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    21st century chemistry, 21st century chemistry, Document Transcript

    • st 21 CENTURYCHEMISTRYBREVARD PUBLIC SCHOOLS Dr. Brian T. Binggeli Summer 2011
    • SCHOOL BOARD OF BREVARD COUNTY Educational Services Facility 2700 Judge Fran Jamieson Way Viera, Florida 32940-6601 SCHOOL BOARD MEMBERS Dr. Barbara A. Murray, Chairman Amy Kneessy, Vice Chairman Karen Henderson Dr. Michael Krupp Andrew Ziegler SUPERINTENDENT Dr. Brian T. BinggeliDIVISION OF CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION ASSOCIATE SUPERINTENDENT Cyndi Van Meter OFFICE OF SECONDARY PROGRAMS Dr. Walter Christy, Director
    • Acknowledgements 21st Century Science Curriculum Task TeamJean Almeida Bayside High SchoolSara Brassler Cocoa High SchoolJohn Carr Viera High SchoolJoesph Estevez Melbourne High SchoolAlison Fertig Merritt Island High SchoolJennifer Heflick Bayside High SchoolJohn Latherow Satellite High SchoolAndrea Marston Merritt Island High SchoolDebbie Minor Eau Gallie High SchoolScott McCord Cocoa Beach Jr/Sr High SchoolRaul Montes Cocoa High SchoolLaura Rouveyrol Bayside High SchoolChristina Sage Space Coast Jr./Sr. High SchoolSomer Sutton Heritage High SchoolJoy Turingan Eau Gallie High SchoolLynn Wade Cocoa High SchoolCatherine Webb Eau Gallie High SchoolGinger Davis Science Resource Teacher
    • Table
of
Contents


(Clickable)
How to Use this Document in PDF Form ........................................................................ 1
A Vision for Science Learning in the 21st Century........................................................... 2
Best Practices in Science................................................................................................. 3
 Quality Science Education and 21st Century Skills ...................................................... 3
 Bodies of Knowledge, Standards and NGSSS ............................................................. 4
 Bodies of Knowledge Grades 9-12.............................................................................. 5
 What Does Research Say about the Brain and Learning?............................................. 9
 Strategies to Incorporate into Science Lessons .......................................................... 10
Teaching and Learning Strategies ................................................................................. 11
 Brevard Effective Strategies for Teachers (B.E.S.T.) and the 5E Model .................... 11
 Laboratory Investigation ........................................................................................... 13
 Literature, History, and Storytelling .......................................................................... 14
 Brainstorming ........................................................................................................... 15
 Graphic Organizers ................................................................................................... 15
 Model ....................................................................................................................... 16
 Interactive Notebooks ............................................................................................... 17
 Interviews ................................................................................................................. 18
 Critical Thinking Skills ............................................................................................. 18
 Cooperative Learning................................................................................................ 19
 Problem Solving ....................................................................................................... 20
 Reflective Thinking................................................................................................... 20
Assessment Strategies ................................................................................................... 21
 Assessment Strategies for the 21st Century ................................................................ 21
 Response to Intervention (RtI)................................................................................... 22
 Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) ................................................................... 22
 Diagnostic, Formative and Summative Assessment ................................................... 24
 Performance Assessment........................................................................................... 25
 Rubrics.................................................................................................................. 25
 Inquiry Based Labs to Assess Learning ................................................................. 28
 Interactive Notebooks to Assess Learning ............................................................. 28
 Open-Ended Questions.......................................................................................... 30
 Portfolios .............................................................................................................. 30

    • Graphic Organizers as Assessment Tools .............................................................. 31
 Integrating Technology in Assessment ...................................................................... 31
 Interviews ................................................................................................................. 32
 Peer Assessment ....................................................................................................... 32
 Self-Assessment........................................................................................................ 33
 Teacher Observation of Student Learning.................................................................. 33
Quality Science for All Students ................................................................................... 35
 Science Literacy........................................................................................................ 35
 Matching Strategies to Course Level ......................................................................... 35
 Strategies for Students with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) ................................. 37
 Science for Speakers of Other Languages.................................................................. 38
 Strategies for Teaching Science to Academically Gifted Students ............................. 39
 Differentiated Instruction .......................................................................................... 39
Literature Cited............................................................................................................. 40
Introduction .................................................................................................................. 41
 Pursuing Exemplary Chemistry Education ................................................................ 41
 Laboratory Safety in Chemistry................................................................................. 41
 Guide to Curriculum Design and Implementation...................................................... 42
 Curriculum Organizers.............................................................................................. 43
 Sequencing ............................................................................................................... 45
 How to Use This Document ...................................................................................... 46
 Chemistry Course Descriptions ................................................................................. 46
Sample Concept Map of the Major Essential Questions................................................. 47
Suggested Curriculum Course Outline for Chemistry.................................................... 48
What is Chemistry? ....................................................................................................... 53
 Essential Questions ................................................................................................... 53
 Common Misconceptions.......................................................................................... 54
 Assessment Probes.................................................................................................... 54
 B.E.S.T. / 5E Sample ................................................................................................ 55
 Lab: How Do Temperature and Salinity Affect Density?........................................... 56
 Thinking Map: Taxonomy of Matter ......................................................................... 58
 Matter: Its Classification, Structure, and Changes ..................................................... 59
 Overview: ............................................................................................................. 60
 Teaching Strategies: .............................................................................................. 60
 Matching Strategies to Course Level: .................................................................... 60

    • Focus Benchmark Correlations:............................................................................. 61
 Related Benchmark Correlations: .......................................................................... 63
How is Chemistry Practiced?........................................................................................ 65
 Essential Questions ................................................................................................... 65
 Common Misconceptions.......................................................................................... 66
 Assessment Probes.................................................................................................... 66
 B.E.S.T. / 5E Sample ................................................................................................ 67
 Thinking Map: Scientific Theory .............................................................................. 68
 The Nature of Science............................................................................................... 69
 Overview: ............................................................................................................. 71
 Teaching Strategies: .............................................................................................. 72
 Matching Strategies to Course Level: .................................................................... 73
 Focus Benchmark Correlations:............................................................................. 73
 Interactions of Chemistry with Technology and Society............................................ 82
 Overview: ............................................................................................................. 82
 Teaching Strategies: .............................................................................................. 83
 Matching Strategies to Course Level: .................................................................... 83
 Focus Benchmark Correlations:............................................................................. 83
What is Our Understanding of Matter and Energy? ...................................................... 86
 Essential Questions ................................................................................................... 86
 Common Misconceptions.......................................................................................... 87
 B.E.S.T / 5E Sample ................................................................................................. 88
 Thinking Map: Evolution of Atomic Theory ............................................................. 89
 Atomic Theory.......................................................................................................... 90
 Overview: ............................................................................................................. 91
 Teaching Strategies: .............................................................................................. 91
 Matching Strategies to Course Level: .................................................................... 92
 Focus Benchmark Correlations:............................................................................. 92
 Related Benchmark Correlations: .......................................................................... 96
How is the Behavior of Matter Organized? ................................................................... 97
 Essential Questions ................................................................................................... 97
 Common Misconceptions.......................................................................................... 98
 Assessment Probes.................................................................................................... 98
 B.E.S.T. / 5E Sample ................................................................................................ 99
 Lab: Periodic Trends............................................................................................... 100

    • Thinking Map: Metals and Nonmetals..................................................................... 103
 The Periodic Table.................................................................................................. 104
 Overview: ........................................................................................................... 104
 Teaching Strategies: ............................................................................................ 104
 Matching Strategies to Course Level: .................................................................. 105
 Focus Benchmark Correlations:........................................................................... 105
 Chemical Bonding and Formulas ............................................................................ 107
 Overview: ........................................................................................................... 108
 Teaching Strategies: ............................................................................................ 108
 Matching Strategy to Course Level: .................................................................... 108
 Focus Benchmark Correlations:........................................................................... 109
How Does Matter Interact?......................................................................................... 111
 Essential Questions ................................................................................................. 111
 Common Misconceptions........................................................................................ 112
 Assessment Probes.................................................................................................. 112
 B.E.S.T. / 5E Sample .............................................................................................. 113
 Lab: Thermodynamics of an Aluminum/Copper Chloride ....................................... 114
 Thinking Map: Classification of Chemical Reactions ............................................. 117
 Chemical Reactions and Balanced Equations .......................................................... 118
 Overview: ........................................................................................................... 118
 Teaching Strategy: .............................................................................................. 118
 Matching Strategies to Course Level: .................................................................. 119
 Focus Benchmark Correlations:........................................................................... 119
How are the Interactions of Matter Measured? ........................................................... 122
 Essential Questions ................................................................................................. 122
 Common Misconceptions........................................................................................ 123
 Assessment Probes.................................................................................................. 123
 B.E.S.T. / 5E Sample .............................................................................................. 124
 Thinking Map: Effects of the Physical Properties of Gases...................................... 125
 Stoichiometry.......................................................................................................... 126
 Overview: ........................................................................................................... 126
 Teaching Strategies: ............................................................................................ 126
 Matching Strategies to Course Level: .................................................................. 127
 Focus Benchmark Correlations:........................................................................... 127
 Behavior of Gases ................................................................................................... 129

    • Overview: ........................................................................................................... 129
 Teaching Strategies: ............................................................................................ 129
 Matching Strategies to Course Level: .................................................................. 130
 Focus Benchmark Correlations:........................................................................... 130
How are the Interactions between Matter and Energy Measured?............................... 132
 Essential Questions ................................................................................................. 132
 Common Misconceptions........................................................................................ 133
 Assessment Probes.................................................................................................. 133
 B.E.S.T. / 5E Sample .............................................................................................. 134
 Lab: Chemical Kinetics........................................................................................... 135
 Thinking Map: Concepts of Thermochemistry ........................................................ 139
 Dynamics of Energy................................................................................................ 140
 Overview: ........................................................................................................... 141
 Teaching Strategies: ............................................................................................ 141
 Matching Strategies to Course Level: .................................................................. 141
 Focus Benchmark Correlations:........................................................................... 142
 Related Benchmark Correlations: ........................................................................ 144
 Reactions Rates and Equilibrium............................................................................. 146
 Overview: ........................................................................................................... 146
 Teaching Strategies: ............................................................................................ 147
 Matching Strategies to Course Level: .................................................................. 147
 Focus Benchmark Correlations:........................................................................... 148
 Related Benchmark Correlations: ........................................................................ 149
What are the Relevant Applications of Chemistry?...................................................... 151
 Essential Questions ................................................................................................. 151
 Common Misconceptions........................................................................................ 152
 Assessment Probes.................................................................................................. 152
 B.E.S.T. / 5E Sample .............................................................................................. 153
 Lab: Pollutants........................................................................................................ 154
 Thinking Map: Electrochemistry............................................................................. 156
 Acids and Bases ...................................................................................................... 157
 Overview: ........................................................................................................... 157
 Teaching Strategies: ............................................................................................ 158
 Matching Strategies to Course Level: .................................................................. 158
 Focus Benchmark Correlations:........................................................................... 159

    • Related Benchmark Correlations: ........................................................................ 160
 Electrochemistry ..................................................................................................... 163
 Overview: ........................................................................................................... 163
 Teaching Strategies: ............................................................................................ 164
 Matching Strategies to Course Level: .................................................................. 164
 Focus Benchmark Correlations:........................................................................... 164
 Related Benchmark Correlations: ........................................................................ 166
 Chemistry of Life.................................................................................................... 167
 Overview: ........................................................................................................... 168
 Teaching Strategies: ............................................................................................ 168
 Matching Strategies to Course Level: .................................................................. 168
 Focus Benchmark Correlations:........................................................................... 168
 Related Benchmark Correlations: ........................................................................ 169
Adopted Text Book References................................................................................... 170
Internet Resources....................................................................................................... 171
 “The important thing in science is not so much to obtain new facts as to discover new ways of thinking about them.” Sir William Bragg
    • How to Use this Document in PDF FormThis document is available both as a hard copy and as an online PDF document. Theonline PDF version of this document has been created to help teachers easily search andlocate material. The table of contents is hyperlinked to allow the teacher quick access toan individual topic listed. To help navigate back to the table of contents a Table ofContents icon has been added at the bottom of each page. This icon, when clicked, willbring the teacher back to the first page of the table of contents.There are several other links to locations in this document or to outside resources. Theselinks appear in blue font and are underlined. Clicking on the font will direct you to theseresources.Searching within the document for a specific term or benchmark can be done by clicking“Edit” on the top menu bar of the PDF Page and selecting “Advanced Search” or“Search” (or pressing shift, control, F simultaneously). Select “Search” in the currentdocument and type in the term or benchmark desired in the “What word or phrase wouldyou like to search for?” box and then click search. The first location the term orbenchmark appears in the document will be displayed on the main document.Subsequent entries will appear in the search box to the left of the document. Click on theentries in the search box to move from one page to another where the term or benchmarkis located.Please make sure to update your Adobe Reader to take advantage of the search option forthe PDF version. The latest version may be obtained at http://get.adobe.com/reader/ . “Technology has come a long way, as have the teachers that use it and the students that learn from the use of it. We are living and teaching in another generation. A generation that sees more television, plays more computer games, and understands more about gadgets, devices, and web concepts than we would have ever expected in our lifetime. This is one of the key reasons that teaching with technology is such an important way to not only engage our students, but to relate to them as well.” Emily Witt Page
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    • A Vision for Science Learning in the 21st CenturyThe bell rings! The students are in their seats. Waiting… The teacher slowly surveys theclass with that “I’ve got a secret!” look. Apparently satisfied, the teacher fires off sevenwords in an almost inaudible mischievous tone: “Do you want to see something cool.?!?”Young synapses surge with energy. Adrenaline flows. Enthusiastic hearts race. Eyeswiden. And hands launch towards the sky. Silently, the teacher concludes: “They areready.” In carefully measured movements, the teacher, now turned entertainer, takes twoarcane solutions and, with a hint of hesitation, slowly pours them into a tall glasscylinder. As the sound of liquid sloshing reaches the students’ ears, they hear a warning:“Be on your guard students. No one knows what might happen.”Young minds race…The stage is set. The switch is thrown. The magnetic stirrer whirls. The solution begins toswirl and as the vortex swells in ever growing intensity, the mysterious concoctionsuddenly turns green……then blue…... violet……RED! And then, almost miraculously,the cycle repeats! Involuntary gasps escape from stimulated minds. The students don’tunderstand. They have never seen anything like this before. And they love it! Theteacher knows that timing is everything and so, at just the right moment, the question ispresented: “How does this work?” After a few seconds of silence, a follow-up questionasks “would you like to find out?” “YES!”Soon, the classroom transforms into a beehive of purposeful activity. Students--no—young scientists, scramble for materials in a lab brimming with an assortment of labequipment, glassware, microscopes, computers, and technology. One group of studentsis using computers and Probeware to check out a prediction. Another group is racingthrough the indexes of several books. Yet another group is searching the Internet.Questions from all directions assail the teacher. Debates spontaneously explode amongstthe researchers. Predicting! Observing! Designing! Experimenting! Seeking! Analyzing!The teacher can barely handle the tempo! And then…………………. Suddenly, a student shrieks out involuntarily: “Eureka!”The teacher thinks, “Mission accomplished!”A stimulating and challenging science classroom encourages high level learning, skilledmethodology, creative thinking, and focused problem solving. The integration of scienceconcepts provides a solid foundation for understanding the world in which we live.Society is dependent upon how wisely we use science, as today and the future are beingshaped by science and technology. Science by its very nature encourages students to beactive learners. Classroom experiences should include discussions, oral presentations,projects, and laboratory experiences. These can be best accomplished by collecting, Page
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    • manipulating, analyzing, and interpreting data. The high school science classroomprovides a positive learning environment of meaningful teacher instruction as well asassessment and a wide variety of current resources and instructional methods. Sincescience relates to our daily lives, we must ensure that the Next Generation of students isscientifically literate. Accomplishing such a goal will empower our students to becomeproductive, critical thinking citizens in the global community of the 21st century.Best Practices in ScienceThroughout history, people have developed ideas about the world around them. Theseideas in the physical, biological, social, and psychological realms have enabledsuccessive generations to achieve increased understanding of our species andenvironment.These ideas were developed using particular ways of observing, thinking, experimenting,and validating. Such methods represent the nature of science and reveal science as aunique way of learning and knowing.Science tends to reflect the following beliefs and attitudes: • The universe is understandable. • Scientific knowledge is durable • Scientific ideas are subject to change. • Science demands evidence. • Science explains and predicts. • Scientists identify and avoid bias. • Science blends logic and imagination. • Scientists follow ethical procedures.Quality Science Education and 21st Century SkillsTechnological advancement, scientific innovation, increased globalization, shiftingworkforce demands, and pressures of economic competitiveness are but a few of thechallenges that are rapidly changing our world. These changes are redefining the skillsets that students need to be adequately prepared to participate in and contribute totodays society (Levy and Murnane 2005; Stewart 2010; Wilmarth 2010).Defining and identifying 21st century skills is now a big role for commercial andeducational organizations. Core subject knowledge, learning and innovation skills,information, media, and technology skills, life and career skills, adaptability, complexcommunication/social skills, problem solving, self-management/self-development, andsystems thinking are but a few of skills that need to mastered.Science education should foster deep content knowledge through active intellectualengagement emulating disciplinary practices and thinking; 21st-century skills focus ondeveloping broadly applicable capacities, habits of mind, and preparing knowledgeworkers for a new economy (Windschitl 2009). Page
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    • “Exemplary science education can offer a rich context for developing many 21st-century skills, such as critical thinking, problem solving, and information literacy especially when instruction addresses the nature of science and promotes use of science practices. These skills not only contribute to the development of a well-prepared workforce of the future but also give individuals life skills that help them succeed. Through quality science education, we can support and advance relevant 21st - century skills, while enhancing science practice through infusion of these skills.” (NSTA Position Statement on 21st Century Skills)Bodies of Knowledge, Standards and NGSSSThe Bodies of Knowledge (BOK) do not represent courses. Science courses weredeveloped from the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards, and individual coursesmay have standards from more than one BOK. Benchmarks are considered to beappropriate for statewide assessment or end of course exams. Some Florida sciencecourses have curriculum defined by other organizations (such as College Board forAdvanced Placement, AICE, or International Baccalaureate science courses).Benchmark Coding SchemeSC. 912. N. 1. 1Subject, Grade Level, Body of Knowledge, Standard, BenchmarkBody of Knowledge Key: N - Nature of Science E - Earth and Space Science P - Physical Science L - Life Science Understanding the Benchmark Coding Scheme SC. 912 N. 1. 1 Subject Grade Level Body of Standard Benchmark Knowledge “All men by nature desire knowledge.” Aristotle Page
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    • Bodies of Knowledge Grades 9-12 Body of Knowledge: NATURE OF SCIENCE Standard 1: The Practice of Science A. Scientific inquiry is a multifaceted activity; The processes of science include the formulation of scientifically investigable questions, construction of investigations into those questions, the collection of appropriate data, the evaluation of the meaning of those data, and the communication of this evaluation. B. The processes of science frequently do not correspond to the traditional portrayal of "the scientific method." C. Scientific argumentation is a necessary part of scientific inquiry and plays an important role in the generation and validation of scientific knowledge. D. Scientific knowledge is based on observation and inference; it is important to recognize that these are very different things. Not only does science require creativity in its methods and processes, but also in its questions and explanations. Standard 2: The Characteristics of Scientific Knowledge A. Scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, and is appropriate for understanding the natural world, but it provides only a limited understanding of the supernatural, aesthetic, or other ways of knowing, such as art, philosophy, or religion. B. Scientific knowledge is durable and robust, but open to change. C. Because science is based on empirical evidence it strives for objectivity, but as it is a human endeavor the processes, methods, and knowledge of science include subjectivity, as well as creativity and discovery.Standard 3: The Role of Theories, Laws, Hypotheses, and ModelsThe terms that describe examples of scientific knowledge, for example: "theory,""law," "hypothesis" and "model" have very specific meanings and functions withinscience.Standard 4: Science and SocietyAs tomorrow’s citizens, students should be able to identify issues about which societycould provide input, formulate scientifically investigable questions about those issues,construct investigations of their questions, collect and evaluate data from theirinvestigations, and develop scientific recommendations based upon their findings. Page
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    • Body of Knowledge: EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCEStandard 5: Earth in Space and TimeThe origin and eventual fate of the Universe still remains one of the greatest questionsin science. Gravity and energy influence the development and life cycles of galaxies,including our own Milky Way Galaxy, stars, the planetary systems, Earth, and residualmaterial left from the formation of the Solar System. Humankind’s need to explorecontinues to lead to the development of knowledge and understanding of the nature ofthe Universe.Standard 6: Earth StructuresThe scientific theory of plate tectonics provides the framework for much of moderngeology. Over geologic time, internal and external sources of energy have continuouslyaltered the features of Earth by means of both constructive and destructive forces. Alllife, including human civilization, is dependent on Earths internal and external energyand material resources.Standard 7: Earth Systems and PatternsThe scientific theory of the evolution of Earth states that changes in our planet aredriven by the flow of energy and the cycling of matter through dynamic interactionsamong the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, and biosphere, and theresources used to sustain human civilization on Earth.Body of Knowledge: PHYSICAL SCIENCEStandard 8: MatterA. A working definition of matter is that it takes up space, has mass, and has measurable properties. Matter is comprised of atomic, subatomic, and elementary particles.B. Electrons are key to defining chemical and some physical properties, reactivity, and molecular structures. Repeating (periodic) patterns of physical and chemical properties occur among elements that define groups of elements with similar properties. The periodic table displays the repeating patterns, which are related to the atoms outermost electrons. Atoms bond with each other to form compounds.C. In a chemical reaction, one or more reactants are transformed into one or more new products. Many factors shape the nature of products and the rates of reaction.D. Carbon-based compounds are building-blocks of known life forms on earth and numerous useful natural and synthetic products. 21st Century Science Page
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    • Standard 10: EnergyA. Energy is involved in all physical and chemical processes. It is conserved, and can be transformed from one form to another and into work. At the atomic and nuclear levels energy is not continuous but exists in discrete amounts. Energy and mass are related through Einsteins equation E=mc2.B. The properties of atomic nuclei are responsible for energy-related phenomena such as radioactivity, fission and fusion.C. Changes in entropy and energy that accompany chemical reactions influence reaction paths. Chemical reactions result in the release or absorption of energy.D. The theory of electromagnetism explains that electricity and magnetism are closely related. Electric charges are the source of electric fields. Moving charges generate magnetic fields.E. Waves are the propagation of a disturbance. They transport energy and momentum but do not transport matter.Standard 12: MotionA. Motion can be measured and described qualitatively and quantitatively. Net forces create a change in motion. When objects travel at speeds comparable to the speed of light, Einsteins special theory of relativity applies.B. Momentum is conserved under well-defined conditions. A change in momentum occurs when a net force is applied to an object over a time interval.C. The Law of Universal Gravitation states that gravitational forces act on all objects irrespective of their size and position.D. Gases consist of great numbers of molecules moving in all directions. The behavior of gases can be modeled by the kinetic molecular theory.E. Chemical reaction rates change with conditions under which they occur. Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic state in which forward and reverse processes occur at the same rates.Next Generation Sunshine State Standards Science Bodies of Knowledge Science Standards Science Benchmarks Page
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    • Body of Knowledge: LIFE SCIENCEStandard 14: Organization and Development of Living OrganismsA. Cells have characteristic structures and functions that make them distinctive.B. Processes in a cell can be classified broadly as growth, maintenance, reproduction, and homeostasis.C. Life can be organized in a functional and structural hierarchy ranging from cells to the biosphere.D. Most multicellular organisms are composed of organ systems whose structures reflect their particular function.Standard 15: Diversity and Evolution of Living OrganismsA. The scientific theory of evolution is the fundamental concept underlying all of biology.B. The scientific theory of evolution is supported by multiple forms of scientific evidence.C. Organisms are classified based on their evolutionary history.D. Natural selection is a primary mechanism leading to evolutionary change.Standard 16: Heredity and ReproductionA. DNA stores and transmits genetic information. Genes are sets of instructions encoded in the structure of DNA.B. Genetic information is passed from generation to generation by DNA in all organisms and accounts for similarities in related individuals.C. Manipulation of DNA in organisms has led to commercial production of biological molecules on a large scale and genetically modified organisms.D. Reproduction is characteristic of living things and is essential for the survival of species.Standard 17: InterdependenceA. The distribution and abundance of organisms is determined by the interactions between organisms, and between organisms and the non-living environment.B. Energy and nutrients move within and between biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems via physical, chemical and biological processes.C. Human activities and natural events can have profound effects on populations, biodiversity and ecosystem processes. Page
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    • Standard 18: Matter and Energy TransformationsA. All living things are composed of four basic categories of macromolecules and share the same basic needs for life.B. Living organisms acquire the energy they need for life processes through various metabolic pathways (primarily photosynthesis and cellular respiration).C. Chemical reactions in living things follow basic rules of chemistry and are usually regulated by enzymes.D. The unique chemical properties of carbon and water make life on Earth possible.What Does Research Say about the Brain and Learning?Learning is the process of discovering and constructing meaning from information andexperience, filtered through our own unique perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and beliefs.Advances in understanding how the brain learns can help teachers structure moremeaningful lessons. The brain learns by connecting new information to concepts andideas that it already understands (Resnick 1998; Willis 2008).Learning environments must feel emotionally safe for learning to take place. Forexample, students should not be afraid of offering opinions or hypotheses about thecontent they are studying (Howard 1994; Jensen 1998; McGaugh et al., 1993; Hinton,Miyamoto and Chiesa 2008).Each brain needs to make its own meaning of ideas and skills. Students need to be able torelate the learning to personal experiences provided for them. To learn, students mustexperience appropriate levels of challenge without being frustrated.The brain learns best when it “does” rather than when it “absorbs” (Pally 1997). Forexample, students could be presented with a problem and asked to design and carry out aproject to solve it (Shultz, Dayan & Montague, 1997; Fedlstein and Benner 2004).Online Resources on Brain Research and LearningBrain/Mind learning principles:http://www.funderstanding.com/v2/educators/brainmind-principles-of-natural-learning/Enriching the learning environment:http://members.shaw.ca/priscillatheroux/brain.htmlTwelve brain/mind learning principles:http://brainconnection.positscience.com/topics/?main=fa/brain-based2How the Brain Learnshttp://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/2009/4/09.04.03.x.html#d Page
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    • Strategies to Incorporate into Science LessonsAs science teachers, we understand that learning is a process. This process works bestwhen new knowledge is connected to prior knowledge by the teaching of meaningfullessons. Lessons related to personal experiences and taught in an emotionally safeenvironment allow for greater retention.40% of instruction time should be devoted to activities involving the manipulation,collecting and analyzing of data. By using these strategies, students will have positiveexperiences and become actively engaged in inquiry, scientific processes, and problemsolving.The teacher should….. • Relate what students already know to the new concept. • Build on prior understanding, identify and resolve existing misconceptions. • Use a variety of science resources, use books, periodicals, multimedia technology, and up to date information. • Emphasize the real life relevance of science. • Relate science to daily life and encourage students to apply their own experiences to science. • Ask probing questions to encourage student discussion and develop understanding. • Involve students in sustained, in-depth projects rather than just "covering the textbook". • Engage students in unifying topics which can be fully explored. • Integrate subject matter to exemplify how the disciplines co-exist in actual practice. Science and other subject areas should be integrated to unify concepts and disciplines. • Promote collaboration among students. • Engage students in cooperative learning and small group projects to build understanding. • Actively engage students in scientific processes and inquiry by having students actively engage in the manipulation, collecting and analysis of data. • Encourage students to communicate. • Allow students to make oral presentations, class discussions, complete interactive notebooks, and use data logs. • Use meaningful and varied assessments. • Focus on student understanding rather than on memorized definitions. Page
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    • Teaching and Learning StrategiesBrevard Effective Strategies for Teachers (B.E.S.T.) and the 5E ModelB.E.S.T is an instructional model that creates a common language of effective instructionfor Brevard’s teachers and administrators. B.E.S.T. incorporates research-based practicesand knowledge of how the learner learns to provide an integrated model that teachers canuse as a benchmark for analysis, reflection, and planning; and that administrators andinstructional coaches can use to guide continuous improvement of instruction. B.E.S.T.also supports and reinforces the 5E model of instruction.The 5E model of instruction includes 5 phases: engage, explore, explain, elaborate, andevaluate. Roger Bybee, in his book, Achieving Scientific Literacy, states: “Using thisapproach, students redefine, reorganize, elaborate, and change their initial conceptsthrough self-reflection and interaction with their peers and their environment. Learnersinterpret objects and phenomena and internalize those interpretations in terms of theircurrent conceptual understanding.” • Engage students so that they feel a personal connection with the topic. • Provide students an opportunity to explore the topic through their own activities and investigations. • Help students explain their findings once they have constructed meaning from their own experiences. • Allow students to elaborate by constructing convincing lines of evidence to support their suppositions. • Work with students to evaluate their understanding of science concepts, problem solving abilities, and inquiry skills.Today’s innovative science classrooms require that educators provide the most useful andengaging educational experiences possible. This section provides examples of manyhelpful strategies. They may be adapted and refined to best fit the needs of studentsand/or instructional plans.Online Resources on the 5E ModelOrder Matters: Using the 5E Model to Align Teaching with How People Learnhttp://www.lifescied.org/cgi/content/full/9/3/159What the teacher and student should do in the 5E Modelhttp://www.heartlanded.org/FloridaPromise/Documents/5E_Model.pdfThe BSCS 5E Instructional Model: Origins, Effectiveness, and Applicationshttp://www.bscs.org/pdf/bscs5eexecsummary.pdf Page
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    • B.E.S.T. and the 5E ModelExampleWHY B.E.S.T.?Brevard Public Schools recognized the need for a systemic and up-to-date model ofinstruction for all BPS teachers and administrators. Using current research, consensus ofprofessional education associations and Brevard Public School staff B.E.S.T has beendeveloped for use by BPS educators. This model was based upon the following: 1. Need for a Systemic Instructional Model a. Tony Wagner presentation – administrators evaluated a teacher on video as anywhere from “A” to “F” – evidence that we don’t share a picture of good teaching b. SREB’s visiting committee (Gene Bottoms Group) reported that teachers could not articulate an instructional model in Brevard County c. Differentiated Accountability Model visiting committee reported that Brevard does not have a clear instructional model for all teachers d. Strategic Plan objective 3.1.1: Enhance our comprehensive system of professional development by using a benchmarking process by June 30, 2010 Strategic Plan objective 3.1.6: By 2013, create a system for continuous improvement of instruction and supervision based on a common vision of effective teaching e. NSDC definition of Professional Development – a comprehensive, sustained and intensive approach to improving teachers’ and principals’ effectiveness in raising student achievement. Page
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    • 2. Need for an Up-to-Date Model of Instruction a. Marzano – research-based strategies (What Works in Schools), but not presented as an articulated instructional model b. Madeline Hunter (Teaching Effectiveness Model/Florida Performance Management System) – well articulated model, but research done in 1970s c. Susan Kovalik (Integrated Thematic Instruction – (ITI) – comprehensive model of instruction, but very expensive and staff time intensive d. Bernice McCarthy (4MAT Learning Design) – comprehensive model of instruction, but very expensive and staff time intensive e. William Glasser (Quality Schools) – based on relationships but light on instructional strategies f. Expertise in the district – our own model of instruction could make most efficient use of a combination of relationship, management, and current instructional strategies to form Brevard Effective Strategies for Teaching (B.E.S.T.)Additional information on B.E.S.T. can be found at the BPS website….http://best.brevardschools.org/best/default.aspx (Intranet accessible only)Laboratory InvestigationExperimental investigations are central to teaching science. Investigations are the guidingforce for science in the real world and must be integrated into the science curriculum.Teachers should not look for a way to “fit-in” investigations; rather, investigations shouldbe a tool for introducing, reinforcing, and assessing student understanding. Great effortshould be made to ensure that students are not simply going through the motions butinstead are actively engaged in the design and implementation of investigations. Manysuccessful science programs emphasize the use of an interactive notebook. This notebookis a record of the author’s thinking process as well as a log of the events that took placeduring the investigation. Documentation and reflection are important life-long skills thatare essential to scientists, but are also important in other activities and professions. A welldeveloped and planned experimental investigation provides a better understanding of ascience concept through actively engaging students in the process of science.How Do You Use It? • ask and focus on the question • develop a hypothesis and conduct the investigation • analyze the data collected and draw conclusions from the results • report the results orally, in writing, or with a pictureWhat Are the Benefits? • helps students visualize science concepts and participate in science processes • students can experience the way some scientists work • students can learn there may not be an answer to a question or there may be many answers • develops process skills Page
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    • Lab Report FormatThe lab report should clearly summarize the investigation. An example might include: • Title • Purpose • Procedure • Results (data, graphs, etc) • Analysis/Interpretation • ConclusionScience SafetySafety should always be a primary concern for the teacher in the science classroom andlaboratory. Science teachers are responsible for safety equipment in the classroom,student safety in the classroom and laboratory, and safe student performance in a lab orclass activity. It is the teacher’s responsibility to review the Safety Guide, Safe Science –Science Safety for Schools, for specific safety practices. Safe Science-Science Safety forSchools Grades 7-12, 2008 can be found at:http://secondarypgms.brevard.k12.fl.us/Science%20Guides/Safe%20Science%2008.pdfLiterature, History, and StorytellingThese are strategies in which history and humanities are brought to life through the eyesof a storyteller, historian, or author. Revealing the social context of a particular period inhistory can be very beneficial to the students’ learning.How Do You Use It? • locate books, brochures, and websites relevant to science topics • seek community resources • assign students to prepare reports on the “life and times” of scientists during specific periods of history that are important to the subject being studied • ask students to write about their own observations and insightsWhat Are the Benefits? • personalizes science learning • allows students to connect science to its social and historical context“A man who dares to waste one hour of time has not discovered the value of life.” Charles Darwin Page
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    • BrainstormingA learning strategy for eliciting ideas and preconceptions from a group,How Do You Use It?Students contribute ideas related to a topic. All contributions are accepted without initialcomment. After the list of ideas is finalized, students categorize, prioritize, and defendselections.What Are the Benefits? • reveals background information and knowledge of a topic • discloses misconceptions • helps students relate existing knowledge to content • strengthens listening skills • stimulates creative thinking •Graphic OrganizersIn order to make connections between topics, teachers and students may transfer abstractconcepts and processes into visual representations. The use of concept maps and thinkingmaps helps students visualize concepts.How Do You Use It? • the teacher provides a specific format for learning, recalling, and organizing • students visually depict outcomes for a given problem by charting various decisions and their possible consequences • the teacher selects a main idea and then the teacher and students identify a set of concepts associated with the main idea, concepts are ranked in related groups from most general to most specific, related concepts are connected and the links labeled • students structure a sequential flow of events, actions, roles, or decisions graphically on paperWhat Are the Benefits? • Helps students visualize abstract concepts • Helps learners organize ideas • Provides a visual format for study • Develops the ability to identify details and specific points • Develops organizational skills • Aids in planning • Provides an outline for writing Page
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    • Samples of Graphic Organizers Bubble Map/Describing Qualities Tree Map/Classifying Modified Venn DiagramComparing Bracket MapWhole to PartsOnline Resources on Graphic OrganizersExamples of graphic organizers:http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr1grorg.htmGraphic Organizers that Support Specific Thinking Skillshttp://www.somers.k12.ny.us/intranet/skills/thinkmaps.htmlGraphic Organizer or Thinking Map©? Whats the Difference?http://www.nhcs.k12.nc.us/instruction/ssflpe/honors/graphic_organizers.htmModelA scientific model is simplified representation of a concept. It may be concrete, such asa ball and stick model of an atom, or abstract like a model of weather systems.How Do You Use It?Students create a concrete product that represents an abstract idea or a simplifiedrepresentation of an abstract idea.What Are the Benefits? • facilitates understanding of conceptual ideas • reinforces the value of models in science Page
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    • Interactive NotebooksThe interactive notebook provides an opportunity for students to be creative, independentthinkers and writers. Interactive notebooks can be used for a variety of purposes; such asclass notes, expression of ideas and laboratory data. Requirements vary from teacher toteacher and are set up according to the directions of the teacher.How Do You Use It?Interactive notebooks can be used to help students develop, practice, and refine theirscience understanding, while also enhancing reading, writing, mathematics andcommunication skills.What Are the Benefits? • Students use visual and linguistic intelligences • Notebooks help students organize their learning • Notebooks are a portfolio of individual learningDialogue JournalsA learning strategy in which students use interactive notebooks as a way to hold privateconversations with the teacher. Dialogue journals are a vehicle for sharing ideas andreceiving feedback through writing.How Do You Use It?Students write on topics on a regular basis, and the teacher responds with advice,comments, and observations in a written conversation.What Are the Benefits? • Develops communication and writing skills • Creates a positive relationship between the teacher and the student • Increases student interest and participation • Allows the student to direct his or her own learningLearning LogA learning strategy to develop structured writing.How Do You Use It?During different stages of the learning process, students respond in written form underthree columns: “What I Think” “What I Learned” “How My Thinking Has Changed”What Are the Benefits? • Bridges the gap between prior knowledge and new content • Provides a structure for translating concepts into written form Page
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    • Online Resources on Interactive NotebooksWhat is a science interactive notebook?http://jyounghewes.tripod.com/science_notebooks.htmlScience Notebooks in k-12 Classroomshttp://www.sciencenotebooks.org/InterviewsA learning strategy for gathering information and reportingHow Do You Use It?Students prepare a set of questions and a format for the interview. After conducting theinterview, students present their findings to the class.What Are The Benefits? • foster connections between ideas • develops the ability to interpret answers • develops organizational and planning skills • develops problem solving skillsCritical Thinking Skills"Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfullyconceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating informationgathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, orcommunication, as a guide to belief and action" (Scriven, 1996).How Do You Use It? • students should be able to relate issues or content to their own knowledge and experience • students should compare and contrast different points of view "It is the supreme art of the teacher to awaken joy in creative expression and knowledge." Albert Einstein Page
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    • What Are The Benefits? • student raises vital questions and problems, formulating them clearly and precisely • students gather and assess relevant information on an issue • students use abstract ideas to come to conclusions and solutions and analyze then them against relevant criteria and standards • students think open-mindedly within alternative systems of thought, recognizing and assessing, as need be, their assumptions, implications, and practical consequences • student communicates with others in determining solutions to complex problemsOnline Resources on Critical Thinking SkillsCritical Thinking Skills in Education and Lifehttp://www.asa3.org/ASA/education/think/critical.htm#critical-thinkingDefining Critical Thinkinghttp://www.criticalthinking.org/aboutct/define_critical_thinking.cfmTeaching Critical Thinking Skillshttp://academic.udayton.edu/legaled/CTSkills/CTskills01.htmCritical Thinking: What It Is and Why It Countshttp://www.insightassessment.com/pdf_files/what&why2007.pdfCooperative LearningA learning strategy in which students work together in small groups to achieve a commongoal. Cooperative learning involves more than simply putting students into work or studygroups. Teachers promote individual responsibility and positive group interdependenceby making sure that each group member is responsible for a given task. Cooperativelearning can be enhanced when group members have diverse abilities and backgrounds.How Do You Use It?After organizing students into carefully selected groups, the teacher thoroughly explains atask to be accomplished within a time frame. The teacher facilitates the selection ofindividual roles within the group and monitors the groups, intervening only whennecessary, to support students working together successfully and accomplishing the task.What Are the Benefits? • Fosters interdependence and pursuit of mutual goals and rewards • Develops communication and leadership skills • Increases the participation of shy students • Produces higher levels of student achievement, thus increasing self-esteem • Fosters respect for diverse abilities and perspectives Page
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    • Online Resources on Cooperative LearningThe Essential Elements of Cooperative Learning in the Classroom. ERIC Digest.http://www.ericdigests.org/1995-1/elements.htmCompetitive vs. Cooperative Learning Formatshttp://www.behavioradvisor.com/CoopLearning.htmlProblem SolvingA learning strategy in which students apply knowledge to identify and solveproblems.How Do You Use It? • read the problem carefully • identify all “knowns” • identify the unknown • research solutions • explore solutions • determine best solutiosWhat Are the Benefits? • allows students to discover relationships that may be completely new to them • adapts easily for all • Develops the ability to construct new ideas and concepts from previously learned information, skills, and strategiesReflective ThinkingA learning strategy in which students reflect on what was learned.How Do You Use It?Approaches to reflective thinking may include students writing a journal about theconcept learned, comments on the learning process, questions or unclear areas, andinterest in further exploration.What Are the Benefits? • Helps students assimilate what they have learned • Helps students connect concepts to make ideas more meaningful "Too often we give children answers to remember rather than problems to solve." Roger Lewin Page
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    • Assessment StrategiesAssessment Strategies for the 21st CenturyScience, by its very nature, lends itself to a variety of assessments. Students must developmore than a factual knowledge base in order to become scientifically literate. They needto develop skills and habits that are appropriate for critical thinking and problem solving.Given opportunities to use resources, analyze information, and critically evaluateproblems and solutions, students will be better prepared for life in the 21st Century. Inorder to assess the students’ growth in these areas, diverse assessment strategies shouldbe used.How and what we assess sends a clear message about what is important. Traditionally,we have almost exclusively valued students’ success at retaining and reproducingassigned information within established time limits. Time has been the constant;performance has been the variable. When factual knowledge is emphasized, students mayconclude that remembering facts is the goal. When opportunities for improvement are notprovided, students may conclude that improvement is not valued. If higher-orderthinking, problem solving, and critical thinking are valued, then classroom assessmentneeds to lend value to them.Alternative assessments encourage creativity and allow students to demonstrateknowledge in different ways. An additional advantage in using alternative assessments isthat growth can be measured for each student wherever they may be on the learningcontinuum. Students stretch to reach new levels, competing only with themselves ratherthan against other students.Changing assessment practices is not a simple linear, lock-step process. Rather, it is aprocess of becoming more purposeful about: the clarification of goals for studentperformance, the design of learning experiences in support of these goals, the use ofassessment methods that match desired goals, and the use of grading systems that reflectthe student’s achievement of these goals.The benefits of exploring a variety of assessment methods lie as much in theconversations they engender between and among teachers and students as they do in theinformation they provide on student competence. Students, as well as teachers, oftenbecome empowered as assessment becomes a dynamic, interactive conversation aboutprogress using new interviews, journals, projects, and portfolios. Through theseassessment methods, the teacher relates to students more as a facilitator, coach, or criticthan as an authority figure who dispenses all information and knowledge. Page
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    • Hints for Getting Started in Alternative Assessment • Share successes with other teachers. • Analyze tests used in the past and try to incorporate new assessment strategies. • Start a folder of assessment samples from test banks and published articles. • Review hands-on activities and develop rubrics that could effectively assess student performance on these tasks. • Develop a system for using a variety of assessment data in determining student grades. • Identify colleagues who have experience in alternative assessment and use them as resources.Response to Intervention (RtI)Response to intervention strategy is a comprehensive, multi-tiered, standards-alignedstrategy to enable early identification and intervention for students at risk. Key itemsinclude alignment of standards to instruction, universal screening, shared ownership; databased decision making, and parental involvement. RtI allows educators to identify andaddress academic difficulties prior to student failure. RtI’s goal is to improve studentachievement using research-based interventions matched to the level and instructionalneeds of students.Online Resources Response to Intervention (RtI)The Florida Response to Intervention (RtI) website provides a central,comprehensive location for Florida-specific information and resources that promoteschool wide practices to ensure highest possible student achievement in bothacademic and behavioral pursuits.http://www.florida-rti.org/What You Need to Know about IDEA 2004 Response to Intervention (RTI): NewWays to Identify Specific Learning Disabilitieshttp://www.wrightslaw.com/info/rti.index.htmContinuous Quality Improvement (CQI)Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) provides an opportunity to make assessmentmore meaningful. Traditional assessment sometimes produces a false record of studentachievement. For example, if a student were to earn a series of test grades, such as 30%,60%, 95% and 100%, the student has apparently improved in mastery of the material.Yet, the average would be 71%. This does not demonstrate that mastery was achievedand would actually be an unsatisfactory grade average. CQI might more truly reflect astudent’s knowledge base. Its results can be rewarding for students and teachers. Page
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    • • With a specific set of criteria established prior to the assignment, the student knows what the expectations of success are. The criteria may be designed by both the teacher and student. • If the criteria are met, the student will then earn a “Q” for Quality; if not, a “NY” for Not Yet Quality. • The student may repeat the assignment at the instructor’s discretion until “Quality” is achieved. • The student is not penalized for not achieving quality immediately. • All students have the opportunity to succeed.How to transfer CQI to traditional grade sheetsA teacher can convert “Q’s” and “NY’s” to letter grades. The teacher counts the numberof assignments and divides them into 100. For example, if a teacher gave ten (10)assignments, they would be worth ten points apiece. To weight a major assignment moreheavily, assessments in multiple categories may be recorded.A sample format follows:Research Paper 1 Quality (10 points)Presentation: Research 1 Quality (10 points)Presentation: Visual Aid 1 Quality (10 points)Presentation: Creativity 1 Quality (10 points)Lab Performance 1 1 Quality (10 points)Lab Performance 2 1 Quality (10 points)Discussion 1 Quality (10 points)Problem-Solving Activities 1 Quality (10 points)Unit Quiz 1 Quality (10 points)Journal 1 Quality (10 points)In the example above each assignment is worth 10 points. If quality is achieved, then thetotal of 10 would be given. If a “NY” is given and never reworked, then 2-9 points areearned, depending on the quality of the work submitted. If the assignment is not done,then a 0 would be earned. A scale of 100 would be used to compute a percentage.Online Resource Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI)A New Alliance: Continuous Quality and Classroom Effectivenesshttp://www.ntlf.com/html/lib/bib/94-6dig.htm Page
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    • Diagnostic, Formative and Summative AssessmentEducational assessment is the process of documenting, in measurable terms, learnedknowledge and skills. Assessment can focus on the individual learner, the learningcommunity, the institution, or the educational system. Progress monitoring is ascientifically based practice that is used to assess students academic performance andevaluate the effectiveness of instruction. Progress monitoring can be implemented withindividual students or an entire class.Diagnostic AssessmentDiagnostic assessment is given before instruction. This assessment determines studentunderstanding of topics before learning takes place. Diagnostic assessment provides away for teachers to plan, or map out a route, using students’ existing knowledge to buildupon. It also allows for identification of gaps or misconceptions in prior learning.Examples: Diagnostic content specific tests SurveysFormative AssessmentFormative assessments are given during the instructional unit, and the outcomes are usedto adjust teaching and learning. They provide many opportunities for students todemonstrate mastery of identified goals. Formative assessments should vary toaccommodate students habits of minds to demonstrate knowledge.Examples: Homework Questioning during instruction Thinking Maps Interactive Notebooks Formative Assessment ProbesSummative AssessmentSummative assessments are given at the end of instructional units and can be used todetermine final judgment about student achievement and instructional effectiveness.Examples: End of Unit Exams End of Course Exams AP, AICE and IB ExamsOnline Resources for Diagnostic, Formative and Summative AssessmentThe ABCs of Assessmenthttp://science.nsta.org/enewsletter/2004-03/tst0110_60.pdfAssessment-Inquiry Connectionhttp://www.justsciencenow.com/assessment/index.htmAssessment and Evaluationhttp://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/native30/nt30ass.htmlDiagnostic, Formative & Summative Assessments – What’s the difference?http://blog.learningtoday.com/blog/bid/20323/Diagnostic-Formative-Summative-Assessments-What-s-the-difference Page
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    • Performance AssessmentKnowledge and understanding are tightly linked to the development of important processskills such as observing, measuring, graphing, writing, and analyzing. The teacher canassess such skill development by observing student performance. Many science teachershave experience with performance assessment through the use of a lab practical.Performance assessment can include models, drawings, stories, multimedia presentations,and any other objects by which students demonstrate what they know. Models anddrawings allow students to use tactile skills to represent ideas, feelings, structures, orconcepts. Oral and dramatic presentations help students with public speaking skills andreinforce their own knowledge and that of the audience. Whenever possible, otherclasses, the community, and families could be invited to participate in the presentations.The variety of products and projects that students may produce is immense. Thefollowing are examples of products and projects: • produce a podcast • recreate a famous experiment • build a model • create a movie • develop a guide • design a simulationIt is important to note that developing scoring guidelines for performance assessmentrequires careful analysis of student responses to accurately assess performance levels.Online Resource for Performance AssessmentLESSONPLANET Science Performance Assessmenthttp://www.lessonplanet.com/article/elementary-science/science-performance-assessment “You cannot teach a man anything; you can only help him find it within himself.” Galileo Page
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    • 
Rubrics

The term rubric, rather than scoring key, is used to refer to the guidelines laid out onperformance-based tasks. Rubrics spell out in detailed language what learning is expectedand the standard for products and performances. Rubrics are designed for reportingresults, scoring, and coaching students to a higher level of performance. Furthermore,because rubrics are determined in advance, they provide clarity of focus for students andteachers. Rubrics are also helpful tools in increasing student competencies in the areas ofself-management, peer assistance, and self-evaluation.Developing a RubricBuilding a rubric is an ongoing process. Rethinking, refining, and rewriting are a part ofthe process. Students, teachers, parents, and others can offer valuable insight andobjectivity. It is important to have a purpose for the rubric and to be certain that the rubricsupports that purpose. • Determine which concepts, skills, or performance standards you are assessing. • List the concepts and rewrite them into statements which reflect both cognitive and performance components. • Identify the most important concepts or skills being assessed in the task. • Based on the purpose of your task, determine the number of points to be used for the rubric (example: 4-point scale or 6-point scale). • Based on the purpose of your assessment, decide if you will use an analytic rubric or a holistic rubric. (see below) • Starting with the desired performance, determine the description for each score remembering to use the importance of each element of the task or performance to determine the score or level of the rubric. • Compare student work to the rubric. Record the elements that caused you to assign a given rating to the work. • Revise the rubric descriptions based on performance elements reflected by the student work that you did not capture in your draft rubric. • Rethink your scale: Does a 6-point scale differentiate enough between types of student work to satisfy you? • Adjust the scale if necessary. Reassess student work and score it against the developing rubric. “A teacher who is attempting to teach without inspiring the pupil with a desire to learn is hammering on cold iron.“ Horace Mann Page
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    • Analytic rubric vs. Holistic rubric:Analytic: Assigning separate scores for different traits or dimensions of a student’s work.The separate score should total your predetermined amount.Holistic: Assigning one overall score based on the combination of performance standardsbeing assessed.Sample Rubrics for Student Products, Projects, and Problem SolvingDoes the product reflect that the student made valid inferences from datasources? 4= The product reflects that the student made valid inferences from data sources. 3= The product reflects that the student made invalid inferences from data sources. 2= The product lacks inference from data sources. 1= The product lacks evidence that the student used data sources.Does the product show evidence that the student reached valid conclusions based ondata analysis and displayed the results of the analysis in appropriate formats (e.g.graphs, charts, tables, pictures, and other representations)? 4 = The product shows evidence that the student reached valid conclusions based on data analysis and displayed the results of the analysis in appropriate formats. 3 = The product shows evidence that the student reached valid conclusions based on data analysis and displayed the results of the analysis in inappropriate formats. 2 = The product shows evidence that the student reached conclusions not based on data analysis and displayed the results of the analysis in appropriate formats. OR the product shows evidence that the student reached valid conclusions based on data analysis but lacked evidence of the analysis. 1 = The product shows no evidence of data analysis.Online Resources for RubricsRubricshttp://www2.gsu.edu/~mstnrhx/457/rubric.htmRubrics for Assessmenthttp://www.uwstout.edu/soe/profdev/rubrics.cfm Page
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    • A Sample Laboratory RubricPhase Change AssessmentTask: This is a three-day activity in which students observe and perform a distillation todemonstrate phase change, explain energy transformation, and identify key componentsin the system. On day one, a group of students writes a description of the distillationequipment that is placed in a location that the other class members cannot see. The rest ofthe class assembles the lab equipment on the lab tables according to this description. Onday two, the lab groups use the setup to experiment with the phase change of water fromliquid to gas and back to liquid. Each group writes their own statement of the problem,hypothesis, procedure, data table, and conclusion. On day three, each student describesindividual components of the setup and explains how each part is used to cause water tochange phases.Rubric Topics Score 4 Score 3 Score 2 Score 1Collaborative Worker: Student stays on task: Student stays on Student dos not attend Student does notStudent can take charge offers useful ideas and task; offers useful to the lab. Student respond to the group.of his/her own behavior can defend them; can ideas and can accepts group view or Student is not involvedin a group take on various roles; defend them; can considers only his/her or may try to participates without take on various own ideas worthwhile. undermine the efforts prompting. roles; rarely Student needs regular of the group. requires prompting prompting to stay on to participate. task.Scientific Literacy: Student identifies the Student identifies Student identifies the Student does notStudent uses processes question, forms a the question, forms question but does not identify the question.and skills of science to possible solution, a possible solution. form a complete No possible solution isconduct investigations designs a data chart, Procedure and data solution. Procedure given. Procedure and collects data, and chart are complete and data are data chart are concludes about the but lack clarity incomplete and the incomplete or missing. validity of the possible and/or creativity. conclusion does not The conclusion is solution. Student concludes speak to the possible incomplete or missing. about the validity of solution. the possible solution.Systems Analysis: Student identifies how Student identifies Student does not Student incorrectlyStudent describes how a parts of the system how parts of the identify some parts of identifies the parts andsystem operates internally interact and provides system interact and the system. Student cannot describe howand how it personal insight into the relates how the does not understand they interact eitherinteracts with the outside interacting of the parts. system interacts how the parts interact within or outside theworld. Student relates how the with the outside and does not relate system. system interacts with world. how the system the outside world. interacts with the outside world. Reprinted from NSTA with permission.Inquiry
Based
Labs
to
Assess
Learning

Inquiry based labs are exploration activities in which students are responsible for allaspects of the experimental design. (Students must demonstrate sufficient content, Page
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    • process, and safety readiness before they are permitted to proceed in order to ensure asafe and meaningful laboratory experience.) Assessing inquiry activities requires teachersto recognize that not all students will choose to explore the same aspect of a givenproblem. Students should be able to explain and justify their procedure.Evaluation may be based on: • reasoning skills • the ability to identify the question • the experimental design • documentation of data • drawing conclusions from data • teamworkOnline Resources for Inquiry Based LabsNSTA National Association of Science TeacherPosition Statement Scientific Inquiryhttp://www.nsta.org/about/positions/inquiry.aspxInquiry Based Approaches to Science Education: Theory and Practicehttp://www.brynmawr.edu/biology/franklin/InquiryBasedScience.htmlMini-Labs.org: Inquiry-Based Lab Activities for Formative Assessmenthttp://www.mini-labs.org/Mini_Labs_Home.htmlInteractive
Notebooks
to
Assess
Learning
An interactive notebook is a student’s record of activities and reflections. Interactivenotebooks are dynamic assessment tools that promote communication between theteacher and student, reflection on what students are learning, and active involvement inclassroom activities.Interactive notebooks can also be used to assess attitudes toward science. To realize thefull potential of the interactive notebook, the teacher should probe, challenge, or ask forelaborations about the entries submitted.Assessment of interactive notebooks depends on the purpose of the interactive notebookand the maturity of the student. The act of keeping an interactive notebook can beconsidered a goal in itself if a teacher wants the students to structure or feel ownership oftheir own learning, and the criterion for success of this objective might simply be thecompletion of the assigned interactive notebook entries. Page
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    • Open­Ended
Questions

Open-ended questions are highly compatible with the current emphasis on teachingstudents to become active complex thinkers and effective communicators.Open-ended questions can assess a variety of instructional goals, including: • conceptual understanding • application of knowledge via creative writing • the use of science process skills, and divergent thinking skillsIf open-ended questions are to be included on a test that will be graded, it is importantthat teachers prepare students for expectations that may be new to them. Student anxietyover open-ended test questions might be reduced by sharing examples of model studentresponses and providing opportunities for practice.Grading open-ended questions involves interpreting the quality of the response in termsof predetermined criteria. Several suggestions for rating open-ended questions are offeredbelow: • Determine in advance the elements expected in an answer. • Communicate the criteria that will be assessed. • Read a sampling of answers before assigning grades to get an idea of the range of responses to each question.Some suggestions for open-ended questions that lead to higher order-thinking are listedbelow: • What is the relationship between...? • How might this principle be applied to...? • What are some of the limitations of the data? • How might this information be used in another area?Portfolios
Portfolios refer to the process of assessing student progress by collecting examples ofstudent products. Physically, it is a container of evidence of a student’s achievements,competencies, or skills. It is a purposeful collection in the sense that the collection ismeant to tell a story about achievement or growth in a particular area. Portfolios representcomplex, qualitative, and progressive pictures of student accomplishments.The use of portfolios, like any assessment method, starts with a consideration ofpurposes. A properly designed assessment portfolio can serve four important purposes. Itallows: • teachers to assess the growth of students’ learning • students to keep a record of their achievements and progress • teacher and parents to communicate about student work, and/or • teachers to collaborate with other teachers to reflect on their instructional programs Page
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    • An essential step for determining what to include in a portfolio is to answer the question:What should students know and be able to do? This establishes criteria by which thequality of a task is judged. A portfolio may include, but is not limited to: • a table of contents • a description of the concepts to be mastered • artifacts that demonstrate the student’s mastery of concepts • evidence of self-reflection • a series of work samples showing growth over time • examples of best work • assessment information and/or copies of rubrics • progress notes contributed by student and teacher collaborativelyA portfolio may be as simple as a large expandable file folder in a place that is easilyaccessible to students and teacher. The location invites student and teacher contributionson an ongoing basis. It is important for students to review their portfolios to assess whatthey have achieved. It is in self-reflection that the student realizes progress and gainsownership in learning and achievement.Graphic
Organizers
as
Assessment
Tools

Graphic organizers can be used as effective assessments as well as teaching strategies. Agraphic allows students to organize large amounts of information in a limited space,usually one page. Student-developed graphic organizers can be used to demonstrate howwell students have grasped concepts and connected ideas.Examples of graphic organizers include concept maps, thinking maps, diagrams, wordwebs, idea balloons, and Venn diagrams.Integrating Technology in AssessmentThe use of technology can play a vital role in student achievement and assessment.Teachers need to assess students’ learning/instructional needs to identify the appropriatetechnology for instruction. Technology materials need to be reviewed in order todetermine their most appropriate instructional use. Research based practices should beapplied in the integration of instruction and assessment. Select and use appropriatetechnology to support content-specific student learning outcomes. When developingassessments with the use of technology they should be appropriate to student outcomes.Examples of technologies that can be used in the classroom to facilitate assessment: • Edline • Computers/Computer Software • Internet • Laboratory Probes • Still and Video Cameras • Classroom Response Systems • Question Data Banks Page
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    • Online Resources for Integrating Technology in AssessmentCenter for Integrating Technology & Teaching: Teaching and Technologyhttp://research.auctr.edu/content.php?pid=106722&sid=825564Motivate While You Integrate Technology: Online Assessmenthttp://www.educationworld.com/a_tech/tech/tech125.shtmlInterviewsIn an interview, the teacher questions students individually about learning. A series ofprobing questions can be developed that are useful in deciding how to help studentsimprove their performance. Many benefits can result from interviews: • Rapport is encouraged and student motivation may be increased. • Students who are intimidated by written tests may express what they understand in a less threatening context. • Interviews provide teachers the opportunity to probe and ask follow-up questions in ways that challenge students to think beyond their current level of understanding and to organize their knowledge in more systematic ways. Some suggestions for effective interviewing follow: • Keep the tone of the interview positive and constructive. Remember to avoid giving verbal cues or exhibiting facial expressions that can be interpreted as meaning that an answer is incorrect. • Let students respond without interruptions and give them time to think before they respond. • Try to keep interviews short and focus on relevant questions.Peer AssessmentPeer assessment occurs every time students collaborate on assignments, explain theirunderstanding of a topic to another, or ask their neighbor in class how to proceed with alab experiment. Many times the most valued opinions and assessments are those studentsdetermine with one another.Peer assessment requires students to put aside any biases toward each other and trulyreflect on accomplishments. Procedures and criteria for peer assessment should bedeveloped with the class. By assessing others’ work, students often see alternativereasoning patterns and develop an appreciation for the diverse ways of approachingproblems.Some advantages of peer assessment are: Page
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    • • increased quality of performance • improved cooperative attitudes, and enhanced leadership skillsSelf-AssessmentStudent self-assessment questionnaires are helpful in determining how students perceivetheir knowledge, skills, or the quality of their work. When used appropriately, self-assessments actively involve students in reflecting on their learning process andemphasize the importance of students’ awareness about what they know and what theyneed to know.Teachers may find it helpful to present a science self-assessment at the beginning,middle, and end of the school year to monitor student changes in attitudes towardsscience and their individual successes within a given class.Students may be requested to include self-assessments as a part of project and portfolioassignments.Groups or teams may be required to evaluate individual and group performance related toteamwork and responsibility and to make recommendations for improving groupperformance on future projects.Students can be asked to evaluate their understanding of concepts at any point in theinstructional process. A teacher might announce future topics (e.g., carbohydrates, starch,glucose, and digestion) and ask students to rate each concept using the following key:1 = I have never heard of it.2 = I have heard of it but do not understand it.3 = I think I understand it partially.4 = I know and understand it.5 = I can explain it to a friend.Such an approach to assessing students’ understanding is less threatening than a pre-testand can give students a sense of the different levels of knowledge, particularly if usedfrequently in a class situation. Results of student ratings of each concept could betabulated as a class activity, which may promote positive peer interactions and expandlearning opportunities.Teacher Observation of Student LearningSome goals and objectives can only be assessed by observation. For example, it isdifficult to imagine how a teacher would assess students’ team problem-solving skills orsuccess at independent lab work without observing them. The three types of teacherobservation are informal, structured and narrative.Informal Observations Page
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    • Teachers regularly observe students and make assessments about their performance thatinfluence future instruction. With informal observations, teachers observe with nopredetermined focus. The information gathered may be used for parent or studentconferences. Informal observations occur daily, and occasionally teachers may want torecord information from their observations.Structured ObservationsThe components of structured observations include a specified focus and a samplebehavior to be observed systematically. The information may be used to show whichstudents need improvement or to give students feedback about how they are improving.NarrativesProgress on some objectives can be tracked best through narrative records of observedbehavior. A narrative is a written record. Such narratives are particularly appropriate forcomplex behaviors, such as group interactions, which cannot be described effectivelywith a checklist.For example, a teacher might observe and describe a cooperative team learning activity.Over time, a series of these narratives might demonstrate how students improved inworking as a team. Page
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    • Quality Science for All StudentsAll students, not just a talented few, need to learn science. It is integral to all of society andprovides a foundation for understanding the world in which we live. It is important thataccessible opportunities for learning science are provided to every student.Today and tomorrow are being shaped by science and technology. Our society is dependenton how wisely we use science and technology. It is necessary for students to develop theunderstanding and thinking habits they need to become informed citizens, prepared to facelife head-on. Science and technology are so intertwined in society, that lack of “scienceliteracy” may adversely impact our economy, our democracy, and our quality of life.We have a mission to make science literacy possible for all students. What is required is acommitment to developing higher-order thinking and problem-solving skills. Science-literatecitizens are better prepared to assume responsibilities for making our world a better place.Science LiteracyScience is an integral part of life and prepares students to make reasoned, thoughtful, andhealthy lifelong decisions in a world that is constantly changing. Scientific literacy promotesskeptical, creative minds able to interpret data and to distinguish between scientificinformation and pseudoscience.Exemplary science teachers relate what students already know to new concepts, buildingupon prior understandings, and working to identify and resolve students’ misconceptions.They emphasize the real-life relevance of science, use examples that relate to daily lifeexperiences, and encourage students to find connections to their own experiences. Currentand varied resources are used to provide a variety of perspectives and up-to-date information,with an instructional focus on concepts rather than textbook chapters. Teachers ask probingquestions that encourage student discussion, prediction, or explanation.Students should be actively engaged in scientific processes and inquiry. They should collect,manipulate, and interpret data regularly, and use the data to answer questions or supportclaims. Predicting, inferring, and comparing are integral, adding to the student’s depth ofunderstanding.40% of instruction time should be devoted to activities involving the manipulation,collecting and analyzing of data.Matching Strategies to Course LevelAddressing the “regular and “honors” levels in science can prove challenging to teachers,because the core content of the courses as determined by the Florida Department ofEducation may be similar. Differences may be defined by the level at which the studentsare asked to think, solve, explain, design, develop, and produce. It is important toremember, that all students should have strong experience in each of the identifiedscience standards, with an emphasis on science process skills. All students should have Page
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    • opportunities to pursue in-depth projects, experimental design, and original research.Higher level activities should comprise a significant percentage of the “honors”curriculum.BLOOM’S TAXONOMY (Revised) WEBB’S DEPTH OF KNOWLEDGERemembering Level One - RecallDefine, duplicate, list, memorize, Recall of a fact, information, or procedure.recall, repeat Represent in words or diagrams a scientific concept or relationship. Conduct basicRegular 10%, Honors 10% mathematical calculations.UnderstandingClassify, describe, discuss, explain,identify, locate, recognize, selectRegular 30%, Honors 10%Applying Level Two -Basic Application of Skill/ConceptChoose, demonstrate, dramatize, Use of information, conceptual knowledge,interpret, illustrate, interpret, solve procedures, or two or more steps. Formulate a routine problem given data and conditions.Regular 30%, Honors 20% Organize, represent and interpret data. Level Three -Strategic ThinkingAnalyzing Requires reasoning, developing a plan orAppraise, compare, contrast, criticize, sequence of steps; has some complexity; moreexamine, differentiate, discriminate, than one possible answer. Identify researchdistinguish question for a scientific problem. Think and process multiple conditions of the problem orRegular 10%, Honors 20% task.Evaluating Level Four - Extended ThinkingArgue, defend, judge, support, value, Requires an investigation. Create aevaluate, select mathematical model to inform and solve a practical or abstract situation. Conduct aRegular 10%, Honors 20% project that requires specifying a problem, designing and conducting an experiment,Creating analyzing its data, and reporting results/Assemble, construct, design, develop, solutions. Apply mathematical model toformulate illuminate a problem or situation. Develop a scientific model for a complex situation.Regular 10%, Honors 20% Student peer review. Page
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    • Strategies for Students with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)Establishing the Proper Learning Environment in Science • Seat students with ADD closer to the teacher, but include them as part of the regular science class seating. • Avoid distracting stimuli. Try not to place students with ADD near air conditioners, high traffic areas, doors, or windows. • Students with ADD may require additional attention and assistance during field trips, labs and hands-on activities. • Provide a quiet area in the classroom for use by any student wishing to reduce distractions.Giving Instructions in Science to Students with ADD • Maintain eye contact when giving verbal science instruction. • Simplify complex directions for science activities and avoid multiple commands. • Confirm that students understand the instructions before beginning an activity or lab. Repeat instructions in a calm, positive manner, if needed. • Help students feel comfortable in asking for assistance. (Many students with ADD will not ask for help.)Giving Assignments in Science to Students with ADD • Help the students develop and maintain an organizational system. (Organization is an important but difficult task for most ADD students.) • Modify science assignments as needed to match the quantity of work to the needs of the student. • Give extra time for certain tasks. Students with ADD may work slowly. Do not penalize them for needing extra time to complete an assignment or lab activity. • Keep in mind that children with ADD are easily frustrated. Stress, pressure, and fatigue can break down their self-control and lead to poor behavior.Providing Supervision and Discipline in Science • Assure that students clearly understand safety rules and requirements as well as potential hazards. • Enforce classroom rules consistently. • Administer consequences immediately, and monitor behavior frequently. • Avoid ridicule and criticism. Remember that children with ADD have difficulty staying in control.Providing Encouragement • Praise good behavior and performance. • Encourage positive self-talk (e.g., “You did very well remaining on task today. How do you feel about that?”). This encourages the child to think positively about themselves. • Provide opportunities for students to focus their attention and energy in positive ways, such as distributing lab supplies to classmates or long term projects that involve data collection. Page
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    • Science for Speakers of Other LanguagesThe ELL (English Language Learners) student may face an array of obstacles whenlearning science. There are a number of strategies which may be useful in helping thestudent learn science while they are also learning English.• The use of visuals is extremely helpful. Many science concepts can be addressed through demonstrations and hands-on activities. Any student, not just the LEP (Limited English Proficiency), can benefit from demonstrations and laboratory work. It may be necessary to provide the LEP with the laboratory procedure ahead of time, so the LEP can translate and thoroughly understand the task at hand. The use of visuals can also include labeling items within the classroom and allowing the LEP to match pictures, items, colors, and symbols with words.• Pairing a struggling LEP student with a more accomplished one might assist both in their work.• Cooperative learning is useful. It provides the LEP the opportunity to hear and practice the English language in a group setting.• The use of gestures and facial expressions is effective in portraying meaning. (Caution needs to be taken to ensure the gestures and expressions used are not offensive to the LEP).• Encourage the LEP to ask questions to clarify understanding.• Use repetition and consistency when giving instructions.• Create word banks. Science has a unique vocabulary the LEP will not encounter out of the classroom. Supplying the LEP with important vocabulary ahead of time will allow the LEP to translate and have an understanding of the vocabulary before class. This will make a class discussion or lecture easier for the LEP to understand.• Semantic Mapping is a strategy which uses vocabulary and background knowledge. The student can display words, ideas, and details that relate to a larger concept.• A Native Language/English Dictionary should be made available. Make use of available science resources to make lessons relevant.• Use musical activities to introduce and reinforce science concepts.• Use graphic organizer strategies such as consequence diagrams, decision trees, flowcharts, Venn diagrams, and webbing to make the science concepts easier to understand.• When assessing the LEP, it is helpful to allow the student additional time to complete the task. Another option is to use oral assessment. A visual exam could be used by having the student identify diagrams or depict ideas and processes through diagrams. Page
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    • Strategies for Teaching Science to Academically Gifted StudentsGifted learners require an enhanced curriculum of instruction. The curriculum shouldhave greater depth of study for greater challenge and complexity.Depth of study and complexity can be increased by including the following: • attributes, patterns and details • connections between disciplines • opportunities for questioning different points of view • opportunities for promote thinking of different possibilities or solutions
 
General Characteristics - Gifted Students • Gifted learners are diverse. • Crave knowledge.
 
 Irresistible desire to learn certain subjects.
Set high standards for themselves. Challenge generalizations. • May be outstanding in some areas but average in others. • Need to feel a sense of progress in what they are learning. • Desire to know, have the capacity to create, structure, and organize data. • Need to make observations, establish serial relationships, and comment on them. • Have tremendous power of concentration. • Are sensitive to values. • Resist routines. Need time to work alone. • Seek order, structure, consistency, and a better way of doing things.Differentiated InstructionDifferentiated Instruction is a teaching method based on the fact that students havevarying learning readiness levels. Instructional strategies are modified to meet the needsof the various learning levels of the students. Teachers are encouraged to be flexible inproviding students with activities that are challenging and allow for mastery of sciencecontent. Using the 5Es model and B.E.S.T. strategies ensures the science classroomprovides a differentiated approach to learning.Online Resources Differentiated InstructionDifferentiated instruction, Dr. Susan Allenhttp://differentiatedinstruction.net/Learner’s Linkhttp://www.learnerslink.com/Sunshine Connections, FLDOEhttp://www.sunshineconnections.org/strategies/Pages/DifferentiatedInstruction.aspxEnhance Learning with Technologyhttp://members.shaw.ca/priscillatheroux/differentiating.htmlDifferentiated Instruction – Strategies for Teachershttp://www.eht.k12.nj.us/~Jonesj/Differentiated%20Instruction/1%20DI%20Strategies.htm Page
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    • Literature CitedBrookfield, S., 1987, Developing critical thinkers: challenging adults to explore alternative ways of thinking and acting, Open University Press, Milton Keynes.Sharon M. Feldstein, s & Benner, M, 2004, The American Biology Teacher (Feb 2004): p 114(6).Hinton , C. , Miyamoto , K. , & della Chiesa , B . ( 2008 ). Brain research, learning, and emotions: Implications for education research, policy, and practice . European Journal of Education , 4 3 ,87 – 103 .Howard, P., 1994, The owners manual for the brain. Austin, TX: Leornian.Hoover, W., Published in SEDL Letter Volume IX, Number 3, August 1996, ConstructivismJensen, E., 1998, Teaching with the brain in mind. Alexandria, VA: ASCDLevy F., and R. J. Murnane. 2005. The new division of labor: How computers are creating the next job market. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.McGaugh, J. L., Introini-Collison, I. B., Cahill, L. F., Castellano, C., Dalmaz, C., Parent, M. B., & Williams, C. L., 1993, Neuromodulatory systems and memory storage: Role of the amygdala. Behavioural Brain Research, 58, 81–90.Mezirow, J., 1990, Fostering critical reflection in adulthood: a guide to transformative and emancipatory learning, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.Pally, R., 1997, How brain development is shaped by genetic and environmental factors. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 78, 587–593.Resnick, L. B., 1987, Learning in school and out. Educational Researcher, 16(9), 13-20.Schön, DA., 1987, Educating the reflective practitioner, Jossey-Bass. San Francisco.Shultz, W., Dayan, P., & Montague, P. R., 1997, A neural substrate of prediction and reward. Science, 275, 1593–1599.Stewart, V. 2010. A classroom as wide as the world. In Curriculum 21: Essential Education for a Changing World, ed. H. Hayes Jacobs, 97–114. Alexandria, VA : Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Willis, J. (2008). Brain-based teaching strategies for improving students memory, learning, and test-taking success.(Review of Research). Childhood Education, 83(5), 31-316.Wilmarth, S. 2010. Five socio-technology trends that change everything in learning and teaching. In Curriculum 21: Essential education for a changing world, ed. Heidi Hayes Jacobs, 80–96. Alexandria, VA : Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Windschitl, M. 2009. Cultivating 21st century skills in science learners: How systems of teacher preparation and professional development will have to evolve. Presentation given at the National Academies of Science Workshop on 21st Century Skills, Washington, DC. Page
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    • IntroductionPursuing Exemplary Chemistry EducationScience is an integral part of life and prepares students to make reasoned, thoughtful, andhealthy life long decisions in a world that is constantly changing. Goals of the chemistrycourse include chemistry literacy, which focuses on the mastery of information specificto chemistry, and scientific literacy, which emphasizes the process of thinking,evaluating, and the quest for knowledge. Scientific literacy promotes skeptical, creativeminds able to interpret data and to distinguish between scientific information andpseudoscience.Exemplary science teachers relate what students already know to new concepts, buildingupon prior understandings and working to identify and resolve students’ misconceptions.They emphasize the real-life relevance of science, use examples which relate to daily lifeexperiences, and encourage students to find connections to their own experiences.Current and varied resources are used to provide a variety of perspectives and up-to-dateinformation, with an instructional focus on concepts rather than textbook chapters.Teachers ask probing questions that encourage student discussion, prediction, andexplanation.Chemistry is central to science, and the exemplary chemistry teachers present unifiedscience concepts that exemplify how the disciplines of science interrelate in actualpractice. They also integrate other subject areas as they naturally relate, such asstatistical analysis of data (mathematics), communicating lab results (language arts), andexamining the societal implications of science issues (social studies).Students are actively engaged in scientific processes and inquiry in an exemplarychemistry classroom. They collect, manipulate, and interpret data regularly, and use thedata to answer questions or support claims. Predicting, inferring, and comparing areintegral, adding to the student’s depth of understanding. At least 40% of chemistryinstructional time should be devoted to active laboratory investigations involvingthe collection and analysis of data.Laboratory Safety in ChemistryWhile it is true that the chemistry laboratory is a potentially hazardous place to learnchemistry, it is just as true that the chemistry laboratory can be a safe and fun setting forenriched learning experiences. Safety in the laboratory must take the highest priority forthe chemistry teacher—and the chemistry student. Alert and constant laboratorysupervision combined with well-prepared students, are the keys to practicing safescience.For example, the chemistry teacher must ensure that all chemicals, equipment, andprocedures are previously approved by Brevard County Schools (see Brevard Public Page
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    • Schools Safe Science Manual). Chemicals and supplies must be logistically dispersed foreasy and safe student access. Students must wear appropriate safety attire, includingchemical splash goggles and aprons. The chemistry teacher must always review safetyprocedures and protocols before the lab activity and enforce those safety rules during thelab activity. Always consult the Brevard Public Schools Safe Science Manual for safetyinformation as well as other sources that apply to your particle lab safety situation.Following safe science practices will create a safe and fun environment for learningchemistry. Brevard Public Schools Safe Science Manual can be found at:http://secondarypgms.brevard.k12.fl.us/Science%20Guides/Safe%20Science%2008.pdfGuide to Curriculum Design and ImplementationTo maximize student learning and success, the course in chemistry must be exactly that, aplanned succession of educational experiences that constructs progressive pathwaystowards a clearly defined set of goals. The Next Generation Sunshine State Standardsis the wellspring for those goals. However, the exemplary teacher is always mindful ofthe immense importance of the curriculum journey itself. Just as science is process ratherthan product orientated, so, too, must the instructor be aware of the diverse pathways astudent may undertake to arrive at these goals.The experienced teacher is constantly expanding and enhancing his or her repertoire ofteaching models and learning strategies, offering the students innovative, interesting andrelevant learning experiences. Exemplary teachers are tuned into their students’ interestsand needs and are not fearful of taking risks by embarking on unplanned alternativepathways initiated by the students. Classroom spontaneity, if properly seized upon andcontrolled, can be a powerful force in successful learning. It includes the student as animportant component of the curriculum decision-making process. This has the addedbenefit of giving the student a sense of ownership in his or her education.Outstanding teachers are also aware that adhering blindly to a chapter-by-chapterconcrete-hard curriculum can often diminish student creativity, critical thinking skills,and ultimately, student interest and motivation. One of the most consistent criticisms offormal education has been its ability to all but stamp out the child-like sense of wonderand curiosity that is part of our human nature. The exemplary teacher welcomes theawesome question, “Why?”The chemistry curriculum should exude a cohesiveness and fluidity that gives thestudents a sense of structure and direction yet allows for the unexpected andunpredictable. Such a curriculum offers the student a chance to experience the excitementof real science as what it has always been: an adventure. Exemplary teachers are keenlyaware of the major forces that influence the curriculum. The relative strength of eachforce must be constantly measured and weighed against each other to achieve curriculumbalance. This process can be daunting, but, with experience, the instructor can craft arewarding long lasting learning experience for the student. These forces can be numerousand complex and an exhaustive treatment is beyond the scope of this document.However, what follows is a guide to help the teacher determine how to construct andimplement a successful chemistry curriculum. Page
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    • Curriculum OrganizersOnce the curriculum aims, goals, and objectives are established, the instructor proceedsto build a course of study that enables the students to meet the standards and benchmarks.Curriculum Organizers are selected to mold the various components of the course into acohesive, structured, yet fluid curriculum. These organizers serve as dimensions ofcurriculum design and give structure to a course of study. Some of the most commonlyused organizers are content-centered, student-centered, theme-centered, and process-centered. Most well planned courses use a combination of curriculum organizers to meetthe goals and standards.The nature and structure of scientific knowledge significantly influences how science willbe learned. The history of science, including chemistry, has demonstrated that there aremultiple ways of knowing. Experimental designs, deductive and inductive reasoning,mathematical modeling, Einstein’s famous thought-experiments, and even serendipity areexamples of ways that have extended our understanding of science and the world.There are three types of content-centered organizers that must be used to maximize thechemistry curriculum: Paradigms, Unifying Themes, and Major Ideas. Like Bloom’sTaxonomy of Cognitive Levels, these content-centered organizers have overlapping aswell as distinctive characteristics.Paradigms are mental models, sometimes referred to as schemas or cognitive maps. They areused as a mental ‘window’ to view and interpret reality. For example, when a chemistobserves a blue sky, he or she ‘sees’ the interaction of photons with electrons of atmosphericatoms. The chemist realizes that the resulting color is associated with specific characteristicand behaviors of these subatomic particles. Those lacking the appropriate paradigms cannotappreciate this insight into why the sky is blue. Paradigms cannot be learned through rotememorization of unconnected facts; rather, they must be constructed via meaningfulexperiences over a significant period of time. If one wishes to learn a foreign language,merely becoming familiar with vocabulary and written symbolism are insufficient forlanguage mastery. The student must learn and understand the structure of the languagethrough its diverse use. This is primarily accomplished through paradigm construction.If the student is to truly benefit from a chemistry curriculum, he or she must construct apermanent set of useful paradigms that serve to enhance the student’s understanding of theworld. Once these chemistry paradigms become part of the student’s thinking process, criticaldecision-making skills are significantly improved. Another important reason for curriculumfocus on paradigm construction is the fact that students learn faster when they are able toconnect new learning to preexisting schemas or cognitive maps. It is far easier for aprofessional cook to learn and understand an innovative recipe for making clam chowderthan it is for a person with no cooking experience. After completing the chemistry course, allstudents must have constructed the following major chemistry paradigms: Page
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    • • The quantum model of the atom. • The laws of energy and entropy influence chemical systems. • The transition of electrons from one orbit to another is a primary driving force for chemical reactions. • Elements react with each other according to specific rules of stability. • Chemical systems spontaneously drive towards a state of equilibrium. • The Kinetic Molecular Theory. • The scientific method and associated processes. • Molecular structure and bonding gives rise to physical and chemical properties. • Atoms, ions, and molecules react with each other, via energetic collisions, in specific ratios. • All physical and biological systems are composed of atoms, ions, and molecules and are governed by the laws that influence the behavior of such particles.Unifying Themes are curriculum strands that continue to resurface as motifs that serve tobind and give meaning to the subject material. They also tend to link chemistry with otherscientific disciplines and other subject areas as well. These themes unite the variousscientific disciplines in terms of central scientific ideas and thus help the studentunderstand that all sciences utilize specific procedures, processes of investigation andverification, and a code of ethics.The major Unifying Themes that should be incorporated into the chemistry curriculumare as follows: • The Nature of Science • Energy and Matter • Quantification and Analysis Techniques • Applications of the scientific method, as a process of science. • Modeling Systems and Patterns • Taxonomic and Nomenclature Systems • Problem-Solving Techniques • Science/Technology/Society • Safe Science Practices • Advantages of Scientific Literacy • Processes of Life • How Living Things Interact with the EnvironmentMajor Ideas are the primary curriculum components of a chemistry course. They define thespecific areas of study that determine the course content. When implemented within thecontext of the Paradigms and Unifying Themes, the Major Ideas blend together into acohesive flow that becomes a continuum of scientific knowledge. The Major Ideas addressedin this document were set forth by the Florida Department of Education and represent thecore of the chemistry course content that addresses the Next Generation Sunshine StateStandards. They are as follows: Page
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    • • Matter: It’s Classification, Structure and Changes • The Nature of Science • Interactions of Chemistry with Technology and Society • Atomic Theory • The Periodic Table • Chemical Bonding and Formulas • Chemical Reactions and Balanced Equations • Stoichiometry • Behavior of Gases • Dynamics of Energy • Reaction Rates and Equilibrium • Acids and Bases • Electrochemistry • Chemistry of LifeThe chemistry course should not be limited to just these particular Major Ideas. Chemistry,as the central science, has great many applications and specialized areas of study that meritinclusion in even an introductory chemistry course. The instructor is free to select such topicsas appropriate to enrich the chemistry course.SequencingIn sequencing a curriculum, the instructor must decide on a series of learning experiencesand events that are to take place in chronological order. The experienced teachersequences a curriculum in the same manner that composers and writers sequence musicand literature. Plots, subplots, melodic themes, and motifs are interwoven into a tapestrythat is art. New ideas are presented in relationship to previously stated themes. In otherwords, music, literature, or a curriculum is not to be experienced in merely linear fashion.The third movement of a symphony, although unique, is conceived as an extension anddevelopment of the first two movements and a precursor to the forth movement. In thesame way, the ‘chapters’ of a book are not created as separate unconnected bits of prose.They relate to each other in complex ways.The sequencing of the chemistry curriculum must be no different. Major Ideas should bethought of as musical movements or literary chapters, not isolated islands of ‘stuff’ to becovered. The student must always feel that there is an underlying purpose that drives thechemistry curriculum. Laboratory experiments, field trips, teacher presentations, projects,problem-solving sessions, readings, and class discussions should all be consideredexamples of interesting and diverse ways of experiencing the chemistry curriculum.Using the Paradigms, Unifying Themes, and Major Ideas and other relevant factors suchas student interest, the exemplary teacher will sequence these various activities into an artform that we call a curriculum. Page
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    • How to Use This DocumentThis main purpose of this document is to help teachers effectively address the NextGeneration Sunshine State Standards (NGSSS) and benchmarks as they apply to the boththe regular and honors chemistry curriculum. The chemistry curriculum guide isorganized by eight Unifying Questions. Each of these major questions is addressed byEssential Questions, Common Misconceptions, Assessment Probes, B.E.S.T./ 5E Sample,Thinking Map, and the Major Idea curriculum topicsFor each Major Idea topic, you will first find the NGSSS Body of Knowledge, Standards,and Benchmarks that are addressed by that Major Idea topic. Following that will be anOverview that discusses the importance of each Major Idea topic, Teaching Strategiesthat discusses suggested teaching and learning strategies and activities, and, MatchingStrategies to Course Level, which addresses the different expectations and requirementsfor Chemistry I vs. Chemistry I Honors. The final section of this chapter is the TeacherSupport. This section includes the benchmarks addressed by the Major Idea topic. Foreach benchmark, a list of activities and resources for both chemistry I and chemistry Ihonors to be used to address that benchmark has been listed.Chemistry Course DescriptionsChemistry is a laboratory based course introducing the fundamental principles ofchemistry and their applications. Major topics include science/technology and society,the nature of science, scientific measurement and analysis, matter and energy, atomictheory, periodicity, bonding, chemical formulas, reactions, and equations, chemicalquantities, stoichiometry, thermochemisty, reaction rates and equilibrium, states ofmatter, behavior of gases, solution chemistry, acids and bases, electrochemistry, energy,chemistry of life, nuclear chemistry, and an introduction to organic chemistry.The course includes an introduction to the principles and techniques of experimentalchemistry, emphasizing experimental design, inquiry, data analysis and problem solving.The Florida Department of Education for Chemistry 1 can be found at:http://www.floridastandards.org/Courses/PublicPreviewCourse76.aspx?ct=1&kw=chemistryThe Florida Department of Education for Chemistry 1 Honors can be found at:http://www.floridastandards.org/Courses/PublicPreviewCourse77.aspx?ct=1&kw=chemistry Page
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    • Sample Concept Map of the Major Unifying Questions Page
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    • Suggested Curriculum Course Outline for ChemistryMajor Themes and Topics Suggested Benchmarks Time 1st Nine WeeksWhat is Chemistry?Matter: Classification, Structure and Changes 1 week SC.912.P.8.1 • Introduction to Chemistry SC.912.P.8.2 • Connections to Other Sciences SC.912.P.8.5 • Physical and Chemical Changes SC.912.P.8.6 o Movie Special Effects SC.912.P.8.7 o Art SC.912.P.10.1 o Mystery Chemistry SC.912.E.5.1 • Mixtures, Elements and Compounds o Metals and Nonmetals o PolymersHow is Chemistry Practiced?Scientific Measurement and Data Analysis 1 week SC.912.N.1.1-N.1.7 • The Processes of Science SC.912.N.2.1-N.2.5 o Inquiry Science SC.912.N.3.1-N.3.5 o CSI Chemistry SC.912.N.4.1-N.4.2 • SI Measurement • Mass, Volume, Density • Conversion Factors • Significant Figures • Precision and Accuracy
Chemical Quantities 2 weeks SC.912.P.8.9 • Mole Concept SC.912.MA.S.1.2 • Applications of the Mole Concept • Avogadro’s Number
 1st Nine Weeks Continued on Next Page Page
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    • 1st Nine Weeks ContinuedWhat is our Understanding of Matter and Energy?Atomic Theory 2 weeks SC.912.P.8.3 • History and Development SC.912.P.8.4 • Introduction to the Periodic Table SC.912.P.10.10 • Subatomic Particles • Atomic Mass and Number • IsotopesNuclear 1 week SC.912.P.10.11 • The Nucleus SC.912.P.10.12 • Nuclear Stability • Balanced Nuclear Equations • Radioactive Decay and Half-life • Nuclear Radiation • Fission and FusionElectrons in Atoms 2 weeks SC.912.P.10.9 • Properties of Light SC.912.P.10.13 o How Does Stained Glass Get Its SC.912.P.10.18 Color? SC.912.P.10.19 o Producing and Harnessing Light SC.912.E.5.8 • Bohr Model • Quantum Mechanics • Electron Configuration 
 “It is possible to commit no errors and still lose. That is not a weakness. That is life.” Captain Picard to Data, Star Trek: The Next Generation, “Peak Performance” Page
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    • 2nd Nine WeeksHow is the Behavior of Matter Organized?Periodic Table 2 weeks SC.912.P.8.5 • Development of the Periodic Table SC.912.P.10.14 o Principles of Organizing SC.912.MA.S.1.2 • Relationship of Electron Configuration • Periodicity o Characteristics of Metals o Characteristics of NonmetalsBonding 2 weeks SC.912.P.8.6 • Types of Chemical Bonds SC.912.P.8.7 • Lewis Dot Structures SC.912.MA.S.1.2 • Bond Characteristics SC.912.MA.S.3.2 • Molecular GeometryChemical Formulas 2 weeks SC.912.P.8.7 • Chemical Names and Formulas • Oxidation Numbers • Formula and Molar Mass • Percent Composition o Clay • Empirical and Molecular FormulasHow Does Matter Interact?Chemical Reactions and Balanced Equations 3 weeks SC.912.P.8.2 • Reactions, and Equations SC.912.P.8.7 • Balancing Chemical Equations SC.912.P.8.8 • Writing Equations SC.912.P.10.12 • Five Types of Reactions SC.912.MA.S.1.2 o Paints and Dyes Page
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    • 3rd Nine WeeksHow are the Interactions of MatterMeasured?Stoichiometry 3 weeks SC.912.P.8.9 • Mole Ratio SC.912.MA.S.1.2 • Molar Mass as a Conversion Factor • Calculation Techniques • Limiting Reactants • Percent YieldStates of Matter 1 week SC.912.P.8.1 • Kinetic Molecular Theory SC.912.P.8.2 • Liquids SC.912.P.8.6 • Solids SC.912.P.12.11 • Phase Changes • WaterGases 1 week SC.912.P.10.5 • Gas Laws SC.912.P.12.10 o Cartesian Divers SC.912.P.12.11 o Hot Air Balloons • Pressure Conversions • Effusion and DiffusionSolution Chemistry 2 weeks SC.912.P.8.2 • Types of Mixtures SC.912.P.8.9 • Solubility SC.912.P.12.12 • Concentration of Solutions • Colligative Properties o Clay o Ice Cream and Roads o Radiator Fluid Page
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    • 4th Nine WeeksHow are the Interactions Between Matterand Energy Measured?Thermochemistry 2 weeks SC.912.P.10.1 • Calorimetry SC.912.P.10.2 • Enthalpy SC.912.P.10.4 o Reactions That Produce Heat SC.912.P.10.5 • Entropy SC.912.P.10.6 o Rubber Bands and Spontaneity SC.912.P.10.7 • Free Energy SC.912.P.10.8 SC.912.E.5.1 SC.912.L17.19Reaction Rates and Equilibrium 2 weeks SC.912.P.10.6 • Collision Theory SC.912.P.12.12 • Activation Energy SC.912.P.12.13 • Rate Laws SC.912.L.17.15 • Dynamic Equilibrium SC.912.L.17.16 • Equilibrium Constant SC.912.L.18.11 • Le Chatelier’s PrincipleWhat are the Relevant Applications ofChemistry?Acids and Bases 2 weeks SC.912.P.8.8 • Properties SC.912.P.8.11 • Strong and Weak SC.912.L.17.15 • Acid Base Theories SC.912.L.17.16 • Acid Base Reactions SC.912.L.17.20 • pH Calculations SC.912.L.18.12 • TitrationsElectrochemistry 2 weeks SC.912.P.8.2 • Oxidation Reduction Reactions SC.912.P.8.8 • Electrochemical Cells SC.912.P.8.9 o Electroplating SC.912.P.8.10 o Batteries SC.912.P.10.15 SC.912.MA.S.1.2Chemistry of Life 1 week SC.912.P.8.12 • Organic Compounds SC.912.P.8.13 o Polymers SC.912.E.7.1 • Hydrocarbons SC.912.L.17.10 • Functional Groups
 SC.912.L.17.11 SC.912.L.18.11 Page
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    • What is Chemistry?Essential Questions • What is Chemistry? • Why should I learn chemistry? • How is matter described? • What changes does matter undergo? Page
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    • Common Misconceptions • Students may assume that the term chemical refers exclusively to harmful materials. Explain that the term chemical describes all types of matter including life sustaining substances such as water and oxygen. • Students think gases do not have mass. Demonstrate to students that gases have mass. One example is to have students mass a balloon before and after inflation.Assessment ProbesKeeley, Page, Eberle, Francis, and Farrin, Lynn. "Is it Matter?." Uncovering Student Ideas in Science. Vol. 1. Arlington, VA: NSTA, 2005.79-84. PrintKeeley, Page, and Joyce Tugel. "Burning Paper." Uncovering Student Ideas in Science. Vol. 4. Arlington, VA: NSTA, 2007. 23-29. Print "It is the struggle itself that is most important. We must strive to be more than we are. It does not matter that we will not reach our ultimate goal. The effort itself yields its own reward." — Gene Roddenberry Page
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    • What is Chemistry?B.E.S.T. / 5E Sample Page
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    • Lab: How Do Temperature and Salinity Affect Density?Source: “Science Success Through Inquiry” Page 63Overview:This lab is designed to enable the students to see how the density of water is affected bytemperature and salinity. The students will be able to relate how the differences in densitycreate surface and deep currents and how these currents affect the climate of nearbylandmasses.Background:Climate is the characteristic weather for a region over a long period of time. Whencomparing climate zones, the two main conditions that are involved are temperature andamount of precipitation. Factors that affect the temperature of an area include latitude,altitude, and distance from the ocean. The amount of precipitation an area receivesdepends on prevailing winds and topography.Oceans have a considerable effect on the temperature of nearby landmasses. Water heatsup and cools down more slowly than land does, thereby making the temperature ofcoastal regions more moderate than inland regions. Surface currents have a direct effecton the temperature of coastal areas. Warm currents carry warm water from the equator tothe poles. Cold currents carry cold water away from the poles toward the equator.Surface currents therefore cool or warm the surrounding air around them. The presenceor absence of an ocean current will affect an area’s temperature.Currents are created by the density differences of the surrounding water. Variations intemperature, salinity, and pressure of ocean water combine to affect the density ofseawater.Time:One 50-minute class periodMaterials:20 gallon aquarium Food coloringBeakers (250 mL) 4 per group Warm and cold waterTable salt Ice bath for your beakersElectric Fan Heat Lamp Page
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    • Engage: ∑ Ask students to brainstorm and make a list of observations about salt water. Why are these properties important? ∑ Show students examples of tropical drift seeds. Guess where they come from and then discuss how ocean currents affected their voyage. ∑ Challenge students to predict how warm and cold ocean currents can steer a hurricane’s path and modify it’s intensity. Explore: ∑ Implement a pre-laboratory safety and technique presentation. Student instructions: ∑ Using the above materials, students will design an experiment to show how varying temperature and density will affect ocean currents. ∑ Students should vary salinity and temperature. Food coloring will allow the students to see the movement of currents. Explain: Teachers will facilitate a discussion to answer the following questions: ∑ What is the relationship between density and temperature? ∑ What is the relationship between density and salinity? ∑ Is temperature a more important factor in surface or deep currents? ∑ Why won’t cold water and warm water readily mix in the ocean? ∑ What is the effect of wind on currents? ∑ Describe two ways in which ocean currents affect the climate of coastal areas. Elaborate: ∑ Research another factor that affects climate such as topography, wind patterns, or amount of solar radiation. ∑ How does climate influence the type of plants and animals that live in an area? Relate this to the different biomes of the world. Evaluate: ∑ Have students write an essay describing seven or more factors that affect the Earth’s climate. Page
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    • Thinking Map: Taxonomy of MatterStudent Sample Page
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    • Matter: Its Classification, Structure, and ChangesStandards of Focus:Body of Knowledge: PhysicalStandard 8: MatterSC.912.P.8.1 Differentiate among the four states of matter.SC.912.P.8.2 Differentiate between physical and chemical properties and physical and chemical changes of matter.Standard 10: EnergySC.912.P.10.1 Differentiate among the various forms of energy and recognize that they can be transformed from one form to another.Related Standards:Body of Knowledge: PhysicalStandard 8: MatterSC.912.P.8.5 Relate properties of atoms and their position in the periodic table to the arrangement of their electrons.SC.912.P.8.6 Distinguish between bonding forces holding compounds together and other attractive forces, including hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces.SC.912.P.8.7 Interpret formula representations of molecules and compounds in terms of composition and structure.Body of Knowledge: Earth and Space ScienceStandard 5: Earth in Space and TimeSC.912.E.5.1 Cite evidence used to develop and verify the scientific theory of the Big Bang (also known as the Big Bang Theory) of the origin of the universe. Page
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    • Overview:This segment of the chemistry curriculum is grounded in descriptive chemistry.Historically, descriptive chemistry preceded theoretical chemistry, which is based onatomic theory. The first generation of chemists described the physical and chemicalcharacteristic of materials accessible at that time. Patterns were discovered andtaxonomic systems developed in order to classify matter. The study of matter offers thechance to learn how science processes and categorizes information, seeking out patternsto create models of the phenomena being investigated.Teaching Strategies:This Major Idea can be introduced to the students by presenting them with variousmaterials such as liquid solutions, metals, alloys, salts, wood, and polymers. They canthen proceed to develop their own methods of classifying these materials using theirobservations. A post-lab discussion can bring out the various methods and strategiesused to accomplish the task of classification. The results are then compared to theaccepted taxonomic systems used by chemists. Physical characteristics such as mass,volume, and density can be descriptively studied as examples of extensive and intensiveproperties. Separation techniques including distillation and chromatography can beacquired through laboratory activities. These labs can also facilitate student awareness ofthe relationship between energy and physical changes of state. Since this section is oftentaught near or at the beginning of the course, it offers students an excellent opportunity todevelop basic laboratory skills and techniques. Fundamental characteristics of theperiodic table can be introduced during the implementation of this Major Idea.The instructor should guard against elaborating too much on the descriptivechemistry, especially when presented at the beginning of the course. Many of theconcepts and laboratory experiences that could be included in this portion of thecurriculum can be learned and experienced in other segments when students haveachieved a deeper understanding of chemistry. Postponing an elaborate discussion ofmetalloids until students understand electronic structure and stability rules will ensure amore meaningful exploration of this elemental family.Matching Strategies to Course Level:Due to the fundamental nature of this part of the curriculum, there should be little, if anydifference in pacing or expectations for the two course levels. All students can learn andbenefit from the laboratory exercises and strategies in classification. Chemistry IHonors students can be further challenged by more complex classification tasks andadditional lab activities that apply separation techniques such as fractional distillation andcentrifugation. Page
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    • Focus Benchmark Correlations:SC.912.P.8.1 Differentiate among the four states of matter.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonProperties of Matter Chemistry Pages 36-37Active ChemistryStates of Matter Active Chemistry Page 586Change of State Active Chemistry Pages 587-588Changes of State Active Chemistry Pages 595-596Modern ChemistryProperties and Changes in Matter Modern Chemistry Pages 7-8Constructing a Heating/Cooling Curve Inquiry Experiments Pages 29-41“Wet” Dry Ice Modern Chemistry Pages 358-359SC.912.P.8.2 Differentiate between physical and chemical properties and physicaland chemical changes of matter.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonPhysical and Chemical Properties Chemistry Pages 34-37Physical Changes Chemistry Pages 37Chemical Changes Chemistry Pages 48-49Quick Lab: Separating Mixtures Chemistry Pages 39Active ChemistryPhysical Properties Active Chemistry Pages 42-43Lab: Metals and Nonmetals Active Chemistry Pages 60-64Physical and Chemical Properties Active Chemistry Pages105-106Lab: Chemical and Physical Changes Active Chemistry Pages 465-467Chemical and Physical Changes Active Chemistry Page 468Lab: More Chemical Changes Active Chemistry Pages 473-479Properties of Matter Active Chemistry Pages 652-655 Page
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    • Modern ChemistryMatter and Its Properties Modern Chemistry Pages 6-11Mixture Separation Modern Chemistry Pages 26-27Chromatography Experiments Forensics and Applied Pages 35-50 Science ExperimentsEvidence for a Chemical Change Skills Practice Pages 35-40 ExperimentsSC.912.P.10.1 Differentiate among the various forms of energy and recognize thatthey can be transformed from one form to another.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonThe Flow of Energy Chemistry Pages 556-561A Basis for Life Chemistry Pages 838-840Chemical Formulas Chemistry Page 202Metabolism Chemistry Pages 862-866Active ChemistryConservation of Energy Active Chemistry Pages 506-507The Environmental Costs of Generating Active Chemistry Page 634BEnergyModern ChemistryEnergy and Changes in Matter Modern Chemistry Pages 10-11Thermochemistry Modern Chemistry Pages 531-540Internet Resourceshttp://www.energyeducation.tx.gov/http://www.energy4me.org/ Page
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    • Related Benchmark Correlations: SC.912.P.8.5 Relate properties of atoms and their position in the periodic table tothe arrangement of their electrons.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonOrganizing the Elements Chemistry Pages 160-173Periodic Trends Chemistry Pages 174-182Periodicity in Three Dimensions Chemistry Page 184Active ChemistryAtoms with More Than One Electron Active Chemistry Pages 140-148Noble Gases Active Chemistry Pages 157-158Forming Compounds Active Chemistry Pages 165-167Reactivity of Metals Active Chemistry Pages 216-218Modern ChemistryElements Modern Chemistry Pages 16-20Electron Configuration and Periodic Table Modern Chemistry Pages 138-148Electron Configuration and Periodic Modern Chemistry Pages 150-164PropertiesThe Mendeleev Lab of 1869 Modern Chemistry Pages 172-173SC.912.P.8.6 Distinguish between bonding forces holding compounds together andother attractive forces, including hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonIons-Ionic Bonds and Compounds Chemistry Pages 194-207Electron Configurations of Ions Chemistry Page 200Molecular Compounds Chemistry Pages 222-225Quick Lab: Strengths of Covalent Bonds Chemistry Page 238Active ChemistryForming Compounds Active Chemistry Pages 165-167Intermolecular Forces Active Chemistry Pages 392-395Solid, Liquid, or Gas Active Chemistry Pages 389-392Modern ChemistryIntermolecular Forces Modern Chemistry Pages 203-207 Page
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    • Types of Bonding in Solids Modern Chemistry Pages 216-217Conductivity as an Indicator of Bond Type Microscale Experiments Pages 13-18Chemical Bonds Microscale Experiments Pages 19-22SC.912.P.8.7 Interpret formula representations of molecules and compounds interms of composition and structure.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonOctet Rule Chemistry Pages 226-231Molecular Orbitals Chemistry Pages 240-243Chemical Formulas Chemistry Page 202Active ChemistryOrganic Substances Active Chemistry Pages 78-82Lab: Stained Glass Active Chemistry Pages 261-262Solid, Liquid, or Gas Active Chemistry Pages 389-395Lab: More Chemical Changes Active Chemistry Pages 473-479Lab: Chemical Names and Formulas Active Chemistry Pages 480-487Lab: Chemical Equations Active Chemistry Pages 490-494Proteins Active Chemistry Pages 610-612Modern ChemistryThe Octet Rule- Electron Dot Notation Modern Chemistry Pages 182-185VSEPR Theory Modern Chemistry Pages 197-200Lab: Types of Bonding in Solids Modern Chemistry Page 216Chemical Formulas Modern Chemistry Pages 219-220SC.912.E.5.1 Cite evidence used to develop and verify the scientific theory of theBig Bang (also known as the Big Bang Theory) of the origin of the universe. .Teacher SupportActive ChemistryThe Big Bang Theory Active Chemistry Pages 634A-BModern ChemistryThe Chemistry of the Big Bang Modern Chemistry Page 700Internet Resourceshttp://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/bb_theory.htmlhttp://science.howstuffworks.com/dictionary/astronomy-terms/big-bang-theory.htm Page
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    • How is Chemistry Practiced?Essential Questions • How is chemistry practiced? • How are problems solved by chemists? 
 
 
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    • Common Misconceptions • Students may think the steps of the scientific method must be completed in order every time. Explain to students that the process is a cyclic interconnected web that may be started, at any point and parts may be repeated. To help students understand the method have them work through a decision making process using a real life example such as, purchasing a car. • Students often use precision and accuracy interchangeably. Cleary explain the difference between the terms. Demonstrate the difference using a target and soft darts. • Students think a theory develops into a law. Clearly explain the difference between the terms. Use the assessment probe “Is It a Theory” listed below.Assessment ProbesKeeley, Page, Eberle, Francis, and Dorsey, Chad. "Doing Science." Uncovering Student Ideas in Science.Vol. 3. Arlington, VA: NSTA, 2008. 93-100. PrintKeeley, Page, Eberle, Francis, and Dorsey, Chad. "What is a Hypothesis?." Uncovering Student Ideas in Science.Vol. 3. Arlington, VA: NSTA, 2008. 101-105. PrintKeeley, Page, Eberle, Francis, and Joyce Tugel. "Comparing Cubes." Uncovering Student Ideas in Science. Vol. 2. Arlington, VA: NSTA, 2007. 19-25. PrintKeeley, Page, Eberle, Francis, and Dorsey, Chad. "Is It a Theory?." Uncovering Student Ideas in Science.Vol. 3. Arlington, VA: NSTA, 2008. 83-91. Print“Do not worry about your difficulties in Mathematics. I can assure you mine are still greater.” Albert Einstein Page
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    • How is Chemistry Practiced? B.E.S.T. / 5E Sample Page
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    • Thinking Map: Scientific TheoryStudent Sample “Start by doing what’s necessary, then do what’s possible and suddenly you are doing the impossible.” St. Francis of Assisi Page
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    • The Nature of ScienceStandards of Focus:Body of Knowledge: Nature of ScienceStandard 1: The Practice of ScienceSC.912.N.1.1 Define a problem based on a specific body of knowledge, for example: biology, chemistry, physics, and earth/space science, and do the following: 1. pose questions about the natural world, 2. conduct systematic observations, 3. examine books and other sources of information to see what is already known, 4. review what is known in light of empirical evidence, 5. plan investigations, 6. use tools to gather, analyze, and interpret data (this includes the use of measurement in metric and other systems, and also the generation and interpretation of graphical representations of data, including data tables and graphs), 7. pose answers, explanations, or descriptions of events, 8. generate explanations that explicate or describe natural phenomena (inferences), 9. use appropriate evidence and reasoning to justify these explanations to others, 10. communicate results of scientific investigations, and 11. evaluate the merits of the explanations produced by others.SC.912.N.1.2 Describe and explain what characterizes science and its methods.SC.912.N.1.3 Recognize that the strength or usefulness of a scientific claim is evaluated through scientific argumentation, which depends on critical and logical thinking, and the active consideration of alternative scientific explanations to explain the data presented.SC.912.N.1.4 Identify sources of information and assess their reliability according to the strict standards of scientific investigation.SC.912.N.1.5 Describe and provide examples of how similar investigations conducted in many parts of the world result in the same outcome.SC.912.N.1.6 Describe how scientific inferences are drawn from scientific observations and provide examples from the content being studied.SC.912.N.1.7 Recognize the role of creativity in constructing scientific questions, methods and explanations. Page
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    • Standard 2: The Characteristics of Scientific KnowledgeSC.912.N.2.1 Identify what is science, what clearly is not science, and what superficially resembles science (but fails to meet the criteria for science).SC.912.N.2.2 Identify which questions can be answered through science and which questions are outside the boundaries of scientific investigation, such as questions addressed by other ways of knowing, such as art, philosophy, and religion.SC.912.N.2.3 Identify examples of pseudoscience (such as astrology, phrenology) in society.SC.912.N.2.4 Explain that scientific knowledge is both durable and robust and open to change. Scientific knowledge can change because it is often examined and re- examined by new investigations and scientific argumentation. Because of these frequent examinations, scientific knowledge becomes stronger, leading to its durability.SC.912.N.2.5 Describe instances in which scientists varied backgrounds, talents, interests, and goals influence the inferences and thus the explanations that they make about observations of natural phenomena and describe that competing interpretations (explanations) of scientists are a strength of science as they are a source of new, testable ideas that have the potential to add new evidence to support one or another of the explanations.Standard 3: The Role of Theories, Laws, Hypotheses, and ModelsSC.912.N.3.1 Explain that a scientific theory is the culmination of many scientific investigations drawing together all the current evidence concerning a substantial range of phenomena; thus, a scientific theory represents the most powerful explanation scientists have to offer.SC.912.N.3.2 Describe the role consensus plays in the historical development of a theory in any one of the disciplines of science.SC.912.N.3.3 Explain that scientific laws are descriptions of specific relationships under given conditions in nature, but do not offer explanations for those relationships.SC.912.N.3.4 Recognize that theories do not become laws, nor do laws become theories; theories are well supported explanations and laws are well supported descriptions.SC.912.N.3.5 Describe the function of models in science, and identify the wide range of models used in science. Page
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    • Standard 4: Science and Society SC.912.N.4.1 Explain how scientific knowledge and reasoning provide an empirically- based perspective to inform societys decision making. SC.912.N.4.2 Weigh the merits of alternative strategies for solving a specific societal problem by comparing a number of different costs and benefits, such as human, economic, and environmental. Related Standards Body of Knowledge: Reading/ Language Arts Strand 2: Literary Analysis Standard 2: Nonfiction LA.910.2.2.3 The student will organize information to show understanding or relationships among facts, ideas, and events (e.g., representing key points within text through charting, mapping, paraphrasing, summarizing, comparing, contrasting, or outlining) Strand 4: Writing Applications Standard 2: Informative LA.910.4.2.2 The student will record information and ideas from primary and/or secondary sources accurately and coherently, noting the validity and reliability of these sources and attributing sources of information.Overview:The Nature of Science is central to understanding how chemistry knowledge is producedand structured. It addresses the various processes of science including the scientificmethod of understanding phenomena, experimental design strategies in testinghypotheses, theories and laws, the importance of peer review and verification, and thetentativeness of science as a body of knowledge subject to change. The study of thisMajor Idea provides the student with an opportunity to compare scientific processes toother ways of knowing that may already have been experienced. For example, applyingthe scientific method to the decision-making process may offer unique advantagesotherwise denied to the decision-maker as a voting citizen. It also provides connectivityand integration among the other core sciences. Therefore, the teacher should stronglyconsider implementing this unit of the chemistry curriculum at or near the beginning ofthe course since it will help to facilitate a smooth transition between what the student haspreviously learned and experienced and what student will be learning. However, itshould be remembered that many of the ideas, principles, and rules inherent inunderstanding the nature of science must continue to be experienced by the studentduring the entire length and breadth of the chemistry curriculum. Page
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    • Teaching Strategies:There are many successful approaches for teaching the nature of science in the chemistrycurriculum. For example, the use of discrepant events is a powerful method for sparkinginterest and motivation in students. Historically, discrepant events have been the drivingforce for many of our scientific discoveries. If the student is presented with a sufficientlyinteresting and challenging discrepant chemical event, the student can discover andexperience the nature of science firsthand. Great care must be taken in choosing theparticular event to be investigated. Safety, student maturity level, laboratory controls,expense, available resources, instructional time and, of course, educational value areimportant factors that must be considered before implementing this strategy. Chemicalreactions that undergo dramatic color changes (thus stimulating the visual cortex) such asthe classic Iodine-Starch reaction, oscillating reactions, or pH mediated reactions workquite well in enticing the student to investigate the nature of the event. The CartesianDiver phenomenon is also an excellent choice. With a little imagination, any number oflabs can be adapted as an inquiry experience. Several events can be sequenced tofacilitate the discovery of emerging scientific principles. In this way, the studentexperiences scientific skills such as the power of observation, documentation skills,organizing and interpreting data, and formulating and testing hypotheses.A single discrepant event can be expanded into a full inquiry investigation in whichstudents experience the cyclic nature of science. Students design simple laboratoryprocedures (proofed for safety by the instructor) to test their hypotheses, implement theexperiments, analyze the data and reevaluate the validity of their suppositions. They maythen design additional experiments to test their modified hypotheses, thus building adeeper understanding of the investigated phenomena. During such an activity, studentstend to spontaneously collaborate, sharing information and ideas in an attempt to solvethe puzzle of the discrepant event. Periodic class discussions that simulate scientificcongresses would enhance the science process experience. If students have access to theInternet, the inquiry project can be expanded to include consultation of appropriateresources such as university databases and correspondences with scientists.Some students may pursue original scientific research for publication or science faircompetition. Many exciting learning possibilities exist within an inquiry-drivencurriculum, but perhaps the greatest advantage to the inquiry approach is that it emulatesthe nature of science itself. Students learn science by actually doing science.Additional strategies that would supplement the inquiry approach to understanding thenature of science would include, guest speakers, field trips to industrial sites, universities,and state science museums such as the Thomas Edison Estate, and classinvestigations/discussions of Science/Technology/Society issues such as GlobalWarming. Additionally, critiques of S/T/S articles published in local or national sourcescan serve as an ongoing activity that allows students to become increasingly aware of thenature of science as it affects their lives. Page
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    • Matching Strategies to Course Level:Both the Chemistry I and Chemistry I Honors student should be given the opportunityto experience the rewarding processes of science. Students are curious by nature and thusare capable of enjoying the experience of investigating an interesting phenomenon. IfChemistry I Honors students need additional challenges, teachers may choose tointroduce confounding factors or require multifactor experimental designs. Most studentsare successful in collaborative learning environments. This approach may enable someChemistry I students to better experience scientific processes such as peer review, datainterpretation, hypothesis revising, and presenting. Chemistry I Honors students need tohave experiences in both collaborative investigations and individual research.Chemistry I Honors students should search literature, design experiments, and presentan individual paper.Focus Benchmark Correlations:SC.912.N.1.1 Define a problem based on a specific body of knowledge, for example:biology, chemistry, physics, and earth/space science, and do the following: 1. pose questions about the natural world, 2. conduct systematic observations, 3. examine books and other sources of information to see what is already known, 4. review what is known in light of empirical evidence, 5. plan investigations, 6. use tools to gather, analyze, and interpret data (this includes the use of measurement in metric and other systems, and also the generation and interpretation of graphical representations of data, including data tables and graphs), 7. pose answers, explanations, or descriptions of events, 8. generate explanations that explicate or describe natural phenomena (inferences), 9. use appropriate evidence and reasoning to justify these explanations to others, 10. communicate results of scientific investigations, and 11. evaluate the merits of the explanations produced by others.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonAccidental Chemistry Chemistry Pages 12-13Periodicity in Three Dimensions Chemistry Page 184All Lab Activities Page
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    • Active ChemistryChapter 2 Mini-Challenge Active Chemistry Pages 138-139Inquiring Further: Storing Batteries Active Chemistry Page 388Modern ChemistryMixture Separation Modern Chemistry Pages 26-27Is it an Acid or a Base? Modern Chemistry Pages 496-497All Lab Activities SC.912.N.1.2 Describe and explain what characterizes science and its methods.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonThe Scope of Chemistry Chemistry Pages 2-5Active ChemistryScience and Its Method Active Chemistry Pages NS2-7Modern ChemistryScientific Method Modern Chemistry Pages 29-31SC.912.N.1.3 Recognize that the strength or usefulness of a scientific claim isevaluated through scientific argumentation, which depends on critical and logicalthinking, and the active consideration of alternative scientific explanations toexplain the data presented.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonThinking like a Scientist Chemistry Pages 14-19Active ChemistryScience and Its Method Active Chemistry Pages NS2-7Inquiring Further: Reacting Metals with Active Chemistry Page 321BasesModern ChemistryScientific Method Modern Chemistry Pages 29-31 Page
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    • SC.912.N.1.4 Identify sources of information and assess their reliability according tothe strict standards of scientific investigation.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonThinking like a Scientist Chemistry Pages 14-19Active ChemistryInquiring Further: The Spectroscope Active Chemistry Page 331Modern Chemistry“Wet” Dry Ice Modern Chemistry Pages 358-359Casein Glue Modern Chemistry Pages 782-783SC.912.N.1.5 Describe and provide examples of how similar investigationsconducted in many parts of the world result in the same outcome.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonThinking like a Scientist Chemistry Pages 14-19Acid-Base Theories Chemistry Pages 646-652Active ChemistryThe Changing Model of an Atom Active Chemistry Pages 123-126Modern ChemistryHistorical Chemistry Modern Chemistry Pages 114-115Historical Chemistry Modern Chemistry Pages 302-303SC.912.N.1.6 Describe how scientific inferences are drawn from scientificobservations and provide examples from the content being studied.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonSmall-Scale Lab: Electron Configuration of Chemistry Page 200Ions Page
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    • Active ChemistryHow do you Choose Cookware? Active Chemistry Pages 600-602SC.912.N.1.7 Recognize the role of creativity in constructing scientific questions,methods and explanations.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonThinking like a Scientist Chemistry Pages 14-19Active ChemistryChapter Challenge Chemistry Content Active Chemistry Pages 539-541Modern ChemistryChemistry is a Physical Science Modern Chemistry Pages 3-5SC.912.N.2.1 Identify what is science, what clearly is not science, and whatsuperficially resembles science (but fails to meet the criteria for science).Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonThinking like a Scientist Chemistry Pages 14-19Chapter 4 CHEMYSTERY Chemistry Page 100, 124Active ChemistryExtending the Connection Active Chemistry Page 634AScience and Its Method Active Chemistry Pages NS2-7Modern ChemistryChemistry is a Physical Science Modern Chemistry Pages 3-5 “Imagination is more important than knowledge” A. Einstein Page
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    • SC.912.N.2.2 Identify which questions can be answered through science and whichquestions are outside the boundaries of scientific investigation, such as questionsaddressed by other ways of knowing, such as art, philosophy, and religion.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonThinking like a Scientist Chemistry Pages 14-19Active ChemistryInquiring Further: Art Active Chemistry Page 201Modern ChemistryScientific Method Modern Chemistry Pages 29-32SC.912.N.2.3 Identify examples of pseudoscience (such as astrology, phrenology) insociety.Teacher SupportActive ChemistryScience versus Pseudoscience Active Chemistry Pages NS6-7Modern ChemistryWhat is Science? Modern Chemistry Page 32 SC.912.N.2.4 Explain that scientific knowledge is both durable and robust and open to change. Scientific knowledge can change because it is often examined and re-examined by new investigations and scientific argumentation. Because of these frequent examinations, scientific knowledge becomes stronger, leading to its durability.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonAtomic Theory Chemistry Pages 102-109Active ChemistryElectrons: Where are They, Really? Active Chemistry Pages 147-148 Page
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    • Modern ChemistryScientific Method Modern Chemistry Pages 29-32Development of a New Atomic Model Modern Chemistry Pages 97-110SC.912.N.2. 5 Describe instances in which scientists varied backgrounds, talents,interests, and goals influence the inferences and thus the explanations that theymake about observations of natural phenomena and describe that competinginterpretations (explanations) of scientists are a strength of science as they are asource of new, testable ideas that have the potential to add new evidence to supportone or another of the explanations.Teacher SupportActive ChemistryAtoms Active Chemistry Pages 113-116Modern ChemistryThe Riddle of Electrolysis Modern Chemistry Pages 444-445SC.912.N.3.1 Explain that a scientific theory is the culmination of many scientificinvestigations drawing together all the current evidence concerning a substantialrange of phenomena; thus, a scientific theory represents the most powerfulexplanation scientists have to offer.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonRevising the Atomic Model Chemistry Pages 128-133Active ChemistryBohr’s Model of an Atom Active Chemistry Pages 133-136Modern ChemistryHistory of the Periodic Table Modern Chemistry Pages 133-137 “Theories and goals of education don’t matter a whit if you do not consider your students as human beings.” Lou Ann Walker Page
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    • SC.912.N.3.2 Describe the role consensus plays in the historical development of a theory in any one of the disciplines of science.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonRevising the Atomic Model Chemistry Pages 128-133Active ChemistryThe Noble Gases Active Chemistry Pages 157-158Modern ChemistryHistory of the Periodic Table Modern Chemistry Pages 133-137 SC.912.N.3.3 Explain that scientific laws are descriptions of specific relationships under given conditions in nature, but do not offer explanations for those relationships.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonThe Gas Laws Chemistry Pages 456-468Active ChemistryKinetic Molecular Model of Gases Active Chemistry Pages 438-441Modern ChemistryScientific Method Modern Chemistry Pages 29-32Gas Laws Modern Chemistry Pages 369-385 SC.912.N.3. 4 Recognize that theories do not become laws, nor do laws become theories; theories are well supported explanations and laws are well supported descriptions.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonThinking like a Scientist Chemistry Pages 14-19Active ChemistryThe Nature of Science Active Chemistry Pages NS2-7 Page
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    • Modern ChemistryScientific Method Modern Chemistry Pages 29-31SC.912.N.3.5 Describe the function of models in science, and identify the widerange of models used in science.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonHydrocarbon Compounds Chemistry Pages 760-794Active ChemistryThe Electron-Sea Model of Metals Active Chemistry Pages 224-227Modern ChemistryVSEPR Theory Modern Chemistry Pages 197-200SC.912.N.4.1 Explain how scientific knowledge and reasoning provide anempirically-based perspective to inform societys decision making.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonAgronomist Chemistry Page 663Active ChemistryBiological Polymers in Action Active Chemistry Pages 372A-BThe Human Toll on the Environment Active Chemistry Pages 542A-BModern ChemistryFluoridation and Tooth Decay Modern Chemistry Page 283Acid Water a Hidden Menace Modern Chemistry Page 477SC.912.N.4.2 Weigh the merits of alternative strategies for solving a specificsocietal problem by comparing a number of different costs and benefits, such ashuman, economic, and environmental.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonNatural Gas Vehicles Chemistry Pages 476-477Reverse Osmosis Desalination Chemistry Pages 502-503 Page
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    • Active ChemistryUsing Our Non-Renewable Resources Active Chemistry Pages 190A-BModern ChemistryUltrasonic Toxic-Waste Destroyer Modern Chemistry Page 180Liming Streams Modern Chemistry Page 510 “In times of profound change, the learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves perfectly prepared for a world which no longer exists.” Eric Hupper Page
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    • Interactions of Chemistry with Technology and SocietyStandards of Focus:Body of Knowledge: Life ScienceStandard 16: Heredity and ReproductionSC.912.L.16.10 Evaluate the impact of biotechnology on the individual, society and the environment, including medical and ethical issues.Standard 17: InterdependenceSC.912.L.17.15 Discuss the effects of technology on environmental quality.SC.912.L.17.16 Discuss the large-scale environmental impacts resulting from human activity, including waste spills, oil spills, runoff, greenhouse gases, ozone depletion, and surface and groundwater pollution.SC.912.L.17.19 Describe how different natural resources are produced and how their rates of use and renewal limit availabilitySC.912.L.17.20 Predict the impact of individuals on environmental systems and examine how human lifestyles affect sustainabilityOverview:By definition, chemistry is the central science since both living and nonliving matter arecomposed of atomic and subatomic particles. It therefore follows that chemistry andsociety are inextricably intertwined. Developments in chemistry have greatly impactedour civilizations in many ways. The discovery and use of energy sources, advances in thepharmaceutical industry, materials science, computer sciences, robotics, and the HumanGenome Project are all heavily grounded in chemistry. A society composed of citizensthat grasp the fundamental concepts in science and technology can make more informedthoughtful decisions that impact not only their personal lives but also the planet.Students tend to be interested in Science/Technology/Society (S/T/S) issues since theyreadily see the relevance to their lives. Brain research supports the idea that people learnbest when they attach new learning to preexisting experiences. The study of S/T/Spresents itself as an excellent transition for the beginning chemistry student. S/T/S canalso provide a thematic motif for the entire chemistry curriculum, constantly relating thecontent material to the student Page
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    • Teaching Strategies:Students can be engaged in interesting S/T/S issues that may concern them locally,nationally, or even globally. Population growth, resource production and depletion, theInternet, ozone depletion, global warming, disease control, and toxic waste disposal,cloning and tobacco use are just a few of the interesting S/T/S/ issues that can beaddressed in a chemistry curriculum. Student involvement in such issues can be in theform of responses to relevant articles, library or Internet research, presentations, specialprojects, field trips, and industrial site tours. Students of history may enjoy researchingthe effects of chemistry on past civilizations. For example, it is now thought that leadpoisoning may have contributed to the fall of the Roman Empire since only the rulingclass drank water from expensive aqueducts that contained lead.Many chemistry laboratory exercises lend themselves well to the study of S/T/S. Forexample, analyses of vitamin C concentration or buffering capacity in variouscommercial products are excellent methods for addressing quality control concerns. Theextremely expensive problem of metallic corrosion can be explored in iron corrosionlabs. Additional technological applications of electrochemistry such as electroplating andbattery production are also easily demonstrated in the chemistry laboratory.Matching Strategies to Course Level:Understanding the concepts inherent within this Major idea is essential for all chemistrystudents, regardless of level. There should be no distinction between the two levels interms of the S/T/S/topic chosen to explore, however, honors students may be able toevaluate the facets of a certain topic at higher levels. For example, all students can studythe effects of acid rain by comparing pH measurements of various samples of water.Chemistry Honors students might apply mathematical and statistical analysis todetermine types and concentrations of specific parent molecules causing the pH effects.Laboratory investigations involving consumer experiments such as vitamin C and antacidcontent analysis work quite well with both levels. Additionally, teaching models such asrole-playing, collaborative learning, and class discussion are effective ways of addressingthe Standards for both levels of chemistry.Focus Benchmark Correlations:SC.912.L.16.10 Evaluate the impact of biotechnology on the individual, society andthe environment, including medical and ethical issuesTeacher SupportChemistry PearsonThe Genetic Code Chemistry Pages 856-861Biochemists Chemistry Page 853DNA Testing Chemistry Page 867 Page
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    • Active ChemistryBiological Polymers in Action Active Chemistry Page 372AThe Stem Cell Controversy Active Chemistry Page 372BModern ChemistryApplications of Nuclear Radiation Modern Chemistry Page 695Technology and Genetic Engineering Modern Chemistry Pages 774-775SC.912.L.17.15 Discuss the effects of technology on environmental quality.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonCatalytic Converters Chemistry Pages 602-603Plasma Waste Converter Chemistry Pages 440-441Natural Gas Vehicles Chemistry Pages 476-477PCBs Persistent Pollutant Chemistry Page 803Active ChemistryThe Environmental Cost of Energy Active Chemistry Pages 634A-BModern ChemistryCatalytic Converters Modern Chemistry Page 579Chemical Industry Modern Chemistry Pages 814-815SC.912.L.17.16 Discuss the large-scale environmental impacts resulting from humanactivity, including waste spills, oil spills, runoff, greenhouse gases, ozone depletion,and surface and groundwater pollutionTeacher SupportChemistry PearsonAlgal Blooms Chemistry Page 270Natural Gas Vehicles Chemistry Pages 476-477Active ChemistryThe Human Toll on the Environment Active Chemistry Pages 542A-BModern ChemistryCatalytic Converters Modern Chemistry Page 579Chemical Industry Modern Chemistry Pages 814-815Acid Water Modern Chemistry Page 477Liming Streams Modern Chemistry Page 510 Page
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    • SC.912.L.17.19 Describe how different natural resources are produced and howtheir rates of use and renewal limit availabilityTeacher SupportChemistry PearsonGeothermal Energy Chemistry Pages 576-577Hydrocarbons from Earth’s Crust Chemistry Pages 782-786Active ChemistryUsing our Non-Renewable Resources Active Chemistry Page 190AModern ChemistryPetroleum Chemistry Modern Chemistry Page 715Properties and Uses of Alkanes Modern Chemistry Pages 722-723Internet Resourceshttp://www.mint.com/blog/trends/mint-map-resource-consumption-by-countrySC.912.L.17.20 Predict the impact of individuals on environmental systems andexamine how human lifestyles affect sustainabilityTeacher SupportChemistry PearsonCarbon Footprints Chemistry Page 83Chemistry and You Chemistry Pages 6-11Active ChemistrySustainability Active Chemistry Page 190BModern ChemistryAcid Water-A Hidden Menace Modern Chemistry Page 477Nuclear Waste Modern Chemistry Pages 695-696Mercury Poisoning Modern Chemistry Pages 805Ozone Modern Chemistry Page 836 Page
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    • What is Our Understanding of Matter and Energy?Essential Questions • What is the history of chemistry? • What is an atom? • How are atoms of one element different from atoms of another atom? • How does nuclear chemistry affect your life? • What happens when electrons in atoms absorb or release energy? Page
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    • Common Misconceptions • Students think that if any of the subatomic particles change the element changes. Reinforce that protons identify the elements and electrons identify the characteristics of the element. • Students confuse the terms molar mass and atomic mass. Although they often have the same number, atomic mass is the mass of one atom in atomic mass units (amu) and molar mass is the mass of one mole of particles in grams/mole (g/mol). • Students may think the Big Bang was a giant explosion rather than an expansion. The term bang implies explosion. Have students picture the Big Bang not as an exploding balloon, but rather as a small balloon that slowly continues to inflate. • Students often cling to the Bohr model which suggests that an orbiting electron moves at a specific radius like a planet does. Explain that the Bohr model is used as a visual because it is easy to understand. Introduce the quantum model and stress that orbitals are actually electron clouds indicating probability of location. Page
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    • What is Our Understanding of Matter and Energy? B.E.S.T / 5E Sample Page
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    • Thinking Map: Evolution of Atomic TheoryStudent Sample Page
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    • Atomic TheoryStandards of FocusBody of Knowledge: PhysicalStandard 8: MatterSC.912.P.8.3 Explore the scientific theory of atoms (also known as atomic theory) by describing changes in the atomic model over time and why those changes were necessitated by experimental evidence.SC.912.P.8.4 Explore the scientific theory of atoms (also known as atomic theory) by describing the structure of atoms in terms of protons, neutrons, and electrons, and differentiate among these particles in terms of their mass, electrical charges and locations within the atom.Standard 10: EnergySC.912.P.10.9 Describe the quantization of energy at the atomic level.SC.912.P.10.10 Compare the magnitude and range of the four fundamental forces (gravitational, electromagnetic, weak nuclear, strong nuclear).SC.912.P.10.11 Explain and compare nuclear reactions (radioactive decay, fission and fusion), the energy changes associated with them and their associated safety issues.SC.912.P.10.12 Differentiate between chemical and nuclear reactions.SC.912.P.10.13 Relate the configuration of static charges to the electric field, electric force, electric potential, and electric potential energy.Related StandardsBody of Knowledge: PhysicalStandard 10: EnergySC.912.P.10.18 Explore the theory of electromagnetism by comparing and contrasting the different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum in terms of wavelength, frequency, and energy, and relate them to phenomena and applications.SC.912.P.10.19 Explain that all objects emit and absorb electromagnetic radiation and distinguish between objects that are blackbody radiators and those that are not. Page
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    • Body of Knowledge: Earth and Space ScienceStandard 5: Earth in Space and TimeSC.912.E.5.8 Connect the concepts of radiation and the electromagnetic spectrum to the use of historical and newly-developed observational tools.Body of Knowledge: StatisticsStandard 1: Formulating QuestionsSC.912.MA.S.1.2 Determine appropriate and consistent standards of measurement for the data to be collected in a survey or experiment.Overview:Atomic Theory can be one of the most interesting and relevant topics in chemistry. Itgives the teacher the opportunity to allow the student to discover the interrelationshipsbetween science and history, including all its socio-economic and political forces.Indeed, students are afforded the chance to understand that the development of scienceand technology has not only influenced history but is history. One of the finest ways ofstudying the nature of a discipline is by studying the works of its Masters. The study ofAtomic Theory introduces into the chemistry curriculum the chance to study not onlyscience, but also the scientists themselves. Students tend to enjoy learning about peoplewho became famous for their achievements, particularly if the “human” side of theperson is revealed. Students also feel that the material is more relevant if presented in acontext that matches their previous learning experiences. This portion of the curriculumis rich in classic experimental designing and methodology. Just as a musician can gaininsight into the art of music by studying the compositions of Beethoven, so too can ascience student gain insight into the process of science by studying the strengths andweaknesses of the Oil-Drop and Gold-Foil Experiments.Teaching Strategies:Students should first become acquainted with a historical overview of the philosophical,social, economic, and political forces that influenced the development of atomic theory.This should be accomplished in a general way since the history of atomic theory extendsas far back as the ancient Greek civilization. During this overview, the students shouldlearn that there has always been a consistent drive to understand the nature of theuniverse. Another theme of this Major Idea is the fact that as technology developed,investigators were able to refine their understanding of the nature of the atom bymodifying or rejecting past theories. Therefore, this section of the curriculum should bereplete with laboratory activities including teacher demonstrations and student labs. Suchlabs should include flame tests, spectroscopy, conservation of mass, and modelconstructing. Multimedia can be used to demonstrate the Gold-Foil experiment andMoseley’s X-ray experiments. The cathode and canal ray tubes must be teacherdemonstration only, however, relatively inexpensive oil-drop apparatus are available. Page
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    • Matching Strategies to Course Level:Chemistry I students should focus on the fundamental concepts such as the Laws ofMultiple and Definite Proportions, Avogadro’s Hypothesis, Dalton’s First AtomicTheory, isotopes, and the Photoelectric Effect. Whenever possible, they should be giventhe chance to observe demonstrations of the actual apparatus that contributed to thedevelopment of modern atomic theory. These include such devices as the Oil-DropApparatus, cathode ray tube, and the canal ray tube. Chemistry I students should knowand apply the basic principles in modeling. They should also learn enough about thedesign and investigative strategies invented by these scientists to appreciate innovativeapproaches to problem solving. Chemistry I Honors students should develop the sameappreciation, but at higher levels, by analyzing the details of the math models developedby scientists such as Lord Rutherford. For example, Chemistry I Honors students mightstudy how J.J. Thomson derived the relationship between the charge and mass of theelectron by deriving the mathematical relationship themselves.Focus Benchmark Correlations:SC.912.P.8.3 Explore the scientific theory of atoms (also known as atomic theory) bydescribing changes in the atomic model over time and why those changes werenecessitated by experimental evidence.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonEarly Models of the Atom Chemistry Pages 102-104Structure of the Nuclear Atom Chemistry Pages 105-109Quick Lab: Black Box Chemistry Page 109Atomic Theory Time Line Chemistry Page 133Active ChemistryAtoms Active Chemistry Pages 113-116Models in Science Active Chemistry Pages 123-125The Bohr Model Active Chemistry Pages 133-136Discovery of the Neutron Active Chemistry Pages 176-179Modern ChemistryEarly Atomic Theory Modern Chemistry Pages 67-69Quick Lab: Instructing a Model Modern Chemistry Page 71Structure of the Atom Modern Chemistry Pages 72-76Properties Light Modern Chemistry Pages 97-101The Bohr Model Modern Chemistry Pages 102-103Quantum Theory Modern Chemistry Pages 104-105Quick Lab: Nature of Light Modern Chemistry Page 106Flame Test Lab Modern Chemistry Pages 130-131 Page
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    • SC.912.P.8.4 Explore the scientific theory of atoms (also known as atomic theory) bydescribing the structure of atoms in terms of protons, neutrons, and electrons, anddifferentiate among these particles in terms of their mass, electrical charges andlocations within the atom.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonIsotopes Chemistry Pages 114-118Structure of the Nuclear Atom Chemistry Pages 105-109Electron Arrangement Chemistry Pages 134-135Active ChemistryModels in Science Active Chemistry Pages 123-125Discovery of the Neutron Active Chemistry Pages 176-179How Atoms Produce Light Active Chemistry Page 661Modern ChemistryStructure of the Atom Modern Chemistry Pages 72-76Properties of Light Modern Chemistry Pages 97-101Counting Atoms Modern Chemistry Pages 77-84Lab: Conservation of Mass Modern Chemistry Pages 94-95The Bohr Model Modern Chemistry Pages 102-103Atomic Orbitals Modern Chemistry Pages 107-122Quick Lab: Nature of Light Modern Chemistry Page 106Flame Test Lab Modern Chemistry Pages 130-131SC.912.P.10.9 Describe the quantization of energy at the atomic level.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonEnergy Levels and Quantum Mechanical Chemistry Pages 128-132ModelElectron Arrangement Chemistry Pages 134-148Quick Lab: Flame Test Chemistry Page 142Small Scale: Atomic Emission Spectra Chemistry Page 149Active ChemistryBohr’s Model of the Atom Active Chemistry Page 133, 136Flame Test Active Chemistry Page 73-79 Page
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    • Modern ChemistryThe Bohr Model Modern Chemistry Pages 102-103Atomic Orbitals Modern Chemistry Pages 107-122Quick Lab: Nature of Light Modern Chemistry Page 106Flame Test Lab Modern Chemistry Pages 130-131SC.912.P.10.10 Compare the magnitude and range of the four fundamental forces(gravitational, electromagnetic, weak nuclear, strong nuclear).Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonDefinition of Nuclear Force Chemistry Page 880Active ChemistryElectrostatic and Nuclear Forces Active Chemistry Pages 177-179Modern ChemistryForces in the Nucleus Modern Chemistry Pages 175-176The Four Fundamental Forces Modern Chemistry Page 701Glencoe Physics (Honors Text Book)Gravitation Physics Pages 171-185Nuclear Physics Physics Pages 799-805Internet Resourceshttp://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geophysics/fundamental-forces-of-nature.htmSC.912.P.10.11 Explain and compare nuclear reactions (radioactive decay, fissionand fusion), the energy changes associated with them and their associated safetyissues.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonNuclear Chemistry Chemistry Pages 874-897Small Scale Lab: Radioactivity and Half- Chemistry Page 887livesMath Tune Up: Nuclear Reactions Chemistry Page 889 Page
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    • Active ChemistryUnstable Atoms Active Chemistry Pages 179-182Modern ChemistryRadioactive Decay Modern Chemistry Pages 685-692Nuclear radiation Modern Chemistry Pages 693-699SC.912.P.10.12 Differentiate between chemical and nuclear reactions.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonNuclear Reactions Chemistry Pages 876-891Active ChemistryNuclear Reactions Active Chemistry Page 181Modern ChemistryChemical Reactions Modern Chemistry Pages 261-263Nuclear Reactions Modern Chemistry Pages 684-685SC.912.P.10.13 Relate the configuration of static charges to the electric field, electricforce, electric potential, and electric potential energy.Teacher SupportGlencoe Physics (Honors Text Book)Electric Fields Physics Pages 562-577Internet Resourceshttp://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/estatics/u8l4c.cfm Page
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    • Related Benchmark Correlations:SC.912.P.10.18 Explore the theory of electromagnetism by comparing andcontrasting the different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum in terms ofwavelength, frequency, and energy, and relate them to phenomena and applications.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonAtomic Emission And Quantum Model Chemistry Pages 138-148Quick Lab: Flame Test Chemistry Page 142Small Scale: Atomic Emission Spectra Chemistry Page 149Active ChemistryElectronic Behavior of Atoms Active Chemistry Pages 129-136Producing and Harnessing Light Active Chemistry Pages 324-329Modern ChemistryProperties of Light Modern Chemistry Pages 97-103Quick Lab: Nature of Light Modern Chemistry Page 106SC.912.P.10.19 Explain that all objects emit and absorb electromagnetic radiationand distinguish between objects that are blackbody radiators and those that are not.SC.912.E.5.8 Connect the concepts of radiation and the electromagnetic spectrum tothe use of historical and newly-developed observational tools.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonAtomic Emission And Quantum Model Chemistry Pages 138-148Quick Lab: Flame Test Chemistry Page 142Small Scale: Atomic Emission Spectra Chemistry Page 149Active ChemistryElectronic Behavior of Atoms Active Chemistry Pages 129-136Producing and Harnessing Light Active Chemistry Pages 324-329Modern ChemistryProperties of Light Modern Chemistry Pages 97-103Quick Lab: Nature of Light Modern Chemistry Page 106 Page
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    • How is the Behavior of Matter Organized?Essential Questions • How is matter organized? • What are periodic trends? Page
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    • Common Misconceptions • Students think that something needs to vary uniformly in order to vary periodically. Use a picture of water with rippling waves. Explain that although the spaces between the water waves are not equal, the waves spread in a periodic manner. Each wave spreads outward. • Many students will associate the words “losing” and “gaining” with subtraction and addition. Remind students that they are adding or subtracting the total charge of electrons not the number of electrons. Remind students the electron is a negatively charged particle. • Students think that, like an ionic formula, a correctly written molecular formula should show the simplest ratio of atoms in the compound that the formula represents. Remind students that molecular formula represents the actual number of atoms in the compound.Assessment ProbesKeeley, Page, Eberle, Francis, and Joyce Tugel. "Chemical Bonds." Uncovering Student in Science. Vol. 2. Arlington, VA: NSTA, 2007. 71-57. PrintKeeley, Page, Eberle, Francis, and Farrin, Lynn. "Is it Made of Molecules." Uncovering Student Ideas in Science. Vol. 1. Arlington, VA: NSTA, 2005.85-90. Print Page
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    • How is the Behavior of Matter Organized? B.E.S.T. / 5E Sample Page
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    • Lab: Periodic TrendsOverview:This experiment is designed to enable the student to quantitatively discern similarities inthe physical and chemical properties in families of elements. This experiment will studythe densities of group 4A and the solubilities of group 2A. The student will discover thatthese properties are similar but not identical since there are important differences in theelectronic structures in the elemental members of a family or group.Background:Long before scientists knew about electron configurations, they were arranging elementsaccording to their similar characteristics that occurred periodically as one goes throughthe elemental chart by atomic number. In fact, some scientists were able to predict theexistence of otherwise undiscovered elements that were missing from the chart. It isprimarily the identical outer shell electron configurations of a family of elements thatgive rise to their similar characteristics. However, because the outer shell electrons ofeach element has increasingly greater energy (among other factors) as you go down afamily, the elements begin to differ from each other in the magnitude of their characteristics.Interestingly, group 4A, the backbone of the metalloids, actually changes dramatically fromnonmetallic to metallic characteristics as you go down the family. It is very important toemphasize the natural variability that occurs within the family. Thus the student willavoid the misconception that elemental members of a family are identical.Time:One 50-minute class periodMaterials:Lead shot Sodium carbonate 1.0 MTin Potassium chromate 0.1 MSilicon Unknown salt solutionMagnesium nitrate 0.1 M Distilled waterCalcium nitrate 0.1 M BalancesStrontium nitrate 0.1 M Spot plateBarium nitrate 0.1 M Graduated cylinderSulfuric acid 1.0 M Dropper pipette Page
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    • Engage:Demonstration ∑ Place
 a
 small
 sample
 of
 magnesium
 ribbon
 into
 a
 250
 ml
 beaker
 previously
 filled
 with
 about
150
ml
of
distilled
water
and
a
1‐2
ml
of
phenolphthalein
solution.
 ∑ Place the beaker onto an overhead projector and, as the reaction slowly proceeds, explain to the class, using chemical equations, the reaction between the alkaline metal and water. ∑ After a few minutes, the overhead projection should show the presence of bubbles (hydrogen gas) and a pink color near the ribbon, which indicates the presence of hydroxide. ∑ As the reaction slowly proceeds, ask the student to predict what will happen if a similar sample size of calcium were placed into the same beaker. The students should realize that the reaction should be the same but more energetic due to the higher energies of the outer shell electrons of calcium compared to magnesium. ∑ At this point, add a small piece of calcium metal to the beaker. The reaction will be immediate and dramatic, producing vigorous hydrogen generation, a dark red color, and a thick precipitate of calcium hydroxide.Explore: ∑ Administer a pre-lab safety and technique presentation. Ensure that students are aware that there should not be skin contact with any of the solutions. ∑ Instruct students to determine the densities of the three metals–tin, lead, and silicon– using the balances and the water displacement method. ∑ To four wells on a spot plate, students are to dispense a few drops of the four nitrate solutions (one solution per well). ∑ Students now add a few drops of 1.0 M sulfuric acid to each solution and observe for the presence of a precipitate. ∑ The solutions and products can be diluted and poured down the sink. ∑ Repeat this procedure again but using the 1.0 M sodium carbonate solution instead of the sulfuric acid. Dispose as before. ∑ Repeat this procedure a third time but using the 1.0 M potassium chromate solution instead of the sulfuric acid. Dispose as before. ∑ Give the student an unknown salt solution containing one of the 2A metal ions. Have them perform the three solubility tests to determine the identity of the unknown. Dispose as before. ∑ Students compile data, graph the densities of the metals vs. atomic number, and tabulate the solubility results. Page
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    • Explain: ∑ Facilitate a class discussion that compiles and compares the class data. ∑ Have students look up the densities of germanium and carbon. Analyze the density curve to see if the densities of carbon and germanium fit the trend. ∑ Point out to students that the densities are not identical but that they do fit a trend unique to that group. ∑ Ask the students to describe any trends that they notice in the solubilities of group 2A. ∑ Invite students to share their data and conclusions concerning the identities of the unknown.Elaborate: ∑ Ask students to research why the solubility’s of group 2A decrease with increasing atomic number. ∑ Have students identify the limitations of the solubility tests and ask them to suggest ways of increasing the accuracy of the methodology. ∑ Ask students to explain why helium is placed in the 8A instead of the 2A group. ∑ Ask students to explain why hydrogen is detached from group 1A. ∑ Students can investigate the relationship between the coinage metals’ characteristics and their relative positions in the periodic chart.Evaluate: ∑ Check student graphs and percent error calculations for accuracy. ∑ Ensure that student explanation of periodic group activity reflects an understanding of electron configuration and the factors that cause variations among the elements. ∑ Students can create their own three-dimensional periodic chart that focuses on specific periodic characteristics such as solubility, electrical conductivity, state of matter, etc. Page
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    • Thinking Map: Metals and NonmetalsStudent Sample Page
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    • The Periodic TableStandards of Focus:Body of Knowledge: PhysicalStandard 8: MatterSC.912.P.8.5 Relate properties of atoms and their position in the periodic table to the arrangement of their electrons.Standard 10: EnergySC.912.P.10.14 Differentiate among conductors, semiconductors, and insulators.Related Standards:Body of Knowledge: StatisticsStandard 1: Formulating QuestionsSC.912.MA.S.1.2 Determine appropriate and consistent standards of measurement for the data to be collected in a survey or experiment.Overview:Periodic tables are typically found in research labs, industrial complexes, medicalfacilities, and university labs around the world. Understanding and applying the periodictable is not only a fundamental skill in chemistry, it is also a critical part of understandingand applying all sciences. Once students learn how to read and glean information fromthe periodic table, they will be able to use it when the teacher refers to elementalcharacteristics and trends. The periodic table is a most powerful tool in predicting howelements will behave in each other’s presence. Many of the other Major Ideas inchemistry are grounded in elemental characteristics that are accessible through theperiodic table. Ionization energies, oxidation states, stability drive, electron flow,paramagnetism, electronegativities, bonding types and bonding strengths, are among themany characteristics and trends that the student will be able to discern by studying theperiodic table.Teaching Strategies:A comprehensive study of the periodic table is usually preceded by an understanding ofatomic theory and the idea that electron behavior is primarily responsible for chemicalactivity. However, the periodic table can be referred to even before atomic theory,depending on the context. For example, the teacher may be discussing DNA (relating tothe student’s previous biological studies) and may wish to help the students understand Page
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    • the similarities and differences among the primary elements of life, which are close toeach other in the periodic table.Once the curriculum focus is on the periodic table, several approaches are required tomaximize the student’s learning achievement. Laboratory investigations, followed bywell-planned post-lab discussions, allow the student to discover the nature of theperiodicity of the elements as it was discovered historically. Integrated with thisapproach should be discussions of the theoretical reasons for periodicity such as electronconfigurations. The student will understand both theoretical and observablecharacteristics that led to the organization of the elements in the periodic table.Eventually, students will internalize the nature of elemental families and their dominantproperties. These concepts can be reinforced by teacher demonstration of the physicaland chemical characteristics of representative elements of these families. Sulfur,calcium, magnesium, carbon, copper, zinc, iron, hydrogen, oxygen, and aluminum aregood choices for such demonstrations.An exhaustive treatment of all families is impractical and unnecessary since aspects ofthe periodic table will continue to reveal themselves as the course unfolds. However, theteacher may wish to include lab exercises that introduce other major concepts such aschemical bonding and reaction type. Additional projects can enrich the student’sexperience with the periodic table. These include research papers investigating theindustrial uses of specific elements, student presentations, redesigned periodic charts, andeven field trips to sites that specialize in the use of specific elements.Matching Strategies to Course Level:All students must understand the abstract nature of periodic law such as electronconfigurations and the octet rule. Otherwise, the usefulness of the periodic table becomesgreatly diminished. Chemistry I students may require additional instructional reviewand reinforcement time for the theoretical/abstract components of periodic law. Learningcan be enhanced through demonstrations (teacher, laser disc, or video) of representativeelements. Chemistry I Honors students should derive stability rules from periodictrends, but Chemistry I students may instead provide evidence, derived from the periodictable, to support a stability rule. All students should be able to conduct investigative labsof the characteristics and chemical behaviors of the representative elements, and becomeadept at using the periodic table.Focus Benchmark Correlations:SC.912.P.8.5 Relate properties of atoms and their position in the periodic table tothe arrangement of their electrons.Teacher SupportChemistry Pearson Page
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    • Organizing the Elements Chemistry Pages 160-173Periodic Trends Chemistry Pages 174-182Periodicity in Three Dimensions Chemistry Page 184Active ChemistryAtoms with More Than One Electron Active Chemistry Pages 140-148Noble Gases Active Chemistry Pages 157-158Forming Compounds Active Chemistry Pages 165-167Reactivity of Metals Active Chemistry Pages 216-218Modern ChemistryElements Modern Chemistry Pages 16-20Electron Configuration and Periodic Table Modern Chemistry Pages 138-148Electron Configuration and Periodic Modern Chemistry Pages 150-164PropertiesThe Mendeleev Lab of 1869 Modern Chemistry Pages 172-173SC.912.P.10.14 Differentiate among conductors, semiconductors, and insulators.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonElement Handbook Chemistry Page R17Properties of Metals Chemistry Page 209Modern ChemistryElement Handbook Modern Chemistry Pages 826-827Internet Resourceshttp://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/estatics/u8l1d.cfmhttp://www.pbs.org/transistor/science/info/conductors.html Page
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    • Chemical Bonding and FormulasStandards of Focus:Body of Knowledge: PhysicalStandard 8: MatterSC.912.P.8.6 Distinguish between bonding forces holding compounds together and other attractive forces, including hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces.SC.912.P.8.7 Interpret formula representations of molecules and compounds in terms of composition and structure.Related Standards:Body of Knowledge: StatisticsStandard 1: Formulating QuestionsSC.912.MA.S.1.2 Determine appropriate and consistent standards of measurement for the data to be collected in a survey or experiment.Standard 3: Summarizing DataSC.912.MA.S.3.2 Collect, organize, and analyze data sets, determine the best format for the data and present visual summaries from the following: bar graphs, line graphs, stem and leaf plots, circle graphs, histograms, box and whisker plots, scatter plots, cumulative frequency graphs. Page
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    • Overview:Soon after the discovery of HIV, scientists began to investigate how the viral particleschemically dock to the membranes of target cells. Once the docking sites were found, itwas thought that a synthetic protein could be introduced into the host body to act as a‘decoy’, bonding to the viral particles or to the docking sites themselves, effectivelyblocking the effects of the virus. The importance of bonding in both physical andbiological processes cannot be overestimated.Chemical bonding, including bond type and strength, gives rise to many properties:molecular structure, melting and boiling points, volatility, density, viscosity, miscibility,stability, material strength, superconductivity and chemical reactivity, just to name a few.Simply put, if we can control bonding, we can control matter.Teaching Strategies:Students must learn the connections among bonding, molecular structure, and properties.This can be successfully accomplished by a blend of strategies that draw upon thecharacteristics and trends learned in the study of the periodic table, a suggestedprerequisite to this Major Idea. Laboratory investigations, augmented by teacherdemonstrations and carefully crafted presentations, should form the nexus of this part ofthe chemistry curriculum. There exists a great diversity of excellent published labactivities that are conducive to meeting the curriculum demands of this Major Idea.These include descriptive labs such as microscale precipitation reactions, qualitativeanalysis, and hydrolysis reactions, separation techniques such as distillation andchromatography labs, and synthesis labs including allotrope synthesis labs (sulfur is anexcellent example), hydrate, and coordination chemistry labs.Once the student begins to grasp the major concepts, relevant examples of modernmaterials can be studied. For example, ceramics (shuttle tiles), superconductingmaterials, alloys, composites, medicinal drugs, and liquid crystals offer fascinatingexamples of the relationship between chemical bonding and substance properties. Sincethere are always new materials being discovered or synthesized, the teacher should enrichthe curriculum with the study of any of these materials. Guest speakers, field trips toindustrial research sites, special research projects, inquiry labs, and multimediapresentations, are all strategies that the teacher is encouraged to use to accomplish thistask. Additionally, there are inexpensive molecular modeling programs that demonstratethe principles of chemical bonding. Once the student has gained significant mastery overthese concepts, chemical bonding can now become a useful paradigm to betterunderstand chemistry.Matching Strategy to Course Level:All chemistry students can learn the major categories of bond type including ionic,covalent, metallic, and hydrogen bonding. In addition to these major types, Chemistry IHonors students can learn the subtle differences among the weaker forces, for example,London Dispersion, ion-dipole, and dipole-dipole forces. Chemistry I students shoulddistinguish bonding types by relative bond strengths, while Chemistry I Honors students Page
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    • express such differences with math models (distance, charge density, dipole moment,etc.). The ability to connect bonding theory to substance properties may vary betweenlevels as well as among individual students.Focus Benchmark Correlations:SC.912.P.8.6 Distinguish between bonding forces holding compounds together andother attractive forces, including hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonIons-Ionic Bonds and Compounds Chemistry Pages 194-207Electron Configurations of Ions Chemistry Page 200Molecular Compounds Chemistry Pages 222-225Quick Lab: Strengths of Covalent Bonds Chemistry Page 238Active ChemistryForming Compounds Active Chemistry Pages 165-167Intermolecular Forces Active Chemistry Pages 392-395Solid, Liquid, or Gas Active Chemistry Pages 389-392Modern ChemistryIntermolecular Forces Modern Chemistry Pages 203-207Types of Bonding in Solids Modern Chemistry Pages 216-217Conductivity as an Indicator of Bond Type Microscale Experiments Pages 13-18Chemical Bonds Microscale Experiments Pages 19-22SC.912.P.8.7 Interpret formula representations of molecules and compounds interms of composition and structure.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonOctet Rule Chemistry Pages 226-231Molecular Orbitals Chemistry Pages 240-243Chemical Formulas Chemistry Page 202Active ChemistryOrganic Substances Active Chemistry Pages 78-82Lab: Stained Glass Active Chemistry Pages 261-262Solid, Liquid, or Gas Active Chemistry Pages 389-395Lab: More Chemical Changes Active Chemistry Pages 473-479 Page
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    • Lab: Chemical Names and Formulas Active Chemistry Pages 480-487Lab: Chemical Equations Active Chemistry Pages 490-494Proteins Active Chemistry Pages 610-612Modern ChemistryThe Octet Rule- Electron Dot Notation Modern Chemistry Pages 182-185VSEPR Theory Modern Chemistry Pages 197-200Lab: Types of Bonding in Solids Modern Chemistry Page 216Chemical Formulas Modern Chemistry Pages 219-220 Page
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    • How Does Matter Interact?Essential Questions • How does matter interact? • How do chemical reactions obey the law of conservation of mass? • How can you predict the products of a chemical reaction? Page
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    • Common Misconceptions • Students often think that they can balance equations by changing subscripts. Use an example to show why this approach is incorrect. H2 (g) + O2 (g)  H2O(l) This could be balanced by changing the formula of the product to H2O2. But H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) is not the same substance as water. • Students think that the coefficients on both sides of the equation have to be the same in order for the number of atoms of each type to be balanced. Use a visual example to illustrate that the atoms balance even if the coefficients do not match. A good example is the formation of carbon dioxide. • Students tend to limit a decomposition reaction to the decomposition of a compound into its component elements. Explain that a compound can break down into an element and a compound or two or more compounds. Some examples are the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide and carbonic acid.Assessment ProbesKeeley, Page, and Joyce Tugel. "Burning Paper." Uncovering Student Ideas in Science. Vol. 4. Arlington, VA: NSTA, 2009. 23-29. PrintKeeley, Page, and Joyce Tugel. "Nails in a Jar." Uncovering Student Ideas in Science. Vol. 4. Arlington, VA: NSTA, 2009. 31-37. Print “Science cannot solve the ultimate mystery of nature. And that is because, in the last analysis, we ourselves are a part of the mystery that we are trying to solve.” Max Planck Page
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    • How Does Matter Interact? B.E.S.T. / 5E Sample Page
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    • Lab: Thermodynamics of an Aluminum/Copper Chloride Redox ReactionOverview:The student will apply knowledge of electron configurations to predict and explain thereduction/oxidation reaction between aluminum and copper (II) ion. The student willalso be able to measure the thermodynamic properties of this reaction.Background:This lab experiment may be used either as an introduction to the relationship betweenchemical thermodynamics and electron configurations or as an application of theconcept. Electron configurations can often be used to predict chemical reactivitybetween simple elemental species and their ions. They can also sometimes be used topredict aspects of the energy changes that accompany all chemical reactivity. Forexample, the reaction between magnesium and oxygen gas is highly exothermic,involving the release of a tremendous amount of light and heat. Magnesium loses twoelectrons to oxygen. This results in stable electron configurations for both species: aneon configuration (the Octet Rule). Those electrons move from magnesium’s 3s orbitto oxygen’s 2p orbit. Since the electrons are moving ‘down’ in orbit, one may be temptedto predict that this explains why the reaction is so exothermic. However, the reactionbetween sodium metal and chlorine gas is also extremely exothermic and yet sodium’selectron is also a 3s moving towards a higher orbit to chlorine’s 3p sublevel. Clearly,other processes are involved in determining the thermodynamics of a reaction. Forexample, in both cases a stable solid ion compound is produced which significantly lowersthe energies of the outershell electrons.Time:One 50-minute class periodMaterials:250 ml beaker Glass stirring rodAluminum foil, 10x10 cm Distilled waterThermometer Copper (II) chloride dihydrateEngage: ∑ Demonstration: In a fume hood, demonstrate the reaction between a small sample of magnesium ribbon (about 10 cm long) and air (oxygen). Caution students to NOT look directly at the burning magnesium. Page
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    • ∑ After the reaction ceases, carefully show the students the product, which is a fine white powder (magnesium oxide). ∑ Facilitate a class discussion inviting students to identify possible factors that could operate as the driving force for the chemical reaction. This discussion should eventually focus on electron configurations and stability rules such as the Octet Rule. ∑ Have students write out the electron configuration for aluminum and copper (II). Ask them to predict what each species might do to obtain more stable configurations. ∑ Once students realize that aluminum will give up three electrons to become more stable, they should conclude that copper (II) will take electrons to become neutral metallic copper. This can be represented by a chemical equation: 3 C u 2 + + 2 A l  3 Cu + 2 Al 3 +Explore: ∑ Implement a pre -lab safety and technique presentation. ∑ Dispense to each pair of students approximately 1-2 grams of solid copper (II) chloride dihydrate. Use a plastic spoon to do this, NOT metallic. Place the solid into their clean, dry beaker. ∑ Have the students observe the physical characteristics of the copper compound, including color, texture and crystal shape. CAUTION: Students may NOT touch the crystals. ∑ Have the students obtain a sample of aluminum foil and document its characteristics. ∑ Students now add approximately 100 ml of distilled water to the beaker containing the copper (II) chloride sample, stirring gently. Have them observe the color change that occurs in the solution as the green solid dissolves, producing a blue solution. ∑ Once the crystals are completely dissolved, the students need to measure and record the initial temperature of the solution. ∑ Students then submerge the aluminum foil into the copper (II) solution, occasionally stirring gently with the thermometer and recording their observations and temperature changes. The reaction can take between 15 and 20 minutes to complete. ∑ When the reaction subsides, students need to dispose of any un-reacted solid and precipitate by placing the material in a designated waste container. The solution may be diluted and poured down the sink.Explain: ∑ Discuss with the students the relationship between the electron configurations of aluminum and copper (II) and the ability to predict the redox reaction that occurs between them. Page
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    • ∑ Facilitate a class discussion relating the students’ observations to the products of this reaction. Students should conclude that the Aluminum foil was dissolving and thus ionizing. They should also conclude that the copper ions were becoming reduced thus precipitating solid copper metal on the surface of the foil. ∑ Ask the students why the chloride anion did not participate in the reaction. They should understand that since the chloride anion already has a stable electron configuration, it would not react in this experiment. ∑ Discuss with the students the reasons that the reaction was highly exothermic. Be certain that they understand that the change in electron configurations was the driving force for this energy release.Elaborate: ∑ You may elect to explain why the color of the copper (II) solution became blue. Since this explanation involves an understanding of electron orbital theory (specifically the d-orbital separation), which is closely related to electron configurations, such an explanation would reinforce the main concept. ∑ Ask the students to consider what gas was being evolved during this reaction. The evolution of hydrogen gas occurred because copper (II) ions polarized water ligands (complex ions) to the extent that hydrogen cations were able to intercept some of the electrons released by the Al atoms. This results in the production of hydrogen gas. ∑ Drawing on the experience of this experiment, ask students why it is important to recycle aluminum. They should realize that a large quantity of energy is released when aluminum is oxidized and therefore, according to the Law of Conservation of Energy, a like amount of energy must be supplied to reduce the same amount of aluminum, making the process of aluminum production very energy consumptive and expensive.Evaluate: ∑ Set up an electrolysis apparatus using a solution of aluminum chloride. Run the apparatus for a few minutes until the products at the electrode become visible. Ask the students to predict what substances are appearing at the cathode and the anode. Have them write chemical reactions describing how these substances were produced. Then have them support their answer using electron configuration stability concepts. ∑ Have the students research how batteries work. Divide the class into groups, each one assigned to a specific kind of battery. Each group gives a presentation explaining how their assigned battery functions, with emphasis on how it yields energy based on the electron configurations of the reactant and products. Rechargeable batteries are quite interesting to discuss in this context. Page
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    • Thinking Map: Classification of Chemical ReactionsStudent Sample Page
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    • Chemical Reactions and Balanced EquationsStandards of Focus:Body of Knowledge: PhysicalStandard 8: MatterSC.912.P.8.2 Differentiate between physical and chemical properties and physical and chemical changes of matter.SC.912.P.8.7 Interpret formula representations of molecules and compounds in terms of composition and structure.SC.912.P.8.8 Characterize types of chemical reactions, for example: redox, acid-base, synthesis, and single and double replacement reactions.SC.912.P.10.12 Differentiate between chemical and nuclear reactions.Related Standards:Body of Knowledge: StatisticsStandard 1: Formulating QuestionsSC.912.MA.S.1.2 Determine appropriate and consistent standards of measurement for the data to be collected in a survey or experiment.Overview:This Major Idea was historically taught as descriptive chemistry. Chemists notedphysical characteristics and chemical behaviors of substances such as carbon, sulfur andmetal oxides. These observations were then documented using taxonomic systems,nomenclature, chemical symbolism, and chemical equations. In other words, this is thelanguage of chemistry. Since there are no complex or abstract concepts inherent in thissegment of the curriculum, it should be relatively brief. Student mastery of descriptivechemistry will increase as the student uses the language of chemistry throughout theentire course.Teaching Strategy:The keys to meeting the objectives of this Major Idea are practice and experience. Therules of reading and writing nomenclature, chemical formulas and chemical equations arebest internalized through use. Just like any language, the student assimilates best throughpractice. If the teacher constantly uses the language, the student will realize itsimportance. Laboratory activities do not automatically guarantee material mastery since Page
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    • the student may focus on the mechanics of the lab and not the nomenclature of thesubstances being used. The value of lab experiences can be enhanced if students associatethe descriptive properties of the substances that they are manipulating with the properchemical symbolism. This kind of association learning can be maximized if students areafforded the opportunity to manipulate familiar substances previously experienced: salts,alcohols, hydrogen peroxide, metals, limestone, and antacids are good examples. Theperiodic chart should be introduced by this time and should always be consulted bystudents as they endeavor to write and name chemical formulas. The periodic chart willalso help students see trends in oxidation states, which will enable students to predictpossible products of select elements. At this point, students need not understand exactlywhy sodium and chlorine react to form salt; however, they should become aware of thefact that the properties of the resulting product differ greatly its constituent elements.Matching Strategies to Course Level:All students must master the fundamental language of chemistry and all students shouldpredict products of major types of chemical reactions.Focus Benchmark Correlations:SC.912.P.8.2 Differentiate between physical and chemical properties and physicaland chemical changes of matter.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonPhysical and Chemical Properties Chemistry Pages 34-37Physical Changes Chemistry Page 37Chemical Changes Chemistry Pages 48-49Quick Lab: Separating Mixtures Chemistry Page 39Active ChemistryPhysical Properties Active Chemistry Pages 42-43Lab: Metals and Nonmetals Active Chemistry Pages 60-64Physical and Chemical Properties Active Chemistry Pages105-106Lab: Chemical and Physical Changes Active Chemistry Pages 465-467Chemical and Physical Changes Active Chemistry Page 468Lab: More Chemical Changes Active Chemistry Pages 473-479Properties of Matter Active Chemistry Pages 652-655Modern ChemistryMatter and Its Properties Modern Chemistry Pages 6-11Mixture Separation Modern Chemistry Pages 26-27Chromatography Experiments Forensics and Applied Pages 35-50 Science ExperimentsEvidence for a Chemical Change Skills Practice Pages 35-40 Experiments Page
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    • SC.912.P.8.7 Interpret formula representations of molecules and compounds interms of composition and structure.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonOctet Rule Chemistry Pages 226-231Molecular Orbitals Chemistry Pages 240-243Chemical Formulas Chemistry Page 202Active ChemistryOrganic Substances Active Chemistry Pages 78-82Lab: Stained Glass Active Chemistry Pages 261-262Solid, Liquid, or Gas Active Chemistry Pages 389-395Lab: More Chemical Changes Active Chemistry Pages 473-479Lab: Chemical Names and Formulas Active Chemistry Pages 480-487Lab: Chemical Equations Active Chemistry Pages 490-494Proteins Active Chemistry Pages 610-612Modern ChemistryThe Octet Rule- Electron Dot Notation Modern Chemistry Pages 182-185VSPER Theory Modern Chemistry Pages 197-200Lab: Types of Bonding in Solids Modern Chemistry Page 216Chemical Formulas Modern Chemistry Pages 219-220SC.912.P.8.8 Characterize types of chemical reactions, for example: redox, acidbase, synthesis, and single and double replacement reactions.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonDescribing Chemical Reactions Chemistry Pages 346-354Chemical Equations Small Scale Manual Lab 14Types of Chemical Reactions Chemistry Page 356-357Small Scale Lab: Balancing Chemical Small Scale Manual Lab 15EquationsOxidation Reduction Chemistry Pages 692-299Quick Lab: Bleach it! Chemistry Page 699Redox Reactions Chemistry Pages 707-715Oxidation Reduction Reactions Small Scale Manual Lab 35 Page
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    • Active ChemistryAcids and Bases Active Chemistry Pages 204-210Double Replacement Reaction Active Chemistry Pages 248-249Lab: Alternative Pathways Active Chemistry Pages 279-282Redox Reactions Active Chemistry Pages 316-318Redox Reactions Active Chemistry Pages 384-386Kinds of Chemical Reactions Active Chemistry Pages 421-425Lab: Chemical Equations Active Chemistry Pages 490-494Chemical Reactions Active Chemistry Pages 495-497Redox Reaction Active Chemistry Pages 534-537Combustion Reaction Active Chemistry Pages 564-568Double Replacement Active Chemistry Pages 676-677Single Replacement Active Chemistry Pages 694-697Modern ChemistryTypes of Chemical Reactions Modern Chemistry Pages 276-283Quick Lab: Balancing Equations Modern Chemistry Page 284Acid Base Reactions Modern Chemistry Pages 483-489Lab: Is it an Acid or a Base? Modern Chemistry Pages 496-497Oxidation-Reduction Modern Chemistry Pages 631-635Balancing Redox Reactions Modern Chemistry Pages 637-641Quick Lab: Redox Reactions Modern Chemistry Page 684Lab: Reduction of Manganese and Modern Chemistry Pages 652-653Permanganate IonSC.912.P.10.12 Differentiate between chemical and nuclear reactions.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonNuclear Reactions Chemistry Pages 876-891Active ChemistryNuclear Reactions Active Chemistry Page 181Modern ChemistryChemical Reactions Modern Chemistry Pages 261-263Nuclear Reactions Modern Chemistry Pages 684-685Internet Resourceshttp://www.howstuffworks.com/nuclear-power.htmhttp://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/teachers/activities/3213_einstein_05.htmlhttp://galileo.phys.virginia.edu/Education/outreach/8thgradesol/FissionFusion.htmhttp://www.paec.org/progressenergygrant/nuclear_energy_transformed.pdf Page
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    • How are the Interactions of Matter Measured?Essential Questions • How are the interactions of matter measured? • What factors determine the physical state of a substance? • How do substances change from one state to another? • What causes the unique properties of water? Page
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    • Common Misconceptions • Students often automatically pick as the limiting reactant the reactant that is present in the smaller amount. Remind students that they need to factor in the molar ratios of reactants to determine limiting reactant. • Students often think that any bond containing a hydrogen atom is a hydrogen bond. Explain that hydrogen bonding is not a type of chemical bond, but rather a type of intermolecular attractive force that occurs between molecules. Use water molecules as an example to differentiate between the oxygen-hydrogen covalent bond in a molecule and the hydrogen bond formed between the oxygen in one molecule to the hydrogen in another molecule. • Students may think that a molecule can only experience either dipole-dipole or London dispersion forces with another molecule. Remind students that there can be multiple intermolecular forces even though we commonly only address the strongest one. • Students often confuse the terms gas and vapor. Reminds students that the term vapor is only used to describe substances that are generally a liquid or solid at room temperature. • Students think that solvents must be liquids. Remind them that many solutions do not involve liquid solvents. A good example is a metal alloy. The metal with the greatest abundance is the solvent the other metal(s) are the solutes. 
Assessment ProbesKeeley, Page, and Joyce Tugel. "Burning Paper." Uncovering Student Ideas in Science. Vol. 4. Arlington, VA: NSTA, 2009. 23-29. PrintKeeley, Page, and Joyce Tugel. "Nails in a Jar." Uncovering Student Ideas in Science. Vol. 4. Arlington, VA: NSTA, 2009. 31-37. Print Page
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    • How are the Interactions of Matter Measured? B.E.S.T. / 5E Sample Page
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    • Thinking Map: Effects of the Physical Properties of GasesStudent Sample Page
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    • StoichiometryStandards of Focus:Body of Knolwedge: PhysicalStandard 8: MatterSC.912.P.8.9 Apply the mole concept and the law of conservation of mass to calculate quantities of chemical participating in reactions.Related Standards:Body of Knowledge: StatisticsStandard 1: Formulating QuestionsSC.912.MA.S.1.2 Determine appropriate and consistent standards of measurement for the data to be collected in a survey or experiment.Overview:Stoichiometry lies at the heart of quantitative chemistry. It is based on the premise thatatoms, ions and molecules react with each other in specific ratios. This Major Ideaextends to all other aspects of the quantitative chemistry curriculum and encompasses avast array of real world applications. This area of chemistry also is one of the mostchallenging for the student. Students can be successful at quantitative chemistry if theyknow how to approach it.Teaching Strategies:Students must understand the nature and limitations of measurements. A comprehensivemastery of significant digit rules, scale types, calibration techniques, and datainterpretation methods should precede this Major Idea. Once the student understands thatmeasurement quantities are tentative, the course can proceed towards a more rigorousmathematical treatment of the data.The teacher should ensure that students are given sufficient time and practice. Oneobstacle to learning stoichiometry is the abstract nature of what is being quantified: tinyparticles that cannot be seen nor felt. Carefully selected laboratory activities may help toalleviate this problem, but only if the student can associate the substances being measuredwith the written symbolism representing those substances. Hydrate labs are a goodexample. Another related obstacle is the student’s ability to translate English intomathematical symbolism. Most students can perform the math operations easily enough,but the challenge lies in building the math model used to solve the problem. Page
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    • Despite these problems, students can be successful in stoichiometry once they realize thatthe mathematics are merely reflecting the relationships among concepts that are beingquantified. For example, students understand that seeds exist in oranges and if you are toask them to calculate the number of seeds to be found in ten oranges, they will ask you tosupply the number of seeds to be found in one orange. Through prior experience, theyhave internalized the concept that there is a ratio of seeds to orange. Students will not beable to convert liters of liquid water to liters of gaseous hydrogen and oxygen unless theyfirst learn the nature of the relationship between the water molecule and its constituentelements. Since oranges and seeds have been seen and felt by our students, it follows thatif they handle models of atoms and molecules they will be able to internalize the conceptsto be learned. It is therefore strongly suggested that, whenever possible, students usemolecular models to simulate the stoichiometric relationships represented by themathematics.Matching Strategies to Course Level:Chemistry I students may spend more time reviewing and understanding the keychemistry concepts involved in stoichiometry. They may also require more practice indeveloping problem solving strategies and math model construction. It may be prudent tointersperse the various sub-topics and applications of stoichiometry throughout thecourse. This would give the Chemistry I students more time to assimilate and reinforcethese skills. Chemistry I Honors students may be challenged with any number ofinteresting applications representing varying levels of complexity. For example, studentscould be asked to calculate the amount of fuel saved (or cost savings) when the decisionwas made to exclude painting the external fuel tank of the space shuttle. All studentsshould engage in quantitative laboratory activities that require stoichiometric problemsolving. Among the most interesting to students are the titration labs. Vitamin C titrationexperiments may be relevant to students as they analyze the concentration of this well-known vitamin in familiar foods and drinks.Focus Benchmark Correlations:SC.912.P.8.9 Apply the mole concept and the law of conservation of mass tocalculate quantities of chemicals participating in reactions.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonChemical Quantities Chemistry Pages 306-333Small Scale: Counting by Measuring Mass Chemistry Page 324Quick Lab: Percent Composition Chemistry Page 328Stoichiometry Chemistry Pages 384-408Stoichiometric Safety (Airbag) Chemistry Page 397Small Scale Lab: Analysis of Baking Soda Chemistry Page 399Quick Lab: Limiting Reagents Chemistry Page 404 Page
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    • Active ChemistryLab: Clay Active Chemistry Pages 230-234Way of Counting Active Chemistry Pages 235-236Stoichiometry Active Chemistry Pages 303-307Kinds of Reactions Active Chemistry Pages 421-422Modern ChemistryRelating Mass to Numbers of Atoms Modern Chemistry Pages 82-87Stoichiometry Modern Chemistry Pages 298-318Quick Lab: Limiting Reactants in a Recipe Modern Chemistry Page 316Water of Hydration Skills Practice Pages 29-34 ExperimentsInternet Resourceshttp://misterguch.brinkster.net/molecalculations.htmlwww.moleday.org“The world little knows how many of thethoughts and theories which have passedthrough the mind of a scientific investigator,have been crushed in silence and secrecy byhis own severe criticism and adverseexamination!” Michael Faraday Page
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    • Behavior of GasesStandards of Focus:Body of Knowledge: PhysicalStandard 10: EnergySC.912.P.10.5 Relate temperature to the average molecular kinetic energy.Standard 12: MotionSC.912.P.12.10 Interpret the behavior of ideal gases in terms of kinetic molecular theory.SC.912.P.12.11 Describe phase transitions in terms of kinetic molecular theory.Overview:The study of gases in the chemistry curriculum entails the scientific principles ofmodeling and the construction of mental schemas or paradigms. The Kinetic MolecularTheory is by far one of the most important paradigms in viewing the world of chemistry.Student must understand and mentally visualize the great velocities and collisionfrequencies of gas particles. Without such paradigms, students cannot grasp the moreabstract chemistry concepts that will challenge them. For example, the fact thatapproximately a billion billion water molecules vaporize from room temperature waterper second is a very difficult concept to visualize, especially since the water appears to becalm. This section of the curriculum is best learned when preceded by a mastery offundamental concepts in stoichiometry, chemical equations, and nomenclature supportedby significant laboratory experience. Students should be given the opportunity to exploresignificant applications to other sciences such as meteorology, geology, ecology,medicine and the life sciences. The study of gases offers the student the opportunity tolearn how to model what cannot be seen using scientific methods of experimentation andcareful data analysis. By studying the deviations of the Ideal Gas Law, the students alsocome to realize that models are limited by the assumptions and parameters used to definethe context in which they are developed.Teaching Strategies:One of the most important objectives for the behavior of gases is to facilitate the mentalconstruction of kinetic-molecular paradigms that the student can use to understand gasbehavior. This task can be accomplished if the teacher concentrates on presentingdemonstrations that lead to observations supporting the Kinetic Molecular Theory. Forexample, demonstrations of Boyle’s Law, Charles’s Law, and Graham’s Law of Effusioneffectively demonstrate the validity of the assumptions of the Kinetic Molecular Theory.The key concept to comprehending these Laws is pressure. Students must understand theorigins of pressure and any misconceptions that the student brings into the classroom Page
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    • must be identified and corrected. It is therefore strongly suggested that the teacher ensurethat the students have internalized the meaning of gas pressure before continuing with thestudy of gases. Some very dramatic demonstrations involving collapsing metallic canshave been published and represent highly motivating ways of capturing student interest inthe pressure concept. Demonstrations of various barometers will reinforce the relevanceof gas behavior and open up interesting class discussions concerning atmosphericchemistry and meteorology. Industrial applications such as the use of sodium azide in airbag technology can enhance student interest in the stoichiometric aspect of gas behavior.The teacher may even consider applying gas concepts to the study of atmosphericconditions on other planets.Matching Strategies to Course Level:Chemistry I students should focus on the qualitative relationships between pressure,volume and temperature. Chemistry I Honors students might engage in high levelquantitative applications of gases that tie in previously learned materials. For example,they might identify unknown gases based on experimental data that yields informationthat can indirectly be used to find the molecular weight of the gas. The sodium azideexample discussed above can be applied to the problem of reducing the air bag pressure,which has been demonstrated to be potentially dangerous to children.Focus Benchmark Correlations:SC.912.P.10.5 Relate temperature to the average molecular kinetic energy.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonNature of Gases Chemistry Pages 420-424Properties of Gases Chemistry Pages 450-454Gas Laws Chemistry Pages 456-463Active ChemistryChanges of State Active Chemistry Pages 26-27Charles’ Law Active Chemistry Pages 411-413Modern ChemistryKinetic Molecular Theory Modern Chemistry Pages 330-333Definition of Temperature Modern Chemistry Page 531 Page
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    • SC.912.P.12.10 Interpret the behavior of ideal gases in terms of kinetic moleculartheory.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonIdeal Gases Chemistry Pages 464-468Quick Lab: Carbon Dioxide Chemistry Page 467Small Scale Lab: Diffusion Chemistry Page 475Active ChemistryBoyle’s Law Active Chemistry Pages 400-403Charles’ Law Active Chemistry Pages 411-414Ideal Gas Law Active Chemistry Pages 432-433Molecular Size and Motion of Gases Active Chemistry Pages 438-440Modern ChemistryKinetic Molecular Theory Modern Chemistry Pages 329-333Boyles Law Skills Practice Pages 41-46 ExperimentsSC.912.P.12. 11 Describe phase transitions in terms of kinetic molecular theory.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonNature of Liquids Chemistry Pages 426-430Nature of Solids Chemistry Pages 431-434Small Scale Lab: Behavior of Liquids and Chemistry Page 435SolidsChanges of State Chemistry Pages 436-439Quick Lab: Sublimation Chemistry Page 437Active ChemistryHeat Energy and the Changes of State Active Chemistry Pages 586-588Modern ChemistryChange of State and Equilibrium Modern Chemistry Pages 342-348 Page
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    • How are the Interactions between Matter and Energy Measured?Essential Questions • How is energy conserved in a chemical or physical process? • How can you determine the amount of energy absorbed or released in chemical or physical process? • How can the rate of a chemical reaction be controlled? • What is the role of energy in chemical reactions? • Why do some reactions occur naturally? 
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    • Common Misconceptions • Students think the sign for enthalpy, (ΔH), indicates a negative or positive value for energy. Explain to students that no such value exists. The negative sign is there to indicate direction of energy flow. • Students think that during an exothermic process the system cools off because energy is released. The term release means that potential energy of the system is converted to heat energy so the surroundings increase in temperature during an exothermic process. 

Assessment ProbesKeeley, Page, Eberle, Francis, and Farrin, Lynn. "The Mitten Problem." Uncovering Student Ideas in Science. Vol. 1. Arlington, VA: NSTA, 2005.103-108. Print Page
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    • How are the Interactions between Matter and Energy Measured? B.E.S.T. / 5E Sample Page
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    • Lab: Chemical KineticsOverview:The student discovers that temperature, concentration, pressure, and the presence of acatalyst have a measurable impact on the rate of chemical reactions. This experiment usesthe popular Iodine-Starch Clock reaction, discovered by chemist Vernon Harcourt. Thisreaction provides an exciting and dramatic way of learning about reaction rates.Background:In order for reacting units to react they must collide with the correct orientation andkinetic energy. Reacting units must therefore overcome repulsion forces to break anypreexisting bonds in order to form new bonds. The energy required to do this is referredto as activation energy. Depending on the state of matter and other conditions, reactingunits can collide billions of times per second. Only a very small fraction of thesecollisions are successful in creating a new substance. Thus, any factor that increasesthis fraction will usually increase the reaction rate. Since increasing concentration (orpressure in the case of gases) increases the collision frequency, reaction rate alsoincreases. Increasing temperature provides the reacting units with more kinetic energy toovercome the activation energy barrier, thus increasing the fraction of successfulcollisions. Since a catalyst will lower the activation energy by creating a new reactionmechanism pathway, the reaction rate will increase.Time:One or two 50-minute class periodsTeacher Preparation: ∑ Make
all
solutions
fresh.
 ∑ Make
 a
 0.010
 M
 solution
 of
 potassium
 iodate
 by
 dissolving
 2.1
 grams
 of
 potassium
 iodate
in
enough
distilled
water
to
make
a
1.0‐liter
solution.
 ∑ Make
a
starch
 solution
by
 mixing
approximately
 7
 grams
 of
soluble
starch
in
 a
 liter
of
 warm
water.
 ∑ Slowly
bring
the
mixture
to
a
gentle
boil
and
let
cool
to
room
temperature.
 ∑ To
 make
 one
 liter
 of
 the
 sodium
 metabisulfite
 solution
 dissolve
 0.20
 grams
 of
 sodium
 metabisulfite
 in
approximately
500
ml
of
water.
Add
50
ml
of
starch
solution
and
50
 ml
 of
 a
 1.0
 M
 solution
 of
 sulfuric
 acid.
 Mix
 and
 then
 add
 enough
 water
 to
 bring
 the
 mixture
to
one
liter.
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    • Materials:Small (100-150 ml) beakers IceHot plate TimerGraduated cylinders ThermometersDistilled water Glass rodPotassium iodate solution Acidified sodium metabisulfite solutionEngage: ∑ Present a discrepant demonstration to the students by quickly pouring 50 ml of metabisulfite into a 125 ml flask containing 10 ml of potassium iodate. In about 10-20 seconds, the clear solution should abruptly turn very dark blue. ∑ Facilitate a discussion inviting explanations for the abruptness in the color change. Guide the discussion toward factors that impact reaction rate. ∑ Discuss real-world applications of reaction rate. For example, biochemical enzymes controlling growth rate, flash fires, fuel efficiency, and climatic shifts may be of interest to students.Explore: ∑ Implement a pre-laboratory safety and technique presentation. ∑ To explore the impact of concentration on reaction rate, have students measure out 25 ml of the metabisulfite solution and 25 ml of the iodate solution in separate, clean, and dry graduated cylinders. One student will time the reaction while the other pours the contents of both cylinders into a clean dry beaker. The solutions must be mixed constantly with a glass rod. Have students record the length of time that it takes for the mixture to turn blue-black. The temperature of the mixture may also be recorded and the data used in the next part of the experiment. ∑ Repeat the trial 2-3 times until a 5-7% agreement is reached. ∑ To test for the impact of iodate concentration, have students run four trials keeping the concentration and amount of metabisulfite constant (25 ml aliquot) but varying the concentration of the iodate solution by dilution as follows: 1) 20 ml iodate/5 ml distilled water, 2)15 ml iodate/ 10 ml water, 3)10 ml iodate/15 ml water, and 4) 5 ml iodate/20 ml water. Total reacting solution volume in all trials is thus held constant at 50 ml. The students must record reaction time and temperature of reacting solution as before (reacting temperature must be constant to test for concentration impact only). ∑ Have the students repeat the above experimental design but vary the concentration of metabisulfite and keep the concentration of iodate constant. ∑ To explore the impact of temperature on reaction rate, have students set up ice water baths and hot water baths to vary the temperatures of the solutions. Instruct students to review their data from the concentration experiment and to select an iodate/metabisulfite mixture ratio that timed between 15-30 seconds. The students are then to run several trials, using this ratio, at different temperatures. Page
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    • ∑ Have students place the pre-measured solutions into beakers which are then placed in the water baths. Ensure that the students measure the temperature of the solutions before they mix them together. Instruct students to keep the experimental temperature range between 0° C and 45° C. The starch begins to break down above 50° C. The students should run at least five temperature trials evenly spaced between 0° C and 45° C. ∑ To test the impact of a catalyst, have the students select three previous trials that resulted in relatively slower times. Instruct them to repeat these trials but with 1.0 ml of 1.0 M sulfuric acid added to the metabisulfite solution. Have them record these new times. ∑ To determine the impact of temperature, concentration and a catalyst, students should be directed to analyze their data by plotting reaction time against the variable being investigated. Powerful spreadsheet programs such as Microsoft Excel are well-suited for this task. The resulting curves will afford the student the opportunity to discern any meaningful relationships among the variables. ∑ Students now formulate conclusions, supported by their data and the kinetic molecular theory, addressing the impact of concentration, temperature and a catalyst on chemical reactivity.Explain: ∑ Facilitate a class discussion that shares and describes the results of the experiment. ∑ Integrate into the class discussion the key concepts of kinetic energy, activation energy, intermolecular forces, bond energy, concentration, reaction pathway mechanism, and catalysts. ∑ Help students to understand the motion of the reacting units. For example, hold a lock in one hand and a key in the other and show the students that the vast majority of random collisions between the two objects will be unsuccessful in opening the lock.Elaborate: ∑ Ask students to give examples of the relevance of controlling reaction rates in processes involved in their daily lives (car fuel efficiency, catalytic converter, human or animal growth rate, athletic activities, climate, medication absorption rate, etc.) ∑ Invite the students to suggest other meaningful ways that the data may be analyzed. ∑ Have students investigate the mechanism involving chlorofluorocarbons as catalysts for conversion of ozone into diatomic oxygen. Have students evaluate the validity of the proposed mechanism. Page
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    • Evaluate: ∑ Evaluate the student’s ability to present data in a meaningful way. ∑ Determine how well a student is able to support a stated conclusion. ∑ Have students sketch drawings of what the reacting molecules may look like under different conditions. ∑ Lab practical: Have the students determine which substances can catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water. Some suitable substances are manganese dioxide pellets, tomato juice, vitamin C, vinegar, etc.Teacher Notes: ∑ Consider making several liters of each of the two solutions according to the supply demands of your classes. ∑ Glassware must be kept clean and free of competing ions that may interfere with the reaction mechanism. ∑ You may wish to save the detailed explanations until after the experiment, increasing the inquiry value of the lab. ∑ Students can collaborate on their data, increasing the effectiveness of their graphs and interpretations. ∑ Disposal of solutions is simply accomplished by diluting and pouring down the sink. Page
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    • Thinking Map: Concepts of ThermochemistryStudent Sample Page
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    • Dynamics of EnergyStandards of Focus:Body of Knowledge: PhysicalStandard 10: EnergySC.912.P.10.1 Differentiate among the various forms of energy and recognize that they can be transformed from one form to another.SC.912.P.10.2 Explore the Law of Conservation of Energy by differentiating among open, closed, and isolated systems and explain that the total energy in an isolated system is a conserved quantity.SC.912.P.10.6 Create and interpret potential energy diagrams, for example: chemical reactions, orbits around a central body, motion of a pendulum.SC.912.P.10.7 Distinguish between endothermic and exothermic chemical processes.Related Standards:Body of Knowledge: Life ScienceStandard 17: InterdependenceSC.912.L.17.19 Describe how different natural resources are produced and how their rates of use and renewal limit availabilityBody of Knowledge: PhysicalStandard 10: EnergySC.912.P.10.4 Describe heat as the energy transferred by convection, conduction, and radiation, and explain the connection of heat to change in temperature of states of matter.SC.912.P.10.5 Relate temperature to the average molecular kinetic energy.SC.912.P.10.8 Explain entropy’s role in determining the efficiency of processes that convert energy to work. Page
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    • Body of Knowledge: Earth and Space ScienceStandard 5: Earth in Space and TimeSC.912.E.5.1 Cite evidence used to develop and verify the scientific theory of the Big Bang (also known as the Big Bang Theory) of the origin of the universeOverview:Energy is the driving force of the universe. There is a growing consensus amongscientists that everything in our universe exists as some form of energy. The laws ofenergy dynamics are so universally pervasive and so powerful in their influence overphysical and biological processes, that we all have gained some level of awareness oftheir existence. Thus, students, through their own experiences come into the chemistryclass with some prior knowledge of energy relationships. The exemplary teacher knowsto seize upon these experiences as a starting point for understanding chemistry.Dynamics of energy can then become an anchor for the rest of the course, helping thestudents understand new chemistry concepts within a previously constructed energyparadigm.Teaching Strategies:Since energy dynamics is a driving force that underlies chemical activity and sincestudents have personal experience with energy events (fire, athletics, fuel consumption,electricity, etc.), this major idea can be addressed early in the curriculum. The conceptsof activation energy, exothermic and endothermic reactions, and the Law of Conservationof Energy can be presented and explored in an empirical fashion. For example, labactivities investigating Hess’s Law are excellent quantitative methods for exploring therelationships between chemical reactions and energy dynamics. Initially, students neednot know exactly why energy changes occur. (Historically, neither did scientists). Theysimply need to begin to understand the critical connection between energy and chemicalactivity. As the course matures and students learn more about the role of the electron, thenature of the relationship between energy and chemical activity will reveal itself instages. This strategy utilizes the premise that unanswered questions drive scientists todelve deeper into nature’s mysteries. It also constructs curriculum continuity throughoutthe course. It is always a rewarding experience to hear a student refer to a labexperienced months ago and say, “So that’s why that happened!”Matching Strategies to Course Level:All students must learn about the fundamental relationship between energy and chemicalactivity. They must realize, for example, that energy can be stored in chemical bondsduring endothermic reactions and that energy can be released during exothermicreactions. They must understand that energy dissipates in forms that are too costly torecapture. Students also need to know that once used to do work; much of that energyremains (Global Warming). Chemistry I students can engage in a number of energyactivities. These would include calorimetry, physical reactions involving changes ofstate, and heat curves. Chemistry I students can also explore energy relationship Page
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    • quantitatively; however, they might need additional time to assimilate the math modelsthat reflect the concepts. Chemistry I Honors students should tackle more aggressivemathematical treatment and comprehension of energy dynamics. While Chemistry Istudents can verify Hess’s Law, Chemistry I Honors student might derive the Lawthrough careful analysis of experimental data.Focus Benchmark Correlations:SC.912.P.10.1 Differentiate among the various forms of energy and recognize thatthey can be transformed from one form to another.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonThe Flow of Energy Chemistry Pages 556-561A Basis for Life Chemistry Pages 838-840Chemical Formulas Chemistry Page 202Metabolism Chemistry Pages 862-866Active ChemistryConservation of Energy Active Chemistry Pages506-507The Environmental Costs of Generating Active Chemistry Page 634BEnergyModern ChemistryEnergy and Changes in Matter Modern Chemistry Pages 10-11Thermochemistry Modern Chemistry Pages 531-540Internet Resourceshttp://www.energyeducation.tx.gov/http://www.energy4me.org/SC.912.P.10.2 Explore the Law of Conservation of Energy by differentiating amongopen, closed, and isolated systems and explain that the total energy in an isolatedsystem is a conserved quantity.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonThe Flow of Energy Chemistry Pages 556-561Active ChemistryConservation of Energy Active Chemistry Pages 506-507Spontaneity Active Chemistry Pages 357-361 Page
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    • Modern ChemistryThermochemistry Modern Chemistry Pages 531-540Specific Heat Inquiry Experiment Pages 1-11SC.912.P.10.6 Create and interpret potential energy diagrams, for example:chemical reactions, orbits around a central body, motion of a pendulum.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonHess’s Law Chemistry Pages 578-579Active ChemistryEnergy Diagrams Active Chemistry Pages 347-349Modern ChemistryThe Reaction Process Modern Chemistry Pages 561-567Enthalpy of Reaction Modern Chemistry Pages 534-537Internet Resourceshttp://misterguch.brinkster.net/energydiagram.htmlhttp://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/essentialchemistry/flash/activa2.swfhttp://physics.wku.edu/phys201/Information/ProblemSolving/EnergyDiagrams.htmlSC.912.P.10.7 Distinguish between endothermic and exothermic chemical processes.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonThe Flow of Energy Chemistry Pages 556-561Enthalpy Changes Chemistry Pages 562-568Calculating Heats of Reactions Chemistry Pages 578-582Geothermal Energy Chemistry Pages 576-577Active ChemistryHeat Energy Changes Active Chemistry Pages 346-347Endo and Exo Processes Active Chemistry Pages 504-507Terms Used in Thermochemistry Active Chemistry Pages 576-578Modern ChemistryEnthalpies of Solution Modern Chemistry Pages 415-416Enthalpy of Reaction Modern Chemistry Pages 534-537 Page
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    • Related Benchmark Correlations:SC.912.L.17.19 Describe how different natural resources are produced and howtheir rates of use and renewal limit availabilityTeacher SupportChemistry PearsonGeothermal Energy Chemistry Pages 576-577Hydrocarbons from Earth’s Crust Chemistry Pages 782-786Active ChemistryUsing our Non-Renewable Resources Active Chemistry Page 190AModern ChemistryPetroleum Chemistry Modern Chemistry Page 715Properties and Uses of Alkanes Modern Chemistry Pages722-723Internet Resourceshttp://www.mint.com/blog/trends/mint-map-resource-consumption-by-countrySC.912.P.10.5 Relate temperature to the average molecular kinetic energy.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonNature of Gases Chemistry Pages 420-424Properties of Gases Chemistry Pages 450-454Gas Laws Chemistry Pages 456-463Active ChemistryChanges of State Active Chemistry Pages 26-27Charles’ Law Active Chemistry Pages 411-413Modern ChemistryKinetic Molecular Theory Modern Chemistry Pages 330-333Definition of Temperature Modern Chemistry Page 531 Page
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    • SC.912.P.10.4 Describe heat as the energy transferred by convection, conduction,and radiation, and explain the connection of heat to change in temperature of statesof matter.Teacher SupportActive PhysicsHeat Transfer Active Physics Page 694-695Extending the Connection Active Physics Page 704, 704A-BInternet Resourceshttp://www.physicstutorials.org/home/heat-temperature-and-thermal-expansion/SC.912.P.10.8 Explain entropy’s role in determining the efficiency of processes thatconvert energy to work.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonFree Energy and Entropy Chemistry Pages 627-634Active ChemistrySpontaneity Active Chemistry Pages 357-361Modern ChemistryDriving Force of Reactions Modern Chemistry Pages 546-550SC.912.E.5.1 Cite evidence used to develop and verify the scientific theory of the BigBang (also known as the Big Bang Theory) of the origin of the universe.Teacher SupportActive ChemistryThe Big Bang Theory Active Chemistry Pages 634A-BModern ChemistryThe Chemistry of the Big Bang Modern Chemistry Page 700Internet Resourceshttp://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/bb_theory.htmlhttp://science.howstuffworks.com/dictionary/astronomy-terms/big-bang-theory.htm Page
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    • Reactions Rates and EquilibriumStandards of Focus:Body of Knowledge: PhysicalStandard 10: EnergySC.912.P.10.6 Create and interpret potential energy diagrams, for example: chemical reactions, orbits around a central body, motion of a pendulum.Standard 12: MotionSC.912.P.12.12 Explain how various factors, such as concentration, temperature, and presence of a catalyst affect the rate of a chemical reaction.SC.912.P.12.13 Explain the concept of dynamic equilibrium in terms of reversible processes occurring at the same rate.Related Standards:Body of Knowledge: LifeStandard 17: InterdependenceSC.912.L.17.15 Discuss the effects of technology on environmental quality.SC.912.L.17.16 Discuss the large-scale environmental impacts resulting from human activity, including waste spills, oil spills, runoff, greenhouse gases, ozone depletion, and surface and groundwater pollution.Standard 18:Matter and Energy TransformationsSC.912.L.18.11 Explain the role of enzymes as catalyst that lower the activation energy of biochemical reactions. Identify factors, such as pH and temperature, and their effect on enzyme activity.Overview:The chemistry concepts of reaction rates and chemical equilibrium have a vast array ofapplications over a broad spectrum of science and technology domains includingbiochemistry, pharmacology, geology, meteorology, medicine, chemical engineering,agriculture, anthropology, archeology, and even xenobiology. Fascinating classdiscussions can be facilitated once students begin to grasp these concepts. For example,students can use chemical equilibrium concepts to speculate on the possibilities of lifeexisting on planets with certain defined conditions. If environmental factors are static, Page
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    • could a meta-stable equilibrium system support life? If a planet exists at extremetemperatures, could reaction rates be sufficiently controlled to establish life? S/T/Sissues such as Global Warming and antibiotic applications can also be discussed withinthe reaction rate/equilibrium paradigm. This facet of the chemistry curriculum canfunction as a centralizing core that reaches out and connects previously learned chemistryconcepts to create a holistic view of the world of chemistry.Teaching Strategies:In depth knowledge of acid/base theory and colligative properties are not necessaryprerequisites to learning the essential principles and concepts in reaction rates andchemical equilibrium; however, the student should have significant lab experience and asolid background in chemistry fundamentals such as periodic law, nomenclature,stoichiometry, solution chemistry, reaction types, thermodynamics, gas laws and kineticmolecular theory.The classic Iodine-Starch clock reaction is a visually powerful chemical event thatmotivates students to explore the factors that affect reaction rates. This reaction can bestudied on a fundamental level by investigating the effects of temperature, concentration,and a catalyst, or, it can be expanded to include more sophisticated experimental designsto determine the reaction orders and possible mechanisms that govern the reaction.Students can use data from such labs to derive the chemical kinetic principles and lawsassociated with reaction rate chemistry. A similar approach can be utilized in presentingchemical equilibrium. For example, the copper sulfate/copper chloride equilibriumsystem is an excellent chemical event that demonstrates shifting equilibrium based ontemperature, concentration, common ion effect, solubility, and pH. Like the Iodine-Starch clock reaction, it is based on visually appealing color changes and thus is veryeffective as both a teacher demonstration and a lab activity. Oscillating reactions arefascinating examples of chemical equilibrium systems but are recommended as teacherdemonstration only since they usually require exotic chemicals that must be SchoolBoard approved. Text readings and problems will reinforce laboratory experiencesensuring a problem-solving theoretical mastery of the concepts.Matching Strategies to Course Level:Reaction Rates, by its very definition, involves the comprehension of loss or gain ofreactant or product quantities over time. Laboratory experiences such as the Iodine-Starch Clock Reaction will help all chemistry students to derive the factors that affectreaction rate. Chemistry I Honors students can explore the actual reaction orders andmechanisms that govern reaction rates. Both levels of student should be able to predictequilibrium shift given a specific stress factor. Chemistry I students should be expectedto calculate an equilibrium constant given a balanced chemical reaction and finalconcentrations. Chemistry I Honors students should also be able to mathematicallymanipulate the equilibrium expression to calculate final concentrations of reactants andproducts and predict equilibrium shift direction. Page
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    • Focus Benchmark Correlations:SC.912.P.10.6 Create and interpret potential energy diagrams, for example:chemical reactions, orbits around a central body, motion of a pendulumTeacher SupportChemistry PearsonHess’s Law Chemistry Pages 578-579Active ChemistryEnergy Diagrams Active Chemistry Pages 347-349Modern ChemistryThe Reaction Process Modern Chemistry Pages 561-567Enthalpy of Reaction Modern Chemistry Pages 534-537Internet Resourceshttp://misterguch.brinkster.net/energydiagram.htmlhttp://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/essentialchemistry/flash/activa2.swfhttp://physics.wku.edu/phys201/Information/ProblemSolving/EnergyDiagrams.htmlSC.912.P.12.12 Explain how various factors, such as concentration, temperature,and presence of a catalyst affect the rate of a chemical reactionTeacher SupportChemistry PearsonRates of Reaction Chemistry Pages 595-601Quick Lab: Does Steel Burn Chemistry Page 600Rate Laws Chemistry Pages 604-605Active ChemistryCatalyst Active Chemistry Page 349Factors Affecting Rates of a Reaction Active Chemistry Pages 514-515Inquiring Further Active Chemistry Page 518Modern ChemistryReaction Rate Modern Chemistry Pages 568-577Quick Lab: Factors Influencing Rate Modern Chemistry Page 578Chapter Lab: Rate of a Chemical Reaction Modern Chemistry Pages 586-587Clock Reaction Microscale Experiments Pages 83-87 Page
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    • SC.912.P.12.13 Explain the concept of dynamic equilibrium in terms of reversibleprocesses occurring at the same rateTeacher SupportChemistry PearsonSolubility Chemistry Page 520Reversible Reactions and Equilibrium Chemistry Pages 609-620Solubility Equilibrium Chemistry Pages 621-626Free Energy and Entropy Chemistry Pages 627-634Active ChemistryEquilibrium Active Chemistry Pages 525-526Modern ChemistryThe Nature of Chemical Equilibrium Modern Chemistry Pages 589-595Enthalpy of Reaction Modern Chemistry Pages 534-537Shifting Equilibrium Modern Chemistry Pages 598-603Equilibrium Microscale Experiments Pages 89-93Solubility Product Constant-Algal Blooms Inquiry Experiments Pages 91-94Related Benchmark Correlations:SC.912.L.17.15 Discuss the effects of technology on environmental quality.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonCatalytic Converters Chemistry Pages 602-603Plasma Waste Converter Chemistry Pages 440-441Natural Gas Vehicles Chemistry Pages 476-477PCBs Persistent Pollutant Chemistry Page 803Active ChemistryThe Environmental Cost of Energy Active Chemistry Pages 634A-BModern ChemistryCatalytic Converters Modern Chemistry Page 579Chemical Industry Modern Chemistry Pages 814-815 Page
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    • SC.912.L.17.16 Discuss the large-scale environmental impacts resulting from humanactivity, including waste spills, oil spills, runoff, greenhouse gases, ozone depletion,and surface and groundwater pollutionTeacher SupportChemistry PearsonAlgal Blooms Chemistry Page 270Natural Gas Vehicles Chemistry Pages 476-477Active ChemistryThe Human Toll on the Environment Active Chemistry Pages 542A-BModern ChemistryCatalytic Converters Modern Chemistry Page 579Chemical Industry Modern Chemistry Pages 814-815Acid Water Modern Chemistry Page 477Liming Streams Modern Chemistry Page 510SC.912.L.18.11 Explain the role of enzymes as catalyst that lower the activationenergy of biochemical reactions. Identify factors, such as pH and temperature, andtheir effect on enzyme activityTeacher SupportChemistry PearsonEnzymes Chemistry Pages 847-848Active ChemistryEnzymes Active Chemistry Page 664Modern ChemistryProteins as Enzymes Modern Chemistry Pages 763-765Internet Resourceswww.accessexcellence.org/AE/ATG/data/released/0166-PeggySkinner/index.phphttp://mdk12.org/instruction/curriculum/hsa/biology/enzyme_activity/ Page
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    • What are the Relevant Applications of Chemistry?Essential Questions • What are the applications of chemistry? Page
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    • Common Misconceptions • Students think that when performing a titration that more indicator will make the color change more vivid. Remind them that indicators are themselves acids or bases. An indicator should be present in a quantity low enough so that it does not affect the result of the end point. • Students often incorrectly confuse oxidation state or oxidation number with charge. Oxidation number is not a charge. The charge is a net charge for the molecule or ion. Oxidation number and charge are equivalent only when considering a monatomic ion. 
Assessment ProbesKeeley, Page, and Joyce Tugel. "Where Does Oil Come From?" Uncovering Student in Science. Vol. 4. Arlington, VA: NSTA, 2009. 151-156. Print Page
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    • What are the Relevant Applications of Chemistry? B.E.S.T. / 5E Sample Page
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    • Lab: PollutantsOverview:Students will experiment with different types of pollutants in an aquatic environment.Background:All living things have a basic set of needs, such as food, water, oxygen, and shelter.Humans burn oil, gas and coal to fuel power plants and cars and to provide electricity.We dam rivers for irrigation water and electricity. We dig deep into the ground tomine metals and minerals. We clear forests to build shopping centers and housingdevelopments. The water we waste, the air we pollute, the trees we cut and the garbagewe throw out all contribute to the destruction of our environment. Since humans are partof the environment, we may be damaging the future of our own species. Students shouldbe familiar with the scientific method, safety procedures and laboratory procedures.Remind them to think about their control group and to use measurable data.Time:One 50-minute class period for initial set upTwo to four weeks for observation and data collectingMaterials (per group of 4 or 5):3 one-gallon aquariums or similar containers Spirogyra, stock culturePond water (several liters depending on class size) Paper towelsWax pencil Plastic wrapDetergent with phosphate Fluorescent lampDetergent without phosphateEngage: ∑ Ask students if they have witnessed a fish-kill, an extreme algal bloom, or other unusual phenomenon in a lake, river, stream or ocean. ∑ Show students photographs, video, etc., that are specific to your area (such as red tide or summer fish-kills). ∑ Brainstorm and discuss possible reasons for these different phenomena. ∑ Place a plant with some gravel in a large beaker of water. Add several drops of motor oil, one at a time and observe what happens to the oil.Explore: ∑ You may either instruct the students to use specified measurements or they may choose themselves. ∑ Implement a pre-laboratory safety and technique presentation.Provide the following student instructions: Page
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    • ∑ Fill each container two-thirds full of pond water. Label each container #1, #2, #3. ∑ To container #1, add 2 g of detergent with phosphates. ∑ To container #2, add 2 g of detergent without phosphates. ∑ Do not add detergent to container #3. ∑ Remove the Spirogyra from the culture container and place it briefly on a folded paper towel to absorb excess water. Mass three 25-g samples of Spirogyra and add one sample to each of the containers. This must be done quickly to keep the Spirogyra from drying out. ∑ Cover each container with a sheet of plastic wrap and place all of them 20 cm from a fluorescent lamp. ∑ Observe each container twice a week and record your observations. The observations should include color of Spirogyra , odor of containers, position of the Spirogyra in the containers, presence of bubbles and any other detail noted. ∑ After three weeks, remove the Spirogyra and briefly place it on a folded paper towel to absorb excess water. Record the mass of the Spirogyra in each container. ∑ Calculate the increase in mass of the Spirogyra in each container by subtracting the original mass from the final mass.Explain: ∑ Which container had the greatest increase/decrease in mass? ∑ Why do you think the Spirogyra was found where it was inside the container? ∑ If the Spirogyra has very rapid growth in a lake, pond or river, what effect do you think it would have on the other organisms in the aquatic system? ∑ Which container represents rapid growth and how can you account for this? ∑ What are the characteristics of eutrophication? ∑ What is runoff and what consequences are associated with it? ∑ Why are we concerned with runoff? ∑ What happens to aquatic systems when there is more waste than the system can break down? ∑ Why do the fish, insects, etc. die off?Elaborate: ∑ Have students research an area (local waterways, Everglades, etc.) that has had problems with runoff and detail the steps that have been taken to improve it. ∑ Research the Ogallala Aquifer and the problems that have occurred as a result of the overuse of water.Evaluate: ∑ Describe the effects of increased human activity on a selected natural resource. Students should consider growing populations, ecological and economic effects. Page
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    • Thinking Map: ElectrochemistryStudent Sample Page
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    • Acids and BasesStandards of Focus:Body of Knowledge: PhysicalStandard 8: MatterSC.912.P.8.8 Characterize types of chemical reactions, for example: redox, acid-base, synthesis, and single and double replacement reactions.SC.912.P.8.11 Relate acidity and basicity to hydronium and hydroxyl ion concentration and pHRelated Standards:Body of Knowledge: Life ScienceStandard 17: InterdependenceSC.912.L.17.15 Discuss the effects of technology on environmental quality.SC.912.L.17.16 Discuss the large-scale environmental impacts resulting from human activity, including waste spills, oil spills, runoff, greenhouse gases, ozone depletion, and surface and groundwater pollution.SC.912.L.17.20 Predict the impact of individuals on environmental systems and examine how human lifestyles affect sustainabilityStandard 18: Matter and Energy TransformationsSC.912.L.18.12 Discuss the special properties of water that contribute to Earth’s suitability as an environment for life; cohesive behavior, ability to moderate temperature, expansion upon freezing, and versatility as a solvent.Overview:Earth is a water planet. Much of its physical and biological characteristics are dominatedby the chemistry of that unique substance. One of the most important characteristics ofwater is its ability to autoionize into the acidic hydronium and the basic hydroxide ions.The experienced chemistry instructor engages the student in acid/base experiencesthroughout the curriculum. In exploring acid/base chemistry, students learn significantpractical chemistry knowledge readily applied to their daily lives. Page
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    • Teaching Strategies:Introduce students to classification of solutions based on their acidic and basic properties.For example, the pH of common household solutions can be measured: tap water, fruitjuices, certain cleansers, vinegar, and milk are good examples. Thus, concepts inacid/base chemistry can be initially discovered empirically in appropriate lab activitiesthat emphasize the descriptive properties of these substances.As the student learns about the electrostatic forces that drive chemical activity, moreformal definitions of acids and bases and be taught. Once this is accomplished, studentscan move from qualitative to more quantitative aspects of acid/base chemistry. Thiswould involve a detailed study of the nature of the pH scale and the devices that measurepH. For example, relative strengths of acids can be qualitatively observed by reactionrates with specific metals or by electrical conductivity. The same acids can later becompared quantitatively using pH meters. Titration experiments would most certainly bepart of this quantitative experience. Investigating the buffering capacity of antacids is aninteresting choice for applying titration techniques.This Major Idea should include a study of the hydrolytic action of salts and gases. Oncestudents understand hydrolysis concepts, S/T/S issues including acid rain and waterpollution can be explored. An interesting class project that applies acid/base chemistrywould be an analysis of local water sources: rain, lakes, and rivers. Students can measurepH and using qualitative laboratory techniques, identify some of the acids or basespresent. Students can then investigate the possible sources for these substances, naturalor manmade. Such projects give students an opportunity to apply chemistry to their ownenvironment.Matching Strategies to Course Level:All students must understand both the descriptive and theoretical aspects of acid/basechemistry. They should be well acquainted with the autoionization, neutralization, andhydrolysis reactions. All students must also become well trained in the proper and safehandling of acids and bases. Since these substances are commercially available andwidely used, safety training must be an integral part of the chemistry curriculum. Thefundamental quantitative facets of this Major Idea can be learned by both levels ofstudents. Chemistry I students should make qualitative identification of solutions usingthe pH scale. Chemistry I Honors students should engage in constructing andinterpreting titration curves. Chemistry I students may also explore titration curveexperiments, but may require more time to interpret the data. Chemistry I Honorsstudents should be able to extend their knowledge base into equilibrium concepts such asthe Common Ion effect. All students should be encouraged to apply this Major Idea toS/T/S issues of interest. Page
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    • Focus Benchmark Correlations:SC.912.P.8.8 Characterize types of chemical reactions, for example: redox, acidbase, synthesis, and single and double replacement reactions.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonDescribing Chemical Reactions Chemistry Pages 346-354Chemical Equations Small Scale Manual Lab 14Types of Chemical Reactions Chemistry Pages 356-357Small Scale Lab: Balancing Chemical Small Scale Manual Lab 15EquationsOxidation Reduction Chemistry Pages 692-299Quick Lab: Bleach it! Chemistry Page 699Redox Reactions Chemistry Pages 707-715Oxidation Reduction Reactions Small Scale Lab 35Active ChemistryAcids and Bases Active Chemistry Pages 204-210Double Replacement Reaction Active Chemistry Pages 248-249Lab: Alternative Pathways Active Chemistry Pages 279-282Redox Reactions Active Chemistry Pages 316-318Redox Reactions Active Chemistry Pages 384-386Kinds of Chemical Reactions Active Chemistry Pages 421-425Lab: Chemical Equations Active Chemistry Pages 490-494Chemical Reactions Active Chemistry Pages 495-497Redox Reaction Active Chemistry Pages 534-537Combustion Reaction Active Chemistry Pages 564-568Double Replacement Active Chemistry Pages 676-677Single Replacement Active Chemistry Pages 694-697Modern ChemistryTypes of Chemical Reactions Modern Chemistry Pages 276-283Quick Lab: Balancing Equations Modern Chemistry Page 284Acid Base Reactions Modern Chemistry Pages 483-489Lab: Is it an Acid or a Base? Modern Chemistry Pages 496-497Oxidation-Reduction Modern Chemistry Pages 631-635Balancing Redox Reactions Modern Chemistry Pages 637-641Quick Lab: Redox Reactions Modern Chemistry Page 684Lab: Reduction of Manganese and Modern Chemistry Pages 652-653Permanganate Ion Page
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    • SC.912.P.8.11 Relate acidity and basicity to hydronium and hydroxyl ionconcentration and pHTeacher SupportChemistry PearsonHydrogen Ions in Acidity Chemistry Pages 653-662Strengths of Acids and Bases Chemistry Pages 664-669Active ChemistryAcids and Bases Active Chemistry Pages 204-210Lab: Acid, Bases and Indicators Active Chemistry Pages 519-522Acids and Bases Active Chemistry Pages 522-528Modern ChemistryCalculating [hydronium] and [hydroxide ] Modern Chemistry Pages 501-509Quick Lab: Testing the pH of Rain Water Modern Chemistry Page 514Percentage of Acetic Acid in Vinegar Microscale Experiments Pages 73-78Shampoo Chemistry Inquiry Experiments Pages 75-80Related Benchmark Correlations:SC.912.L.17.15 Discuss the effects of technology on environmental quality.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonCatalytic Converters Chemistry Pages 602-603Plasma Waste Converter Chemistry Pages 440-441Natural Gas Vehicles Chemistry Pages 476-477PCBs Persistent Pollutant Chemistry Page 803Active ChemistryThe Environmental Cost of Energy Active Chemistry Pages 634A-BModern ChemistryCatalytic Converters Modern Chemistry Page 579Chemical Industry Modern Chemistry Pages 814-815 Page
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    • SC.912.L.17.16 Discuss the large-scale environmental impacts resulting from humanactivity, including waste spills, oil spills, runoff, greenhouse gases, ozone depletion,and surface and groundwater pollutionTeacher SupportChemistry PearsonAlgal Blooms Chemistry Page 270Natural Gas Vehicles Chemistry Pages 476-477Active ChemistryThe Human Toll on the Environment Active Chemistry Pages 542A-BModern ChemistryCatalytic Converters Modern Chemistry Page 579Chemical Industry Modern Chemistry Pages 814-815Acid Water Modern Chemistry Page 477Liming Streams Modern Chemistry Page 510SC.912.L.17.20 Predict the impact of individuals on environmental systems andexamine how human lifestyles affect sustainabilityTeacher SupportChemistry PearsonCarbon Footprints Chemistry Page 83Chemistry and You Chemistry Pages 6-11Active ChemistrySustainability Active Chemistry Page 190BModern ChemistryAcid Water-A Hidden Menace Modern Chemistry Page 477Nuclear Waste Modern Chemistry Pages 695-696Mercury Poisoning Modern Chemistry Page 805Ozone Modern Chemistry Page 836 Page
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    • SC.912.L.18.12 Discuss the special properties of water that contribute to Earth’ssuitability as an environment for life; cohesive behavior, ability to moderatetemperature, expansion upon freezing, and versatility as a solvent.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonWater and its Properties Chemistry Page 488-493Quick Lab: Surface Tension Chemistry Page 491Solutions Chemistry Pages 494-495Active ChemistryThe Unique Role of Water Active Chemistry Pages 90A-BModern ChemistryStructure of Water Modern Chemistry Pages 349-351Acid Water- A Hidden Menace Modern Chemistry Page 477Liming Streams Modern Chemistry Page 510Quick Lab: Testing the pH of Rain Water Modern Chemistry Page 514 "It would be illogical to assume that all conditions remain stable." Spock Page
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    • ElectrochemistryStandards of Focus:Body of Knowledge: PhysicalStandard 8: MatterSC.912.P.8.8 Characterize types of chemical reactions, for example: redox, acid-base, synthesis, and single and double replacement reactions.Honors Chemistry Only:SC.912.P.8.10 Describe oxidation-reduction reactions in living and non-living systems.Related Standards:Body of Knowledge: PhysicalStandard 8: MatterSC.912.P.8.2 Differentiate between physical and chemical properties and physical and chemical changes of matter.Standard 10: EnergySC.912.P.10.15 Investigate and explain the relationships among current, voltage, resistance, and power.Body of Knowledge: StatisticsStandard 1: Formulating QuestionsSC.912.MA.S.1.2 Determine appropriate and consistent standards of measurement for the data to be collected in a survey or experimentOverview:Redox (reduction/oxidation) reactions are among some of the most relevant andinteresting reactions that the chemistry student will study. Electrochemical reactions areinvolved in many industrial and biological applications such as batteries, corrosion,electroplating, metallurgy, and numerous biochemical reactions. For example, studentstend to be very interested in how batteries work and how they differ from each other. Byconstructing and measuring the various parameters of voltaic cells, such mysteries beginto reveal themselves to the student. In this way, the student will internalize importantredox concepts such as voltage, amperage, overvoltage, and reactant potential type. Thestudy of electrochemistry will greatly facilitate the construction of the student’s electron- Page
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    • flow paradigm, which is one of the foundations to modern chemistry. Sinceelectrochemistry is presented mostly as an applied chemistry area, it is best understood bythe student when preceded by chemistry fundamentals such as chemical nomenclature,writing and balancing chemical reactions, electronic structure in atoms, periodic law,thermochemistry, and solution chemistry. It is therefore suggested that the Redox MajorConcept be addressed during the latter part of the course.Teaching Strategies:Choose a suitable redox reaction, such as the one between aluminum metal and copper(II) chloride, and have the students observe the reaction, noting significant changes suchas temperature and color changes. Engage the students in a post-lab discussion to explainthese changes. Eventually, students should recall that such changes are based on electronbehavior as they change orbits to reach greater stability. Once it has been established thatelectrons have a drive to flow towards more stable orbits, the question can now be put tothe student: “What would happen if we intercepted these electrons before they reachedtheir lower orbits?”Matching Strategies to Course Level:All chemistry students must be able to comprehend the fundamentals of electrochemistry.For example, students must be able to identify oxidizers and reducers, understandvoltage, trace the flow of electrons in a voltaic cell, and build a simple electrochemicalbattery and measure its voltage. Chemistry I students may need more time for review inprerequisite concepts such as balancing equations and periodic trends. Building batteriesusing different metals for the electrodes will help Chemistry I students discover howvoltage is correlated with electronegativities. Chemistry I Honors students can be giventhe task of selecting materials to build the most potent voltaic cell, using electrodepotentials as a guide. Both Chemistry I and Chemistry I Honors students will be veryinterested in learning about the differences between battery types including, dry cells,alkaline, rechargeable, lead-storage, and fuel cells. Chemistry I students can learn howto describe the differences among the different batteries while Chemistry I Honorsstudents can be required to point out the differences by writing out the pertinentreactions. All students can study qualitative concepts in corrosion.More advanced quantitative applications such as electroplating and energy consumptioncalculations should be required of Chemistry I Honors students and may be explored byChemistry I students, depending on their mathematics skills.Focus Benchmark Correlations:SC.912.P.8.8 Characterize types of chemical reactions, for example: redox, acidbase, synthesis, and single and double replacement reactions.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonDescribing Chemical Reactions Chemistry Pages 346-354Chemical Equations Small Scale Manual Lab 14 Page
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    • Types of Chemical Reactions Chemistry Pages 356-357Chemistry Pearson ContinuedSmall Scale Lab: Balancing Chemical Small Scale Manual Lab 15EquationsOxidation Reduction Chemistry Pages 692-299Quick Lab: Bleach it! Chemistry Page 699Redox Reactions Chemistry Pages 707-715Oxidation Reduction Reactions Small Scale Lab 35Active ChemistryAcids and Bases Active Chemistry Pages 204-210Double Replacement Reaction Active Chemistry Pages 248-249Lab: Alternative Pathways Active Chemistry Pages 279-282Redox Reactions Active Chemistry Pages 316-318Redox Reactions Active Chemistry Pages 384-386Kinds of Chemical Reactions Active Chemistry Pages 421-425Lab: Chemical Equations Active Chemistry Pages 490-494Chemical Reactions Active Chemistry Pages 495-497Redox Reaction Active Chemistry Pages 534-537Combustion Reaction Active Chemistry Pages 564-568Double Replacement Active Chemistry Pages 676-677Single Replacement Active Chemistry Pages 694-697Modern ChemistryTypes of Chemical Reactions Modern Chemistry Pages 276-283Quick Lab: Balancing Equations Modern Chemistry Page 284Acid Base Reactions Modern Chemistry Pages 483-489Lab: Is it an Acid or a Base? Modern Chemistry Pages 496-497Oxidation-Reduction Modern Chemistry Pages 631-635Balancing Redox Reactions Modern Chemistry Pages 637-641Quick Lab: Redox Reactions Modern Chemistry Page 684Lab: Reduction of Manganese and Modern Chemistry Pages 652-653Permanganate IonSC.912.P.8.10 Describe oxidation-reduction reactions in living and non-livingsystems.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonDescribing Redox Equations Chemistry Pages 707-708Quick Lab: Half Reactions Chemistry Page 717Modern ChemistryOxidizing and Reducing Agents Modern Chemistry Pages 642-645 Page
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    • Quick Lab: Redox Reactions Modern Chemistry Page 644Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Microscale Experiments Pages 95-99Related Benchmark Correlations:SC.912.P.8.2 Differentiate between physical and chemical properties and physicaland chemical changes of matter.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonPhysical and Chemical Properties Chemistry Pages 34-37Physical Changes Chemistry Page 37Chemical Changes Chemistry Pages 48-49Quick Lab: Separating Mixtures Chemistry Page 39Active ChemistryPhysical Properties Active Chemistry Pages 42-43Lab: Metals and Nonmetals Active Chemistry Pages 60-64Physical and Chemical Properties Active Chemistry Pages105-106Lab: Chemical and Physical Changes Active Chemistry Pages 465-467Chemical and Physical Changes Active Chemistry Page 468Lab: More Chemical Changes Active Chemistry Pages 473-479Modern ChemistryMatter and Its Properties Modern Chemistry Pages 6-11Mixture Separation Modern Chemistry Pages 26-27Chromatography Experiments Forensics and Applied Pages 35-50 Science ExperimentsEvidence for a Chemical Change Skills Practice Pages 35-40 ExperimentsSC.912.P.10.15 Investigate and explain the relationships among current, voltage, resistance, and power.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonElectrochemistry Chemistry Pages 728-751Active ChemistryBatteries Active Chemistry Pages 381-386Modern ChemistryElectrochemistry Modern Chemistry Pages 655-671 Page
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    • Internet Resourceshttp://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_1/chpt_2/1.htmlhttp://science.howstuffworks.com/electricity4.htm Chemistry of LifeStandards of Focus:Body of Knowledge: PhysicalStandard 12:SC.912.P.8.12 Describe the properties of the carbon atom that make the diversity of carbon compounds.Related StandardsBody of Knowledge: PhysicalStandard 8: MatterSC.912.P.8.13 Identify selected functional groups and relate how they contribute to properties of carbon compounds.Body of Knowledge: Earth and Space ScienceStandard 7: Earth systems and PatternsSC.912.E.7.1 Analyze the movement of matter and energy through the different biogeochemical cycles, including water and carbon.Body of Knowledge: Life ScienceStandard 17: InterdependenceSC.912.L.17.10 Diagram and explain the biogeochemical cycles of an ecosystem, including water, carbon, and nitrogen cycle.SC.912.L.17.11 Evaluate the costs and benefits of renewable and nonrenewable resources, such as water, energy, fossil fuels, wildlife, and forests.Standard 18: Matter and Energy TransformationsSC.912.L.18.11 Explain the role of enzymes as catalysts that lower the activation energy of biochemical reactions. Identify factors, such as pH and temperature, and their effect on enzyme activity. Page
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    • Overview:The subject of biochemistry and related sciences can help students learn to appreciate therelevance of chemistry to their lives. The Chemistry of Life connects chemistry conceptsas the student builds mastery. This Major Idea can serve as a means of applyingchemistry to the student’s world. It represents an excellent approach to addressing S/T/Sstandards as well. Topics ranging from the nature of DNA to the health effects oftobacco can be incorporated into the curriculum. It is therefore suggested that theChemistry of Life be integrated within the chemistry curriculum during the entire course.Teaching Strategies:The exemplary teacher will draw upon a constantly updated repertoire of biological andbiochemical applications to enhance the chemistry curriculum. This can be accomplishedin a number of ways. For example, laboratory activities involving vitamin C titration(food chemistry), chlorophyll extraction techniques, and protein separationelectrophoresis experiments provide students with fascinating ways of discoveringbiological applications of chemistry. Students can research specific topics of interestsuch as the value of zinc in the human immunity system and present their own findings tothe class. Knowing the replicate nature of DNA, students can be asked to predict the typeof bonding that would be able to temporarily hold the double helix structure together.The unique properties of water (heat capacity, hydrogen bonding, acid/basecharacteristics, dissolving power, etc.) provide an excellent transition between physicaland biological chemistry. Students are particularly fascinated by brain research and arethus highly motivated about the biochemical nature of emotion, and memory. If thisMajor Idea is presented to the students as an integral part of the chemistry curriculum, thestudent may internalize the relevance of chemistry and in the process become betterinformed, critical thinking citizens.Matching Strategies to Course Level:Complex multi-conceptual topics such as mechanism-altering enzymatic reactions maybe appropriate for Chemistry I Honors. Chemistry I students might focus on the initialconnection between chemistry and biology.Focus Benchmark Correlations:SC.912.P.8.12 Describe the properties of the carbon atom that make the diversity ofcarbon compounds.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonHydrocarbons Chemistry Pages 762-773Isomers Chemistry Pages 775-777Quick Lab: Isomers of Heptane Chemistry Page 778 Page
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    • Hydrocarbon Rings Chemistry Pages 779-781Active ChemistryModeling Molecules Active Chemistry Pages 615-621Chemical Structures Active Chemistry Pages 622-626Modern ChemistryDiversity of Organic Compounds Modern Chemistry Pages 711-714Carbon Skills Practice Pages 107-113 ExperimentPolymers Skills Practice Pages 115-120 ExperimentsThe Slime Challenge Inquiry Experiments Pages 123-129Related Benchmark Correlations:SC.912.P.8.13 Identify selected functional groups and relate how they contribute toproperties of carbon compounds.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonFunctional Groups Chemistry Pages 798-820Modern ChemistryFunctional Groups Modern Chemistry Pages 730-734Internet Resourceshttp://www.chemistry-drills.com/functional-groups.php?q=simpleSC.912.E.7.1 Analyze the movement of matter and energy through the differentbiogeochemical cycles, including water and carbon.SC.912.L.17.10 Diagram and explain the biogeochemical cycles of an ecosystem,including water, carbon, and nitrogen cycle.Teacher SupportChemistry PearsonGeothermal Energy Chemistry Pages 576-577Energy and the Carbon Cycle Chemistry Pages 839-840 Page
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    • The Nitrogen Cycle Chemistry Pages 865-866Modern ChemistryChemical Industry Modern Chemistry Pages 814-815Internet Resourceshttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycle.htmlhttp://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/CarbonCycle/http://soil.gsfc.nasa.gov/NFTG/nitrocyc.htmSC.912.L.18.11 Explain the role of enzymes as catalyst that lower the activationenergy of biochemical reactions. Identify factors, such as pH and temperature, andtheir effect on enzyme activityTeacher SupportChemistry PearsonEnzymes Chemistry Pages 847-848Active ChemistryEnzymes Active Chemistry Page 664Modern ChemistryProteins as Enzymes Modern Chemistry Pages 763-765Internet Resourceswww.accessexcellence.org/AE/ATG/data/released/0166-PeggySkinner/index.phphttp://mdk12.org/instruction/curriculum/hsa/biology/enzyme_activity/ Adopted Text Book ReferencesModern Chemistry –Honors ChemistryDavis, Raymond E., Regina Frey, Mickey Sarquis, and Jerry L. Sarquis. Modern Chemistry. Orlando: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012. Print.Pearson Chemistry- Regular ChemistryWilbraham, Anthony C., Dennis D. Staley, Michael S. Matta, and Edward L. Waterman. Pearson Chemistry. Boston: Pearson Education, 2012. Print. Page
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    • Active Chemistry- Additional Classroom ResourceEisenkraft, Arthur. Active Chemistry. Its About TIme, Herff Jones Education Division, 2011. Print. Internet Resources Amazing Chemistry Resources http://www.nclark.net/Chemistry ACS- Chem Matters http://portal.acs.org/portal/acs/corg/content?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=PP_SUPER ARTICLE&node_id=1090&use_sec=false&sec_url_var=region1&__uuid=60a12 251-2684-4ac6-8f71-c670f0086c61 Chem Guide Helping you to Understand Chemistry http://www.chemguide.co.uk/ Chemical Elements http://www.chemicalelements.com/ Chemistry Explained http://www.chemistryexplained.com Chemistry Sifter’s Guide http://www.cpet.ufl.edu/siftguide/chem.htm Chemmybear www.chemmybear.com/stdycrds.html Chemtutor http://www.chemtutor.com/ Chymist http://www.chymist.com/ Flinn Scientific www.flinsci.com Interactive Library Edinformatics http://www.edinformatics.com/il/il_chem.htm Inquiry in Action http://www.inquiryinaction.org/ Learners TV- Chemistry www.learnerstv.com/chemistry.php Mr.Guch http://misterguch.brinkster.net Perdue University Department of Chemistry www.chem.purdue.edu PhET Interactive simulations http://phet.colorado.edu Virtual Chemistry Experiments http://www.chm.davidson.edu/vce/ Web Elements www.webelements.com Page
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