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    21st century chemistry, 21st century chemistry, Document Transcript

    • st 21 CENTURYCHEMISTRYBREVARD PUBLIC SCHOOLS Dr. Brian T. Binggeli Summer 2011
    • SCHOOL BOARD OF BREVARD COUNTY Educational Services Facility 2700 Judge Fran Jamieson Way Viera, Florida 32940-6601 SCHOOL BOARD MEMBERS Dr. Barbara A. Murray, Chairman Amy Kneessy, Vice Chairman Karen Henderson Dr. Michael Krupp Andrew Ziegler SUPERINTENDENT Dr. Brian T. BinggeliDIVISION OF CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION ASSOCIATE SUPERINTENDENT Cyndi Van Meter OFFICE OF SECONDARY PROGRAMS Dr. Walter Christy, Director
    • Acknowledgements 21st Century Science Curriculum Task TeamJean Almeida Bayside High SchoolSara Brassler Cocoa High SchoolJohn Carr Viera High SchoolJoesph Estevez Melbourne High SchoolAlison Fertig Merritt Island High SchoolJennifer Heflick Bayside High SchoolJohn Latherow Satellite High SchoolAndrea Marston Merritt Island High SchoolDebbie Minor Eau Gallie High SchoolScott McCord Cocoa Beach Jr/Sr High SchoolRaul Montes Cocoa High SchoolLaura Rouveyrol Bayside High SchoolChristina Sage Space Coast Jr./Sr. High SchoolSomer Sutton Heritage High SchoolJoy Turingan Eau Gallie High SchoolLynn Wade Cocoa High SchoolCatherine Webb Eau Gallie High SchoolGinger Davis Science Resource Teacher
    • Table
of
Contents


(Clickable)
How to Use this Document in PDF Form ........................................................................ 1
A Vision for Science Learning in the 21st Century........................................................... 2
Best Practices in Science................................................................................................. 3
 Quality Science Education and 21st Century Skills ...................................................... 3
 Bodies of Knowledge, Standards and NGSSS ............................................................. 4
 Bodies of Knowledge Grades 9-12.............................................................................. 5
 What Does Research Say about the Brain and Learning?............................................. 9
 Strategies to Incorporate into Science Lessons .......................................................... 10
Teaching and Learning Strategies ................................................................................. 11
 Brevard Effective Strategies for Teachers (B.E.S.T.) and the 5E Model .................... 11
 Laboratory Investigation ........................................................................................... 13
 Literature, History, and Storytelling .......................................................................... 14
 Brainstorming ........................................................................................................... 15
 Graphic Organizers ................................................................................................... 15
 Model ....................................................................................................................... 16
 Interactive Notebooks ............................................................................................... 17
 Interviews ................................................................................................................. 18
 Critical Thinking Skills ............................................................................................. 18
 Cooperative Learning................................................................................................ 19
 Problem Solving ....................................................................................................... 20
 Reflective Thinking................................................................................................... 20
Assessment Strategies ................................................................................................... 21
 Assessment Strategies for the 21st Century ................................................................ 21
 Response to Intervention (RtI)................................................................................... 22
 Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) ................................................................... 22
 Diagnostic, Formative and Summative Assessment ................................................... 24
 Performance Assessment........................................................................................... 25
 Rubrics.................................................................................................................. 25
 Inquiry Based Labs to Assess Learning ................................................................. 28
 Interactive Notebooks to Assess Learning ............................................................. 28
 Open-Ended Questions.......................................................................................... 30
 Portfolios .............................................................................................................. 30

    • Graphic Organizers as Assessment Tools .............................................................. 31
 Integrating Technology in Assessment ...................................................................... 31
 Interviews ................................................................................................................. 32
 Peer Assessment ....................................................................................................... 32
 Self-Assessment........................................................................................................ 33
 Teacher Observation of Student Learning.................................................................. 33
Quality Science for All Students ................................................................................... 35
 Science Literacy........................................................................................................ 35
 Matching Strategies to Course Level ......................................................................... 35
 Strategies for Students with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) ................................. 37
 Science for Speakers of Other Languages.................................................................. 38
 Strategies for Teaching Science to Academically Gifted Students ............................. 39
 Differentiated Instruction .......................................................................................... 39
Literature Cited............................................................................................................. 40
Introduction .................................................................................................................. 41
 Pursuing Exemplary Chemistry Education ................................................................ 41
 Laboratory Safety in Chemistry................................................................................. 41
 Guide to Curriculum Design and Implementation...................................................... 42
 Curriculum Organizers.............................................................................................. 43
 Sequencing ............................................................................................................... 45
 How to Use This Document ...................................................................................... 46
 Chemistry Course Descriptions ................................................................................. 46
Sample Concept Map of the Major Essential Questions................................................. 47
Suggested Curriculum Course Outline for Chemistry.................................................... 48
What is Chemistry? ....................................................................................................... 53
 Essential Questions ................................................................................................... 53
 Common Misconceptions.......................................................................................... 54
 Assessment Probes.................................................................................................... 54
 B.E.S.T. / 5E Sample ................................................................................................ 55
 Lab: How Do Temperature and Salinity Affect Density?........................................... 56
 Thinking Map: Taxonomy of Matter ......................................................................... 58
 Matter: Its Classification, Structure, and Changes ..................................................... 59
 Overview: ............................................................................................................. 60
 Teaching Strategies: .............................................................................................. 60
 Matching Strategies to Course Level: .................................................................... 60

    • Focus Benchmark Correlations:............................................................................. 61
 Related Benchmark Correlations: .......................................................................... 63
How is Chemistry Practiced?........................................................................................ 65
 Essential Questions ................................................................................................... 65
 Common Misconceptions.......................................................................................... 66
 Assessment Probes.................................................................................................... 66
 B.E.S.T. / 5E Sample ................................................................................................ 67
 Thinking Map: Scientific Theory .............................................................................. 68
 The Nature of Science............................................................................................... 69
 Overview: ............................................................................................................. 71
 Teaching Strategies: .............................................................................................. 72
 Matching Strategies to Course Level: .................................................................... 73
 Focus Benchmark Correlations:............................................................................. 73
 Interactions of Chemistry with Technology and Society............................................ 82
 Overview: ............................................................................................................. 82
 Teaching Strategies: .............................................................................................. 83
 Matching Strategies to Course Level: .................................................................... 83
 Focus Benchmark Correlations:............................................................................. 83
What is Our Understanding of Matter and Energy? ...................................................... 86
 Essential Questions ................................................................................................... 86
 Common Misconceptions.......................................................................................... 87
 B.E.S.T / 5E Sample ................................................................................................. 88
 Thinking Map: Evolution of Atomic Theory ............................................................. 89
 Atomic Theory.......................................................................................................... 90
 Overview: ............................................................................................................. 91
 Teaching Strategies: .............................................................................................. 91
 Matching Strategies to Course Level: .................................................................... 92
 Focus Benchmark Correlations:............................................................................. 92
 Related Benchmark Correlations: .......................................................................... 96
How is the Behavior of Matter Organized? ................................................................... 97
 Essential Questions ................................................................................................... 97
 Common Misconceptions.......................................................................................... 98
 Assessment Probes.................................................................................................... 98
 B.E.S.T. / 5E Sample ................................................................................................ 99
 Lab: Periodic Trends............................................................................................... 100

    • Thinking Map: Metals and Nonmetals..................................................................... 103
 The Periodic Table.................................................................................................. 104
 Overview: ........................................................................................................... 104
 Teaching Strategies: ............................................................................................ 104
 Matching Strategies to Course Level: .................................................................. 105
 Focus Benchmark Correlations:........................................................................... 105
 Chemical Bonding and Formulas ............................................................................ 107
 Overview: ........................................................................................................... 108
 Teaching Strategies: ............................................................................................ 108
 Matching Strategy to Course Level: .................................................................... 108
 Focus Benchmark Correlations:........................................................................... 109
How Does Matter Interact?......................................................................................... 111
 Essential Questions ................................................................................................. 111
 Common Misconceptions........................................................................................ 112
 Assessment Probes.................................................................................................. 112
 B.E.S.T. / 5E Sample .............................................................................................. 113
 Lab: Thermodynamics of an Aluminum/Copper Chloride ....................................... 114
 Thinking Map: Classification of Chemical Reactions ............................................. 117
 Chemical Reactions and Balanced Equations .......................................................... 118
 Overview: ........................................................................................................... 118
 Teaching Strategy: .............................................................................................. 118
 Matching Strategies to Course Level: .................................................................. 119
 Focus Benchmark Correlations:........................................................................... 119
How are the Interactions of Matter Measured? ........................................................... 122
 Essential Questions ................................................................................................. 122
 Common Misconceptions........................................................................................ 123
 Assessment Probes.................................................................................................. 123
 B.E.S.T. / 5E Sample .............................................................................................. 124
 Thinking Map: Effects of the Physical Properties of Gases...................................... 125
 Stoichiometry.......................................................................................................... 126
 Overview: ........................................................................................................... 126
 Teaching Strategies: ............................................................................................ 126
 Matching Strategies to Course Level: .................................................................. 127
 Focus Benchmark Correlations:........................................................................... 127
 Behavior of Gases ................................................................................................... 129

    • Overview: ........................................................................................................... 129
 Teaching Strategies: ............................................................................................ 129
 Matching Strategies to Course Level: .................................................................. 130
 Focus Benchmark Correlations:........................................................................... 130
How are the Interactions between Matter and Energy Measured?............................... 132
 Essential Questions ................................................................................................. 132
 Common Misconceptions........................................................................................ 133
 Assessment Probes.................................................................................................. 133
 B.E.S.T. / 5E Sample .............................................................................................. 134
 Lab: Chemical Kinetics........................................................................................... 135
 Thinking Map: Concepts of Thermochemistry ........................................................ 139
 Dynamics of Energy................................................................................................ 140
 Overview: ........................................................................................................... 141
 Teaching Strategies: ............................................................................................ 141
 Matching Strategies to Course Level: .................................................................. 141
 Focus Benchmark Correlations:........................................................................... 142
 Related Benchmark Correlations: ........................................................................ 144
 Reactions Rates and Equilibrium............................................................................. 146
 Overview: ........................................................................................................... 146
 Teaching Strategies: ............................................................................................ 147
 Matching Strategies to Course Level: .................................................................. 147
 Focus Benchmark Correlations:........................................................................... 148
 Related Benchmark Correlations: ........................................................................ 149
What are the Relevant Applications of Chemistry?...................................................... 151
 Essential Questions ................................................................................................. 151
 Common Misconceptions........................................................................................ 152
 Assessment Probes.................................................................................................. 152
 B.E.S.T. / 5E Sample .............................................................................................. 153
 Lab: Pollutants........................................................................................................ 154
 Thinking Map: Electrochemistry............................................................................. 156
 Acids and Bases ...................................................................................................... 157
 Overview: ........................................................................................................... 157
 Teaching Strategies: ............................................................................................ 158
 Matching Strategies to Course Level: .................................................................. 158
 Focus Benchmark Correlations:........................................................................... 159

    • Related Benchmark Correlations: ........................................................................ 160
 Electrochemistry ..................................................................................................... 163
 Overview: ........................................................................................................... 163
 Teaching Strategies: ............................................................................................ 164
 Matching Strategies to Course Level: .................................................................. 164
 Focus Benchmark Correlations:........................................................................... 164
 Related Benchmark Correlations: ........................................................................ 166
 Chemistry of Life.................................................................................................... 167
 Overview: ........................................................................................................... 168
 Teaching Strategies: ............................................................................................ 168
 Matching Strategies to Course Level: .................................................................. 168
 Focus Benchmark Correlations:........................................................................... 168
 Related Benchmark Correlations: ........................................................................ 169
Adopted Text Book References................................................................................... 170
Internet Resources....................................................................................................... 171
 “The important thing in science is not so much to obtain new facts as to discover new ways of thinking about them.” Sir William Bragg
    • How to Use this Document in PDF FormThis document is available both as a hard copy and as an online PDF document. Theonline PDF version of this document has been created to help teachers easily search andlocate material. The table of contents is hyperlinked to allow the teacher quick access toan individual topic listed. To help navigate back to the table of contents a Table ofContents icon has been added at the bottom of each page. This icon, when clicked, willbring the teacher back to the first page of the table of contents.There are several other links to locations in this document or to outside resources. Theselinks appear in blue font and are underlined. Clicking on the font will direct you to theseresources.Searching within the document for a specific term or benchmark can be done by clicking“Edit” on the top menu bar of the PDF Page and selecting “Advanced Search” or“Search” (or pressing shift, control, F simultaneously). Select “Search” in the currentdocument and type in the term or benchmark desired in the “What word or phrase wouldyou like to search for?” box and then click search. The first location the term orbenchmark appears in the document will be displayed on the main document.Subsequent entries will appear in the search box to the left of the document. Click on theentries in the search box to move from one page to another where the term or benchmarkis located.Please make sure to update your Adobe Reader to take advantage of the search option forthe PDF version. The latest version may be obtained at http://get.adobe.com/reader/ . “Technology has come a long way, as have the teachers that use it and the students that learn from the use of it. We are living and teaching in another generation. A generation that sees more television, plays more computer games, and understands more about gadgets, devices, and web concepts than we would have ever expected in our lifetime. This is one of the key reasons that teaching with technology is such an important way to not only engage our students, but to relate to them as well.” Emily Witt Page
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    • A Vision for Science Learning in the 21st CenturyThe bell rings! The students are in their seats. Waiting… The teacher slowly surveys theclass with that “I’ve got a secret!” look. Apparently satisfied, the teacher fires off sevenwords in an almost inaudible mischievous tone: “Do you want to see something cool.?!?”Young synapses surge with energy. Adrenaline flows. Enthusiastic hearts race. Eyeswiden. And hands launch towards the sky. Silently, the teacher concludes: “They areready.” In carefully measured movements, the teacher, now turned entertainer, takes twoarcane solutions and, with a hint of hesitation, slowly pours them into a tall glasscylinder. As the sound of liquid sloshing reaches the students’ ears, they hear a warning:“Be on your guard students. No one knows what might happen.”Young minds race…The stage is set. The switch is thrown. The magnetic stirrer whirls. The solution begins toswirl and as the vortex swells in ever growing intensity, the mysterious concoctionsuddenly turns green……then blue…... violet……RED! And then, almost miraculously,the cycle repeats! Involuntary gasps escape from stimulated minds. The students don’tunderstand. They have never seen anything like this before. And they love it! Theteacher knows that timing is everything and so, at just the right moment, the question ispresented: “How does this work?” After a few seconds of silence, a follow-up questionasks “would you like to find out?” “YES!”Soon, the classroom transforms into a beehive of purposeful activity. Students--no—young scientists, scramble for materials in a lab brimming with an assortment of labequipment, glassware, microscopes, computers, and technology. One group of studentsis using computers and Probeware to check out a prediction. Another group is racingthrough the indexes of several books. Yet another group is searching the Internet.Questions from all directions assail the teacher. Debates spontaneously explode amongstthe researchers. Predicting! Observing! Designing! Experimenting! Seeking! Analyzing!The teacher can barely handle the tempo! And then…………………. Suddenly, a student shrieks out involuntarily: “Eureka!”The teacher thinks, “Mission accomplished!”A stimulating and challenging science classroom encourages high level learning, skilledmethodology, creative thinking, and focused problem solving. The integration of scienceconcepts provides a solid foundation for understanding the world in which we live.Society is dependent upon how wisely we use science, as today and the future are beingshaped by science and technology. Science by its very nature encourages students to beactive learners. Classroom experiences should include discussions, oral presentations,projects, and laboratory experiences. These can be best accomplished by collecting, Page
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    • manipulating, analyzing, and interpreting data. The high school science classroomprovides a positive learning environment of meaningful teacher instruction as well asassessment and a wide variety of current resources and instructional methods. Sincescience relates to our daily lives, we must ensure that the Next Generation of students isscientifically literate. Accomplishing such a goal will empower our students to becomeproductive, critical thinking citizens in the global community of the 21st century.Best Practices in ScienceThroughout history, people have developed ideas about the world around them. Theseideas in the physical, biological, social, and psychological realms have enabledsuccessive generations to achieve increased understanding of our species andenvironment.These ideas were developed using particular ways of observing, thinking, experimenting,and validating. Such methods represent the nature of science and reveal science as aunique way of learning and knowing.Science tends to reflect the following beliefs and attitudes: • The universe is understandable. • Scientific knowledge is durable • Scientific ideas are subject to change. • Science demands evidence. • Science explains and predicts. • Scientists identify and avoid bias. • Science blends logic and imagination. • Scientists follow ethical procedures.Quality Science Education and 21st Century SkillsTechnological advancement, scientific innovation, increased globalization, shiftingworkforce demands, and pressures of economic competitiveness are but a few of thechallenges that are rapidly changing our world. These changes are redefining the skillsets that students need to be adequately prepared to participate in and contribute totodays society (Levy and Murnane 2005; Stewart 2010; Wilmarth 2010).Defining and identifying 21st century skills is now a big role for commercial andeducational organizations. Core subject knowledge, learning and innovation skills,information, media, and technology skills, life and career skills, adaptability, complexcommunication/social skills, problem solving, self-management/self-development, andsystems thinking are but a few of skills that need to mastered.Science education should foster deep content knowledge through active intellectualengagement emulating disciplinary practices and thinking; 21st-century skills focus ondeveloping broadly applicable capacities, habits of mind, and preparing knowledgeworkers for a new economy (Windschitl 2009). Page
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    • “Exemplary science education can offer a rich context for developing many 21st-century skills, such as critical thinking, problem solving, and information literacy especially when instruction addresses the nature of science and promotes use of science practices. These skills not only contribute to the development of a well-prepared workforce of the future but also give individuals life skills that help them succeed. Through quality science education, we can support and advance relevant 21st - century skills, while enhancing science practice through infusion of these skills.” (NSTA Position Statement on 21st Century Skills)Bodies of Knowledge, Standards and NGSSSThe Bodies of Knowledge (BOK) do not represent courses. Science courses weredeveloped from the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards, and individual coursesmay have standards from more than one BOK. Benchmarks are considered to beappropriate for statewide assessment or end of course exams. Some Florida sciencecourses have curriculum defined by other organizations (such as College Board forAdvanced Placement, AICE, or International Baccalaureate science courses).Benchmark Coding SchemeSC. 912. N. 1. 1Subject, Grade Level, Body of Knowledge, Standard, BenchmarkBody of Knowledge Key: N - Nature of Science E - Earth and Space Science P - Physical Science L - Life Science Understanding the Benchmark Coding Scheme SC. 912 N. 1. 1 Subject Grade Level Body of Standard Benchmark Knowledge “All men by nature desire knowledge.” Aristotle Page
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    • Bodies of Knowledge Grades 9-12 Body of Knowledge: NATURE OF SCIENCE Standard 1: The Practice of Science A. Scientific inquiry is a multifaceted activity; The processes of science include the formulation of scientifically investigable questions, construction of investigations into those questions, the collection of appropriate data, the evaluation of the meaning of those data, and the communication of this evaluation. B. The processes of science frequently do not correspond to the traditional portrayal of "the scientific method." C. Scientific argumentation is a necessary part of scientific inquiry and plays an important role in the generation and validation of scientific knowledge. D. Scientific knowledge is based on observation and inference; it is important to recognize that these are very different things. Not only does science require creativity in its methods and processes, but also in its questions and explanations. Standard 2: The Characteristics of Scientific Knowledge A. Scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, and is appropriate for understanding the natural world, but it provides only a limited understanding of the supernatural, aesthetic, or other ways of knowing, such as art, philosophy, or religion. B. Scientific knowledge is durable and robust, but open to change. C. Because science is based on empirical evidence it strives for objectivity, but as it is a human endeavor the processes, methods, and knowledge of science include subjectivity, as well as creativity and discovery.Standard 3: The Role of Theories, Laws, Hypotheses, and ModelsThe terms that describe examples of scientific knowledge, for example: "theory,""law," "hypothesis" and "model" have very specific meanings and functions withinscience.Standard 4: Science and SocietyAs tomorrow’s citizens, students should be able to identify issues about which societycould provide input, formulate scientifically investigable questions about those issues,construct investigations of their questions, collect and evaluate data from theirinvestigations, and develop scientific recommendations based upon their findings. Page
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    • Body of Knowledge: EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCEStandard 5: Earth in Space and TimeThe origin and eventual fate of the Universe still remains one of the greatest questionsin science. Gravity and energy influence the development and life cycles of galaxies,including our own Milky Way Galaxy, stars, the planetary systems, Earth, and residualmaterial left from the formation of the Solar System. Humankind’s need to explorecontinues to lead to the development of knowledge and understanding of the nature ofthe Universe.Standard 6: Earth StructuresThe scientific theory of plate tectonics provides the framework for much of moderngeology. Over geologic time, internal and external sources of energy have continuouslyaltered the features of Earth by means of both constructive and destructive forces. Alllife, including human civilization, is dependent on Earths internal and external energyand material resources.Standard 7: Earth Systems and PatternsThe scientific theory of the evolution of Earth states that changes in our planet aredriven by the flow of energy and the cycling of matter through dynamic interactionsamong the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, and biosphere, and theresources used to sustain human civilization on Earth.Body of Knowledge: PHYSICAL SCIENCEStandard 8: MatterA. A working definition of matter is that it takes up space, has mass, and has measurable properties. Matter is comprised of atomic, subatomic, and elementary particles.B. Electrons are key to defining chemical and some physical properties, reactivity, and molecular structures. Repeating (periodic) patterns of physical and chemical properties occur among elements that define groups of elements with similar properties. The periodic table displays the repeating patterns, which are related to the atoms outermost electrons. Atoms bond with each other to form compounds.C. In a chemical reaction, one or more reactants are transformed into one or more new products. Many factors shape the nature of products and the rates of reaction.D. Carbon-based compounds are building-blocks of known life forms on earth and numerous useful natural and synthetic products. 21st Century Science Page
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    • Standard 10: EnergyA. Energy is involved in all physical and chemical processes. It is conserved, and can be transformed from one form to another and into work. At the atomic and nuclear levels energy is not continuous but exists in discrete amounts. Energy and mass are related through Einsteins equation E=mc2.B. The properties of atomic nuclei are responsible for energy-related phenomena such as radioactivity, fission and fusion.C. Changes in entropy and energy that accompany chemical reactions influence reaction paths. Chemical reactions result in the release or absorption of energy.D. The theory of electromagnetism explains that electricity and magnetism are closely related. Electric charges are the source of electric fields. Moving charges generate magnetic fields.E. Waves are the propagation of a disturbance. They transport energy and momentum but do not transport matter.Standard 12: MotionA. Motion can be measured and described qualitatively and quantitatively. Net forces create a change in motion. When objects travel at speeds comparable to the speed of light, Einsteins special theory of relativity applies.B. Momentum is conserved under well-defined conditions. A change in momentum occurs when a net force is applied to an object over a time interval.C. The Law of Universal Gravitation states that gravitational forces act on all objects irrespective of their size and position.D. Gases consist of great numbers of molecules moving in all directions. The behavior of gases can be modeled by the kinetic molecular theory.E. Chemical reaction rates change with conditions under which they occur. Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic state in which forward and reverse processes occur at the same rates.Next Generation Sunshine State Standards Science Bodies of Knowledge Science Standards Science Benchmarks Page
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    • Body of Knowledge: LIFE SCIENCEStandard 14: Organization and Development of Living OrganismsA. Cells have characteristic structures and functions that make them distinctive.B. Processes in a cell can be classified broadly as growth, maintenance, reproduction, and homeostasis.C. Life can be organized in a functional and structural hierarchy ranging from cells to the biosphere.D. Most multicellular organisms are composed of organ systems whose structures reflect their particular function.Standard 15: Diversity and Evolution of Living OrganismsA. The scientific theory of evolution is the fundamental concept underlying all of biology.B. The scientific theory of evolution is supported by multiple forms of scientific evidence.C. Organisms are classified based on their evolutionary history.D. Natural selection is a primary mechanism leading to evolutionary change.Standard 16: Heredity and ReproductionA. DNA stores and transmits genetic information. Genes are sets of instructions encoded in the structure of DNA.B. Genetic information is passed from generation to generation by DNA in all organisms and accounts for similarities in related individuals.C. Manipulation of DNA in organisms has led to commercial production of biological molecules on a large scale and genetically modified organisms.D. Reproduction is characteristic of living things and is essential for the survival of species.Standard 17: InterdependenceA. The distribution and abundance of organisms is determined by the interactions between organisms, and between organisms and the non-living environment.B. Energy and nutrients move within and between biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems via physical, chemical and biological processes.C. Human activities and natural events can have profound effects on populations, biodiversity and ecosystem processes. Page
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    • Standard 18: Matter and Energy TransformationsA. All living things are composed of four basic categories of macromolecules and share the same basic needs for life.B. Living organisms acquire the energy they need for life processes through various metabolic pathways (primarily photosynthesis and cellular respiration).C. Chemical reactions in living things follow basic rules of chemistry and are usually regulated by enzymes.D. The unique chemical properties of carbon and water make life on Earth possible.What Does Research Say about the Brain and Learning?Learning is the process of discovering and constructing meaning from information andexperience, filtered through our own unique perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and beliefs.Advances in understanding how the brain learns can help teachers structure moremeaningful lessons. The brain learns by connecting new information to concepts andideas that it already understands (Resnick 1998; Willis 2008).Learning environments must feel emotionally safe for learning to take place. Forexample, students should not be afraid of offering opinions or hypotheses about thecontent they are studying (Howard 1994; Jensen 1998; McGaugh et al., 1993; Hinton,Miyamoto and Chiesa 2008).Each brain needs to make its own meaning of ideas and skills. Students need to be able torelate the learning to personal experiences provided for them. To learn, students mustexperience appropriate levels of challenge without being frustrated.The brain learns best when it “does” rather than when it “absorbs” (Pally 1997). Forexample, students could be presented with a problem and asked to design and carry out aproject to solve it (Shultz, Dayan & Montague, 1997; Fedlstein and Benner 2004).Online Resources on Brain Research and LearningBrain/Mind learning principles:http://www.funderstanding.com/v2/educators/brainmind-principles-of-natural-learning/Enriching the learning environment:http://members.shaw.ca/priscillatheroux/brain.htmlTwelve brain/mind learning principles:http://brainconnection.positscience.com/topics/?main=fa/brain-based2How the Brain Learnshttp://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/2009/4/09.04.03.x.html#d Page
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    • Strategies to Incorporate into Science LessonsAs science teachers, we understand that learning is a process. This process works bestwhen new knowledge is connected to prior knowledge by the teaching of meaningfullessons. Lessons related to personal experiences and taught in an emotionally safeenvironment allow for greater retention.40% of instruction time should be devoted to activities involving the manipulation,collecting and analyzing of data. By using these strategies, students will have positiveexperiences and become actively engaged in inquiry, scientific processes, and problemsolving.The teacher should….. • Relate what students already know to the new concept. • Build on prior understanding, identify and resolve existing misconceptions. • Use a variety of science resources, use books, periodicals, multimedia technology, and up to date information. • Emphasize the real life relevance of science. • Relate science to daily life and encourage students to apply their own experiences to science. • Ask probing questions to encourage student discussion and develop understanding. • Involve students in sustained, in-depth projects rather than just "covering the textbook". • Engage students in unifying topics which can be fully explored. • Integrate subject matter to exemplify how the disciplines co-exist in actual practice. Science and other subject areas should be integrated to unify concepts and disciplines. • Promote collaboration among students. • Engage students in cooperative learning and small group projects to build understanding. • Actively engage students in scientific processes and inquiry by having students actively engage in the manipulation, collecting and analysis of data. • Encourage students to communicate. • Allow students to make oral presentations, class discussions, complete interactive notebooks, and use data logs. • Use meaningful and varied assessments. • Focus on student understanding rather than on memorized definitions. Page
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    • Teaching and Learning StrategiesBrevard Effective Strategies for Teachers (B.E.S.T.) and the 5E ModelB.E.S.T is an instructional model that creates a common language of effective instructionfor Brevard’s teachers and administrators. B.E.S.T. incorporates research-based practicesand knowledge of how the learner learns to provide an integrated model that teachers canuse as a benchmark for analysis, reflection, and planning; and that administrators andinstructional coaches can use to guide continuous improvement of instruction. B.E.S.T.also supports and reinforces the 5E model of instruction.The 5E model of instruction includes 5 phases: engage, explore, explain, elaborate, andevaluate. Roger Bybee, in his book, Achieving Scientific Literacy, states: “Using thisapproach, students redefine, reorganize, elaborate, and change their initial conceptsthrough self-reflection and interaction with their peers and their environment. Learnersinterpret objects and phenomena and internalize those interpretations in terms of theircurrent conceptual understanding.” • Engage students so that they feel a personal connection with the topic. • Provide students an opportunity to explore the topic through their own activities and investigations. • Help students explain their findings once they have constructed meaning from their own experiences. • Allow students to elaborate by constructing convincing lines of evidence to support their suppositions. • Work with students to evaluate their understanding of science concepts, problem solving abilities, and inquiry skills.Today’s innovative science classrooms require that educators provide the most useful andengaging educational experiences possible. This section provides examples of manyhelpful strategies. They may be adapted and refined to best fit the needs of studentsand/or instructional plans.Online Resources on the 5E ModelOrder Matters: Using the 5E Model to Align Teaching with How People Learnhttp://www.lifescied.org/cgi/content/full/9/3/159What the teacher and student should do in the 5E Modelhttp://www.heartlanded.org/FloridaPromise/Documents/5E_Model.pdfThe BSCS 5E Instructional Model: Origins, Effectiveness, and Applicationshttp://www.bscs.org/pdf/bscs5eexecsummary.pdf Page
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    • B.E.S.T. and the 5E ModelExampleWHY B.E.S.T.?Brevard Public Schools recognized the need for a systemic and up-to-date model ofinstruction for all BPS teachers and administrators. Using current research, consensus ofprofessional education associations and Brevard Public School staff B.E.S.T has beendeveloped for use by BPS educators. This model was based upon the following: 1. Need for a Systemic Instructional Model a. Tony Wagner presentation – administrators evaluated a teacher on video as anywhere from “A” to “F” – evidence that we don’t share a picture of good teaching b. SREB’s visiting committee (Gene Bottoms Group) reported that teachers could not articulate an instructional model in Brevard County c. Differentiated Accountability Model visiting committee reported that Brevard does not have a clear instructional model for all teachers d. Strategic Plan objective 3.1.1: Enhance our comprehensive system of professional development by using a benchmarking process by June 30, 2010 Strategic Plan objective 3.1.6: By 2013, create a system for continuous improvement of instruction and supervision based on a common vision of effective teaching e. NSDC definition of Professional Development – a comprehensive, sustained and intensive approach to improving teachers’ and principals’ effectiveness in raising student achievement. Page
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    • 2. Need for an Up-to-Date Model of Instruction a. Marzano – research-based strategies (What Works in Schools), but not presented as an articulated instructional model b. Madeline Hunter (Teaching Effectiveness Model/Florida Performance Management System) – well articulated model, but research done in 1970s c. Susan Kovalik (Integrated Thematic Instruction – (ITI) – comprehensive model of instruction, but very expensive and staff time intensive d. Bernice McCarthy (4MAT Learning Design) – comprehensive model of instruction, but very expensive and staff time intensive e. William Glasser (Quality Schools) – based on relationships but light on instructional strategies f. Expertise in the district – our own model of instruction could make most efficient use of a combination of relationship, management, and current instructional strategies to form Brevard Effective Strategies for Teaching (B.E.S.T.)Additional information on B.E.S.T. can be found at the BPS website….http://best.brevardschools.org/best/default.aspx (Intranet accessible only)Laboratory InvestigationExperimental investigations are central to teaching science. Investigations are the guidingforce for science in the real world and must be integrated into the science curriculum.Teachers should not look for a way to “fit-in” investigations; rather, investigations shouldbe a tool for introducing, reinforcing, and assessing student understanding. Great effortshould be made to ensure that students are not simply going through the motions butinstead are actively engaged in the design and implementation of investigations. Manysuccessful science programs emphasize the use of an interactive notebook. This notebookis a record of the author’s thinking process as well as a log of the events that took placeduring the investigation. Documentation and reflection are important life-long skills thatare essential to scientists, but are also important in other activities and professions. A welldeveloped and planned experimental investigation provides a better understanding of ascience concept through actively engaging students in the process of science.How Do You Use It? • ask and focus on the question • develop a hypothesis and conduct the investigation • analyze the data collected and draw conclusions from the results • report the results orally, in writing, or with a pictureWhat Are the Benefits? • helps students visualize science concepts and participate in science processes • students can experience the way some scientists work • students can learn there may not be an answer to a question or there may be many answers • develops process skills Page
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    • Lab Report FormatThe lab report should clearly summarize the investigation. An example might include: • Title • Purpose • Procedure • Results (data, graphs, etc) • Analysis/Interpretation • ConclusionScience SafetySafety should always be a primary concern for the teacher in the science classroom andlaboratory. Science teachers are responsible for safety equipment in the classroom,student safety in the classroom and laboratory, and safe student performance in a lab orclass activity. It is the teacher’s responsibility to review the Safety Guide, Safe Science –Science Safety for Schools, for specific safety practices. Safe Science-Science Safety forSchools Grades 7-12, 2008 can be found at:http://secondarypgms.brevard.k12.fl.us/Science%20Guides/Safe%20Science%2008.pdfLiterature, History, and StorytellingThese are strategies in which history and humanities are brought to life through the eyesof a storyteller, historian, or author. Revealing the social context of a particular period inhistory can be very beneficial to the students’ learning.How Do You Use It? • locate books, brochures, and websites relevant to science topics • seek community resources • assign students to prepare reports on the “life and times” of scientists during specific periods of history that are important to the subject being studied • ask students to write about their own observations and insightsWhat Are the Benefits? • personalizes science learning • allows students to connect science to its social and historical context“A man who dares to waste one hour of time has not discovered the value of life.” Charles Darwin Page
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    • BrainstormingA learning strategy for eliciting ideas and preconceptions from a group,How Do You Use It?Students contribute ideas related to a topic. All contributions are accepted without initialcomment. After the list of ideas is finalized, students categorize, prioritize, and defendselections.What Are the Benefits? • reveals background information and knowledge of a topic • discloses misconceptions • helps students relate existing knowledge to content • strengthens listening skills • stimulates creative thinking •Graphic OrganizersIn order to make connections between topics, teachers and students may transfer abstractconcepts and processes into visual representations. The use of concept maps and thinkingmaps helps students visualize concepts.How Do You Use It? • the teacher provides a specific format for learning, recalling, and organizing • students visually depict outcomes for a given problem by charting various decisions and their possible consequences • the teacher selects a main idea and then the teacher and students identify a set of concepts associated with the main idea, concepts are ranked in related groups from most general to most specific, related concepts are connected and the links labeled • students structure a sequential flow of events, actions, roles, or decisions graphically on paperWhat Are the Benefits? • Helps students visualize abstract concepts • Helps learners organize ideas • Provides a visual format for study • Develops the ability to identify details and specific points • Develops organizational skills • Aids in planning • Provides an outline for writing Page
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    • Samples of Graphic Organizers Bubble Map/Describing Qualities Tree Map/Classifying Modified Venn DiagramComparing Bracket MapWhole to PartsOnline Resources on Graphic OrganizersExamples of graphic organizers:http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr1grorg.htmGraphic Organizers that Support Specific Thinking Skillshttp://www.somers.k12.ny.us/intranet/skills/thinkmaps.htmlGraphic Organizer or Thinking Map©? Whats the Difference?http://www.nhcs.k12.nc.us/instruction/ssflpe/honors/graphic_organizers.htmModelA scientific model is simplified representation of a concept. It may be concrete, such asa ball and stick model of an atom, or abstract like a model of weather systems.How Do You Use It?Students create a concrete product that represents an abstract idea or a simplifiedrepresentation of an abstract idea.What Are the Benefits? • facilitates understanding of conceptual ideas • reinforces the value of models in science Page
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    • Interactive NotebooksThe interactive notebook provides an opportunity for students to be creative, independentthinkers and writers. Interactive notebooks can be used for a variety of purposes; such asclass notes, expression of ideas and laboratory data. Requirements vary from teacher toteacher and are set up according to the directions of the teacher.How Do You Use It?Interactive notebooks can be used to help students develop, practice, and refine theirscience understanding, while also enhancing reading, writing, mathematics andcommunication skills.What Are the Benefits? • Students use visual and linguistic intelligences • Notebooks help students organize their learning • Notebooks are a portfolio of individual learningDialogue JournalsA learning strategy in which students use interactive notebooks as a way to hold privateconversations with the teacher. Dialogue journals are a vehicle for sharing ideas andreceiving feedback through writing.How Do You Use It?Students write on topics on a regular basis, and the teacher responds with advice,comments, and observations in a written conversation.What Are the Benefits? • Develops communication and writing skills • Creates a positive relationship between the teacher and the student • Increases student interest and participation • Allows the student to direct his or her own learningLearning LogA learning strategy to develop structured writing.How Do You Use It?During different stages of the learning process, students respond in written form underthree columns: “What I Think” “What I Learned” “How My Thinking Has Changed”What Are the Benefits? • Bridges the gap between prior knowledge and new content • Provides a structure for translating concepts into written form Page
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    • Online Resources on Interactive NotebooksWhat is a science interactive notebook?http://jyounghewes.tripod.com/science_notebooks.htmlScience Notebooks in k-12 Classroomshttp://www.sciencenotebooks.org/InterviewsA learning strategy for gathering information and reportingHow Do You Use It?Students prepare a set of questions and a format for the interview. After conducting theinterview, students present their findings to the class.What Are The Benefits? • foster connections between ideas • develops the ability to interpret answers • develops organizational and planning skills • develops problem solving skillsCritical Thinking Skills"Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfullyconceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating informationgathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, orcommunication, as a guide to belief and action" (Scriven, 1996).How Do You Use It? • students should be able to relate issues or content to their own knowledge and experience • students should compare and contrast different points of view "It is the supreme art of the teacher to awaken joy in creative expression and knowledge." Albert Einstein Page
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    • What Are The Benefits? • student raises vital questions and problems, formulating them clearly and precisely • students gather and assess relevant information on an issue • students use abstract ideas to come to conclusions and solutions and analyze then them against relevant criteria and standards • students think open-mindedly within alternative systems of thought, recognizing and assessing, as need be, their assumptions, implications, and practical consequences • student communicates with others in determining solutions to complex problemsOnline Resources on Critical Thinking SkillsCritical Thinking Skills in Education and Lifehttp://www.asa3.org/ASA/education/think/critical.htm#critical-thinkingDefining Critical Thinkinghttp://www.criticalthinking.org/aboutct/define_critical_thinking.cfmTeaching Critical Thinking Skillshttp://academic.udayton.edu/legaled/CTSkills/CTskills01.htmCritical Thinking: What It Is and Why It Countshttp://www.insightassessment.com/pdf_files/what&why2007.pdfCooperative LearningA learning strategy in which students work together in small groups to achieve a commongoal. Cooperative learning involves more than simply putting students into work or studygroups. Teachers promote individual responsibility and positive group interdependenceby making sure that each group member is responsible for a given task. Cooperativelearning can be enhanced when group members have diverse abilities and backgrounds.How Do You Use It?After organizing students into carefully selected groups, the teacher thoroughly explains atask to be accomplished within a time frame. The teacher facilitates the selection ofindividual roles within the group and monitors the groups, intervening only whennecessary, to support students working together successfully and accomplishing the task.What Are the Benefits? • Fosters interdependence and pursuit of mutual goals and rewards • Develops communication and leadership skills • Increases the participation of shy students • Produces higher levels of student achievement, thus increasing self-esteem • Fosters respect for diverse abilities and perspectives Page
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    • Online Resources on Cooperative LearningThe Essential Elements of Cooperative Learning in the Classroom. ERIC Digest.http://www.ericdigests.org/1995-1/elements.htmCompetitive vs. Cooperative Learning Formatshttp://www.behavioradvisor.com/CoopLearning.htmlProblem SolvingA learning strategy in which students apply knowledge to identify and solveproblems.How Do You Use It? • read the problem carefully • identify all “knowns” • identify the unknown • research solutions • explore solutions • determine best solutiosWhat Are the Benefits? • allows students to discover relationships that may be completely new to them • adapts easily for all • Develops the ability to construct new ideas and concepts from previously learned information, skills, and strategiesReflective ThinkingA learning strategy in which students reflect on what was learned.How Do You Use It?Approaches to reflective thinking may include students writing a journal about theconcept learned, comments on the learning process, questions or unclear areas, andinterest in further exploration.What Are the Benefits? • Helps students assimilate what they have learned • Helps students connect concepts to make ideas more meaningful "Too often we give children answers to remember rather than problems to solve." Roger Lewin Page
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    • Assessment StrategiesAssessment Strategies for the 21st CenturyScience, by its very nature, lends itself to a variety of assessments. Students must developmore than a factual knowledge base in order to become scientifically literate. They needto develop skills and habits that are appropriate for critical thinking and problem solving.Given opportunities to use resources, analyze information, and critically evaluateproblems and solutions, students will be better prepared for life in the 21st Century. Inorder to assess the students’ growth in these areas, diverse assessment strategies shouldbe used.How and what we assess sends a clear message about what is important. Traditionally,we have almost exclusively valued students’ success at retaining and reproducingassigned information within established time limits. Time has been the constant;performance has been the variable. When factual knowledge is emphasized, students mayconclude that remembering facts is the goal. When opportunities for improvement are notprovided, students may conclude that improvement is not valued. If higher-orderthinking, problem solving, and critical thinking are valued, then classroom assessmentneeds to lend value to them.Alternative assessments encourage creativity and allow students to demonstrateknowledge in different ways. An additional advantage in using alternative assessments isthat growth can be measured for each student wherever they may be on the learningcontinuum. Students stretch to reach new levels, competing only with themselves ratherthan against other students.Changing assessment practices is not a simple linear, lock-step process. Rather, it is aprocess of becoming more purposeful about: the clarification of goals for studentperformance, the design of learning experiences in support of these goals, the use ofassessment methods that match desired goals, and the use of grading systems that reflectthe student’s achievement of these goals.The benefits of exploring a variety of assessment methods lie as much in theconversations they engender between and among teachers and students as they do in theinformation they provide on student competence. Students, as well as teachers, oftenbecome empowered as assessment becomes a dynamic, interactive conversation aboutprogress using new interviews, journals, projects, and portfolios. Through theseassessment methods, the teacher relates to students more as a facilitator, coach, or criticthan as an authority figure who dispenses all information and knowledge. Page
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    • Hints for Getting Started in Alternative Assessment • Share successes with other teachers. • Analyze tests used in the past and try to incorporate new assessment strategies. • Start a folder of assessment samples from test banks and published articles. • Review hands-on activities and develop rubrics that could effectively assess student performance on these tasks. • Develop a system for using a variety of assessment data in determining student grades. • Identify colleagues who have experience in alternative assessment and use them as resources.Response to Intervention (RtI)Response to intervention strategy is a comprehensive, multi-tiered, standards-alignedstrategy to enable early identification and intervention for students at risk. Key itemsinclude alignment of standards to instruction, universal screening, shared ownership; databased decision making, and parental involvement. RtI allows educators to identify andaddress academic difficulties prior to student failure. RtI’s goal is to improve studentachievement using research-based interventions matched to the level and instructionalneeds of students.Online Resources Response to Intervention (RtI)The Florida Response to Intervention (RtI) website provides a central,comprehensive location for Florida-specific information and resources that promoteschool wide practices to ensure highest possible student achievement in bothacademic and behavioral pursuits.http://www.florida-rti.org/What You Need to Know about IDEA 2004 Response to Intervention (RTI): NewWays to Identify Specific Learning Disabilitieshttp://www.wrightslaw.com/info/rti.index.htmContinuous Quality Improvement (CQI)Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) provides an opportunity to make assessmentmore meaningful. Traditional assessment sometimes produces a false record of studentachievement. For example, if a student were to earn a series of test grades, such as 30%,60%, 95% and 100%, the student has apparently improved in mastery of the material.Yet, the average would be 71%. This does not demonstrate that mastery was achievedand would actually be an unsatisfactory grade average. CQI might more truly reflect astudent’s knowledge base. Its results can be rewarding for students and teachers. Page
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    • • With a specific set of criteria established prior to the assignment, the student knows what the expectations of success are. The criteria may be designed by both the teacher and student. • If the criteria are met, the student will then earn a “Q” for Quality; if not, a “NY” for Not Yet Quality. • The student may repeat the assignment at the instructor’s discretion until “Quality” is achieved. • The student is not penalized for not achieving quality immediately. • All students have the opportunity to succeed.How to transfer CQI to traditional grade sheetsA teacher can convert “Q’s” and “NY’s” to letter grades. The teacher counts the numberof assignments and divides them into 100. For example, if a teacher gave ten (10)assignments, they would be worth ten points apiece. To weight a major assignment moreheavily, assessments in multiple categories may be recorded.A sample format follows:Research Paper 1 Quality (10 points)Presentation: Research 1 Quality (10 points)Presentation: Visual Aid 1 Quality (10 points)Presentation: Creativity 1 Quality (10 points)Lab Performance 1 1 Quality (10 points)Lab Performance 2 1 Quality (10 points)Discussion 1 Quality (10 points)Problem-Solving Activities 1 Quality (10 points)Unit Quiz 1 Quality (10 points)Journal 1 Quality (10 points)In the example above each assignment is worth 10 points. If quality is achieved, then thetotal of 10 would be given. If a “NY” is given and never reworked, then 2-9 points areearned, depending on the quality of the work submitted. If the assignment is not done,then a 0 would be earned. A scale of 100 would be used to compute a percentage.Online Resource Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI)A New Alliance: Continuous Quality and Classroom Effectivenesshttp://www.ntlf.com/html/lib/bib/94-6dig.htm Page
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    • Diagnostic, Formative and Summative AssessmentEducational assessment is the process of documenting, in measurable terms, learnedknowledge and skills. Assessment can focus on the individual learner, the learningcommunity, the institution, or the educational system. Progress monitoring is ascientifically based practice that is used to assess students academic performance andevaluate the effectiveness of instruction. Progress monitoring can be implemented withindividual students or an entire class.Diagnostic AssessmentDiagnostic assessment is given before instruction. This assessment determines studentunderstanding of topics before learning takes place. Diagnostic assessment provides away for teachers to plan, or map out a route, using students’ existing knowledge to buildupon. It also allows for identification of gaps or misconceptions in prior learning.Examples: Diagnostic content specific tests SurveysFormative AssessmentFormative assessments are given during the instructional unit, and the outcomes are usedto adjust teaching and learning. They provide many opportunities for students todemonstrate mastery of identified goals. Formative assessments should vary toaccommodate students habits of minds to demonstrate knowledge.Examples: Homework Questioning during instruction Thinking Maps Interactive Notebooks Formative Assessment ProbesSummative AssessmentSummative assessments are given at the end of instructional units and can be used todetermine final judgment about student achievement and instructional effectiveness.Examples: End of Unit Exams End of Course Exams AP, AICE and IB ExamsOnline Resources for Diagnostic, Formative and Summative AssessmentThe ABCs of Assessmenthttp://science.nsta.org/enewsletter/2004-03/tst0110_60.pdfAssessment-Inquiry Connectionhttp://www.justsciencenow.com/assessment/index.htmAssessment and Evaluationhttp://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/native30/nt30ass.htmlDiagnostic, Formative & Summative Assessments – What’s the difference?http://blog.learningtoday.com/blog/bid/20323/Diagnostic-Formative-Summative-Assessments-What-s-the-difference Page
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    • Performance AssessmentKnowledge and understanding are tightly linked to the development of important processskills such as observing, measuring, graphing, writing, and analyzing. The teacher canassess such skill development by observing student performance. Many science teachershave experience with performance assessment through the use of a lab practical.Performance assessment can include models, drawings, stories, multimedia presentations,and any other objects by which students demonstrate what they know. Models anddrawings allow students to use tactile skills to represent ideas, feelings, structures, orconcepts. Oral and dramatic presentations help students with public speaking skills andreinforce their own knowledge and that of the audience. Whenever possible, otherclasses, the community, and families could be invited to participate in the presentations.The variety of products and projects that students may produce is immense. Thefollowing are examples of products and projects: • produce a podcast • recreate a famous experiment • build a model • create a movie • develop a guide • design a simulationIt is important to note that developing scoring guidelines for performance assessmentrequires careful analysis of student responses to accurately assess performance levels.Online Resource for Performance AssessmentLESSONPLANET Science Performance Assessmenthttp://www.lessonplanet.com/article/elementary-science/science-performance-assessment “You cannot teach a man anything; you can only help him find it within himself.” Galileo Page
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    • 
Rubrics

The term rubric, rather than scoring key, is used to refer to the guidelines laid out onperformance-based tasks. Rubrics spell out in detailed language what learning is expectedand the standard for products and performances. Rubrics are designed for reportingresults, scoring, and coaching students to a higher level of performance. Furthermore,because rubrics are determined in advance, they provide clarity of focus for students andteachers. Rubrics are also helpful tools in increasing student competencies in the areas ofself-management, peer assistance, and self-evaluation.Developing a RubricBuilding a rubric is an ongoing process. Rethinking, refining, and rewriting are a part ofthe process. Students, teachers, parents, and others can offer valuable insight andobjectivity. It is important to have a purpose for the rubric and to be certain that the rubricsupports that purpose. • Determine which concepts, skills, or performance standards you are assessing. • List the concepts and rewrite them into statements which reflect both cognitive and performance components. • Identify the most important concepts or skills being assessed in the task. • Based on the purpose of your task, determine the number of points to be used for the rubric (example: 4-point scale or 6-point scale). • Based on the purpose of your assessment, decide if you will use an analytic rubric or a holistic rubric. (see below) • Starting with the desired performance, determine the description for each score remembering to use the importance of each element of the task or performance to determine the score or level of the rubric. • Compare student work to the rubric. Record the elements that caused you to assign a given rating to the work. • Revise the rubric descriptions based on performance elements reflected by the student work that you did not capture in your draft rubric. • Rethink your scale: Does a 6-point scale differentiate enough between types of student work to satisfy you? • Adjust the scale if necessary. Reassess student work and score it against the developing rubric. “A teacher who is attempting to teach without inspiring the pupil with a desire to learn is hammering on cold iron.“ Horace Mann Page
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    • Analytic rubric vs. Holistic rubric:Analytic: Assigning separate scores for different traits or dimensions of a student’s work.The separate score should total your predetermined amount.Holistic: Assigning one overall score based on the combination of performance standardsbeing assessed.Sample Rubrics for Student Products, Projects, and Problem SolvingDoes the product reflect that the student made valid inferences from datasources? 4= The product reflects that the student made valid inferences from data sources. 3= The product reflects that the student made invalid inferences from data sources. 2= The product lacks inference from data sources. 1= The product lacks evidence that the student used data sources.Does the product show evidence that the student reached valid conclusions based ondata analysis and displayed the results of the analysis in appropriate formats (e.g.graphs, charts, tables, pictures, and other representations)? 4 = The product shows evidence that the student reached valid conclusions based on data analysis and displayed the results of the analysis in appropriate formats. 3 = The product shows evidence that the student reached valid conclusions based on data analysis and displayed the results of the analysis in inappropriate formats. 2 = The product shows evidence that the student reached conclusions not based on data analysis and displayed the results of the analysis in appropriate formats. OR the product shows evidence that the student reached valid conclusions based on data analysis but lacked evidence of the analysis. 1 = The product shows no evidence of data analysis.Online Resources for RubricsRubricshttp://www2.gsu.edu/~mstnrhx/457/rubric.htmRubrics for Assessmenthttp://www.uwstout.edu/soe/profdev/rubrics.cfm Page
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    • A Sample Laboratory RubricPhase Change AssessmentTask: This is a three-day activity in which students observe and perform a distillation todemonstrate phase change, explain energy transformation, and identify key componentsin the system. On day one, a group of students writes a description of the distillationequipment that is placed in a location that the other class members cannot see. The rest ofthe class assembles the lab equipment on the lab tables according to this description. Onday two, the lab groups use the setup to experiment with the phase change of water fromliquid to gas and back to liquid. Each group writes their own statement of the problem,hypothesis, procedure, data table, and conclusion. On day three, each student describesindividual components of the setup and explains how each part is used to cause water tochange phases.Rubric Topics Score 4 Score 3 Score 2 Score 1Collaborative Worker: Student stays on task: Student stays on Student dos not attend Student does notStudent can take charge offers useful ideas and task; offers useful to the lab. Student respond to the group.of his/her own behavior can defend them; can ideas and can accepts group view or Student is not involvedin a group take on various roles; defend them; can considers only his/her or may try to participates without take on various own ideas worthwhile. undermine the efforts prompting. roles; rarely Student needs regular of the group. requires prompting prompting to stay on to participate. task.Scientific Literacy: Student identifies the Student identifies Student identifies the Student does notStudent uses processes question, forms a the question, forms question but does not identify the question.and skills of science to possible solution, a possible solution. form a complete No possible solution isconduct investigations designs a data chart, Procedure and data solution. Procedure given. Procedure and collects data, and chart are complete and data are data chart are concludes about the but lack clarity incomplete and the incomplete or missing. validity of the possible and/or creativity. conclusion does not The conclusion is solution. Student concludes speak to the possible incomplete or missing. about the validity of solution. the possible solution.Systems Analysis: Student identifies how Student identifies Student does not Student incorrectlyStudent describes how a parts of the system how parts of the identify some parts of identifies the parts andsystem operates internally interact and provides system interact and the system. Student cannot describe howand how it personal insight into the relates how the does not understand they interact eitherinteracts with the outside interacting of the parts. system interacts how the parts interact within or outside theworld. Student relates how the with the outside and does not relate system. system interacts with world. how the system the outside world. interacts with the outside world. Reprinted from NSTA with permission.Inquiry
Based
Labs
to
Assess
Learning

Inquiry based labs are exploration activities in which students are responsible for alla