Gagne's contri. to math

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As the name suggests all the efforts that Gagne would have expended towards the evolution of Math teaching and learning in a powerpoint presentation.

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Gagne's contri. to math

  1. 1. Gagne’s Contributions to Mathematics Learning
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Gagne’s Nine Levels of Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Gagne’s Hierarchy of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Types or categories of learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Types of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators of learning outcome achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Principles of Gagne’s hierarchical classifications </li></ul><ul><li>Implications for learning Mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Capture attention </li></ul><ul><li>Curiosity motivates students to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Thought provoking questions </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Initiates expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>Motivates to complete the lesson </li></ul><ul><li>Example: upon completing the lesson... </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Associations facilitate the learning process </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding and storing information in long term memory is easier </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Chunking and organizing meaningfully </li></ul><ul><li>Explained and then demonstrated </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Provide students with illustrations of content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphical representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analogies </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Practice new skill or behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Confirms correct understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition increases retention </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Provide feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Questions should be used for comprehension and encoding purposes. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Give opportunities for independent post tests. </li></ul><ul><li>No coaching feedback or hints. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><ul><li>Opportunity to transfer learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides diverse practice to generalize the capabilities. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Gagne’s Hierarchy of Learning
  13. 14. <ul><li>Focus </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Categories of learning outcomes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Types of learning </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Importance of a Hierarchy <ul><li>defines a sequence of instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>defines what intellectual skills are to be learned. </li></ul><ul><li>emphasizes a difference in instruction </li></ul>
  15. 16. Categories of Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Verbal information </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Cognitive strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Motor skills </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul>
  17. 18. Types of Learning Outcomes & how they are D emonstrated
  18. 19. <ul><li>Intellectual Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts- </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>labeling ,classifying </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rules- </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>applying , demonstrating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem solving- generating </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Cognitive Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>u sed for learning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Encoding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Rehearsal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Retrieval </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Verbal information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stated information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motor Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrating preference </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Types of learning <ul><li>Signal learning </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus-response learning </li></ul><ul><li>Chaining </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal association </li></ul>
  22. 23. Types of learning (cont’d) <ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Concept Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Rule Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Solving </li></ul>
  23. 24. Principles <ul><li>Different instruction different learning outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Events of learning </li></ul><ul><li>stimulates the conditions of learning. </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Varied instructional events different learning outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchies define intellectual skills and also a sequence of instruction . </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Stimulating recall essential to begin instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning requires direct presentation of appropriate stimuli . </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Appropriate stimuli before </li></ul><ul><li>instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback end of each learning activity. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Implications for learning mathematics <ul><li>vary instructional approaches and techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>relevant learning activities to the type of learning outcome required. </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>organise learning activities from simple to complex </li></ul><ul><li>plan for a variety or wide range of outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>consider how learning could be demonstrated </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>vary assessment modes authentic/traditional </li></ul><ul><li>design instruction using nine events as a base </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>provide alternative activities for practice, transfer and reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>cater for different cognitive abilities </li></ul>
  31. 32. Conclusion <ul><li>“ Learning is something that takes place inside a person’s head-in the brain.” (Robert Gagne, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Gagne theory proposes relationship between instructional events, outcomes and cognitive processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning activities must be varied and sequenced. </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>Thank You! </li></ul><ul><li>The End </li></ul><ul><li>Questions ????????? </li></ul><ul><li>Presenters: Banfield, Rohna </li></ul><ul><li>Grant, Teshia </li></ul><ul><li>Lyons, Bernicia </li></ul>
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