Infection Control Part 3

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It contains the common types of sterilization equipments and their uses.

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Infection Control Part 3

  1. 1. EQUIPMENTS AND TECHNIQUES USE IN STERILIZATION Dr. Lorena Balacanao CEU- Orthodontic and Pediatric Dentistry Division
  2. 2. Sterilization <ul><li>is a process that destroy any form of microorganism (beneficial or harmful), viruses, bacteria (which could either be spore forming or non- spore forming) and fungi; thus renders the sterilize material free from germ life or steri le. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Methods that break the chain of infection or interrupt the infectious disease process </li></ul><ul><li>1. Sterilization </li></ul><ul><li>2. Antiseptics- agents that inhibit the growth of some microorganism </li></ul><ul><li>3. Disinfectant- agents that destroy pathogens other than spores </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The procedure for infection control are the following </li></ul><ul><li>1. Hand washing and gloving </li></ul><ul><li>2. Protection against aerosol and spatter </li></ul><ul><li>3. Instruments asepsis </li></ul><ul><li>4. Surface asepsis </li></ul><ul><li>5. Management of short and waste products </li></ul><ul><li>6. Aseptic technique </li></ul>
  5. 5. Steps in cleaning and disinfecting <ul><li>1. Rinse the article with cold water to remove organic materials </li></ul><ul><li>Note: hot water coagulates the protein of organic material and tends to make it adhere. E.g. of organic material- pus and blood </li></ul><ul><li>2. Wash the article in hot water and soap. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: the emulsifying action of soap reduces surface tension and facilitates the removal of dirt. Washing dislodge the emulsified dirt </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2 </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>3. Use brush and or bristle to clean the grooves and corners. Scrubbing helps to dislodge foreign materials </li></ul><ul><li>4. Rinse the article well with warm water-hot water </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4 </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>5. Dry the article. It is considered clean but not sterile </li></ul><ul><li>Clean the brush, gloves and sink. These are considered soiled until they are cleaned appropriately, usually with disinfectant </li></ul><ul><li>Step 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Step 6 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Four commonly used methods of sterilization <ul><li>1. Moist heat </li></ul><ul><li>2. Gas </li></ul><ul><li>3. Boiling water </li></ul><ul><li>4. Radiation </li></ul>
  9. 9. Moist heat ( steam) <ul><li>2 ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steam under pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free steam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Steam under pressure attains temperatures higher than the boiling point. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Autoclaves supply steam under pressures of 15 to 17 pounds and temperatures of 121 to 123 ° C (250-254 ° F) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The most effective sterilization method/technique </li></ul><ul><li>Aberin, et.al. Assessment of terilization Technique used by Dental clinicians </li></ul>Autoclave machine
  11. 11. Free steam <ul><ul><li>2. Free steam, 100 ° C (212 °F) is used to sterilize objects that would be destroyed at the higher temperature and pressure of the autoclave. Usually the article is steam for 30 minutes on 3 consecutive days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. bed pan flusher- is not sterilize rather flush by free steam in less than 100 °C. The flusher washes away some of microorganism- hepatitis A virus can survive this free steam application. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Gas <ul><li>Ethylene oxide gas destroys microorganism by interfering with their metabolic process. It is also effective against spores. Its advantage is good penetration and effectiveness for heat-sensitive items. Its disadvantage is its toxic to humans </li></ul>
  13. 13. Boiling Water <ul><li>This is the most practical and inexpensive method of sterilization. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage spores and some viruses are not killed by this method </li></ul><ul><li>The water temperature rises no higher than 100 °C. a minimum of 15 minutes is advised for disinfection of articles in the home </li></ul>
  14. 14. Radiation <ul><li>2 types </li></ul><ul><li>Ionizing has a disinfecting effect while </li></ul><ul><li>Non-ionizing is use to sterilize equipments </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Ultraviolet light uses non-ionizing radiation, this is use for disinfection because it does not penetrate deeply </li></ul><ul><li>Ionizing radiation is use effectively to sterilize foods, drugs and other that is sensitive to heat, its disadvantage is that the equipment is very expensive. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Different methods of Sterilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autoclave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boiling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tyndallization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical or Cold sterilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass beads sterilizer </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Tyndallization <ul><li>A lengthy process, cooling, incubating for a day, and finally boiling again </li></ul>
  17. 17. Chemical or Cold sterilization <ul><li>The agents use can only disinfect but do not sterilize meaning they do not destroy all bacteria, mould spores or viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Formaldehyde, Glutaraldehyde and beta-propiolactone are chemical disinfectant that has a sporicidal effect </li></ul><ul><li>These agents are volatile and toxic in skin contact and inhalation </li></ul>
  18. 18. Chemiclave <ul><li>A mixture of alcohol, ketones, acetones, formaldehyde and water in the temperature of 132° C for 20 minutes </li></ul>
  19. 19. Autoclave
  20. 20. Dry heat sterilizer
  21. 21. Dry heat sterilizer
  22. 22. Glass bead sterilizer
  23. 23. Autoclave
  24. 24. The end

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