderly population: 1. the success of combination antiretroviral therapy added to life expectancy of the patients. 2. the risk of new HIV infections is also likely to increase: 1. the use of sildenafil to effectively treat erectile dysfunction and enhance sexual performance may increase risky sexual behavior. 2. Additionally, postmenopausal women may be less likely to request that condoms be used as they face no risk of pregnancy. 3. Finally, age-associated declines in immunity may place older individuals at higher risk of transmission with each exposure
  67. 67. CLINICAL PRESENTATION Like in younger patients, acute infection may be completely asymptomatic or present as a flu-like syndrome. older who are chronically infected with HIV and in care, the most common self- reported symptoms are fatigue, peripheral neuropathy, problems sleeping, myalgias or arthralgias.
  68. 68. Physical exam Skin: Kaposi’s sarcoma, psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis and varicella zoster scars Oral pharynx: Periodontal disease, thrush, Kaposi’s sarcoma Optic fundi: HIV cotton wool spots, CMV retinitis Lymphatic: Lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly Genital and rectal exam: Herpes simplex (HSV) ulcers or scars, fissures, fistulas, condyloma accuminatum, condyloma latum Neurologic exam: Altered mini-mental status, distal sensory neuropathy
  69. 69. CLINICAL CONDITIONS THAT MAKE PHYSICIAN SUSPECT UNDIAGNOSED-HIV INFECTION Unexplained lymphadenopathy constitutional syndromes‘‘AIDS-related complex’’ (ARC) • Fever of unknown etiology • Chronic fatigue • Unexplained weight loss • Unexplained chronic diarrhea Neurologic syndromes • Acute aseptic meningitis • Fungal meningitis • Unexplained dementia Skin findings • Recurrent Staphylococcal furunculosis • Severe seborrheic dermatitis • Unexplained exacerbation of psoriasis • Shingles • Kaposi’s sarcoma Oral findings • Thrush • Hairy leukoplakia • Aggressive periodontitis • Severe recurrent aphthous ulceration • Kaposi’s sarcoma Pneumonias • Recurrent pneumococcal pneumonia • Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia • Tuberculosis • Fungal pneumonia (eg histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis) Hepatitis • Hepatitis B • Hepatitis C Sexually transmitted diseases • Herpes simplex • Gonorrhea • Chlamydia • Human papilloma virus • Genital warts • Syphillis Hematologic findings • Thrombocytopenia • Neutropenia • Anemia • Lymphopenia (absolute count <1000 roughly corresponds with CD4 <200)
  70. 70. DIAGNOSIS Antibody tests are the standard tests for detecting HIV infection in most patients. These tests are highly sensitive but can miss HIV infection in some circumstances, such as when the infection is caused by HIV-2, a virus common in West Africa, or when the test is performed early in HIV infection before antibody has had a chance to develop. Confirmation: followed by a confirmatory test such as a Western blot or immunofluorescence assay (IFA) if the screening test is positive. screening: Testing of saliva or urine for HIV antibody is usually done in community testing programs, Rapid HIV tests are not approved for use in screening organ or blood donors
  71. 71. INITIATION OF THERAPY Untreated asymptomatic adults should be examined every 6 months, and the CD4 count and HIV viral load should be performed and evaluated every 3 months. Guidelines have been established as to when ARV treatment should be initiated based on the CD4 count. In general, ARV treatment should be recommended to anyone with an AIDS-defining illness, HIV-associated nephropathy, or a CD4 count <200cells/mm3 regardless of viral load level
  72. 72. HIV TREATMENT a combination regimen, usually including a minimum of 3 different ARV agents, preferably from at least two different classes. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) protease inhibitors (PIs) current treatment guidelines have established preferred recommended regimens that include 1 NNRTI + 2 NRTIs or 1 PI + 2 NRTIs. .
  73. 73. ADVERSE EFFECTS AND DRUG INTERACTIONS WITH HIV MEDICATIONS Commonly at start of therapy: nausea, vomiting, abdominal discomfort, malaise, and headache. Alterations in lipid metabolism, body fat redistribution, diabetes, lactic acidosis, and bone disorders are being increasingly recognized—especially in patients on long-term therapy
  74. 74. THANK YOU

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