River valley Civilizations Overview

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brief overview of 4 early river valley civilizations Egypt, Mesopotamia, Indus Valley Civ,, and Shang /Huang He

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  • Nebuchadnezzar by William Blake
  • Why is this a good place to build a civilization?
  • River valley Civilizations Overview

    1. 1. Civilization& the Early RiverValley Civilizations 1
    2. 2. Objectives: List characteristics that raise a culture to the level of a “civilization” Become familiar with traits unique to each of the early river Valley Civilizations. 2
    3. 3. Civilization Defined Agricultural base surplus trade Cities & Urban life Government & Political system 3
    4. 4. Civilization Defined Social stratification Economic specialization Religion Writing “Higher Culture”  Art / Architecture / Sculpture 4
    5. 5. Civilization andthe Means of Production Essential element: concentration of wealth  Agriculture  Control over natural resources  Development of ancient civilization  not hunter-gatherer economics 5
    6. 6. Origins and Spread of Agriculture 6
    7. 7. The Wealth of the Rivers Nutrient-rich silt Key: irrigation  Necessity of coordinated efforts  Promoted development of local governments  City-states Sumer begins small-scale irrigation 6000 BCE By 5000 BCE, complex irrigation networks  Population reaches 100,000 by 3000 BCE Attracts Semitic migrants, influences culture 7
    8. 8. 8
    9. 9. Mesopotamia  “Between the Rivers”  Tigris and Euphrates  Contemporary Iran, Iraq  Cultural continuum of “fertile crescent” 9
    10. 10. Sumerian City-States Cities appear 4000 BCE Dominate region from 3200-2350 BCE  Ur (home of Abraham, see Genesis 11:28), Nineveh (see Jonah) Ziggurat home of the god Divine mandate to Kings Regulation of Trade Defence from nomadic marauders 10
    11. 11. 11
    12. 12. The Ziggurat of Ur 12
    13. 13. 13
    14. 14. Sumer was invaded quitea bit, but conquerorstended to take onSumerian ways 14
    15. 15. Sumerian Contributions Arch Built arches using clay bricks that supported heavy wall openings for doorways and windows. Plow Wheeled vehicles Mathematical ideas Using base 60, divided a circle into 360 degrees, an hour into 60 minutes and a minute into 60 seconds 15
    16. 16. Legal System The Code of Hammurabi (1800 BC)  282 items  lex talionis (item 196: “eye for an eye”)  Social status & punishment  women as property, but, . . . some rights 16
    17. 17. Political Decline of Sumer Semitic peoples from northern Mesopotamia overshadow Sumer  Sargon of Akkad (2370-2315 BCE)  Destroyed Sumerian city-states one by one, created empire based in Akkad  Empire unable to maintain chronic rebellions Hammurabi of Babylon (1792-1750 BCE)  Law Code  Improved taxation, legislation  Used local governors to maintain control of city-states Babylonian Empire later destroyed by Hittites from Anatolia, c. 1595 BCE 17
    18. 18. Sumerian Contributions primitive “arch”  Built arches using clay bricks that supported heavy wall openings for doorways and windows. Plow Wheeled vehicles Mathematical ideas  Using base 60, divided a circle into 360 degrees, an hour into 60 minutes and a minute into 60 seconds 18
    19. 19. Later Mesopotamian Empires Weakening of central rule an invitation to foreign invaders Assyrians use new iron weaponry  Beginning 1300 BCE, by 8th-7th centuries BCE control Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, most of Egypt Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon (r. 605-562) takes advantage of internal dissent to create Chaldean (New Babylonian) Empire  Famously luxurious capital 19
    20. 20. Mesopotamian Empires1800-600 BCE 20
    21. 21. Technological Development inMesopotamia Bronze (copper w/ tin), c. 4000 BC  Applications: military, agricultural, construction Iron c. 1800 BC  ore more plentiful than bronze Wheel, boats, c. 3500 BC Shipbuilding increases trade networks 21
    22. 22. Social Classes Ruling classes based  military prowess  Religious connection  Hereditary – sometimes claimed as offspring of gods Religious classes  Role: intervention with gods to ensure fertility, safety  Considerable landholdings, other economic activities Free commoners  Peasant farmers  urban artisans & professionals Slaves  Prisoners of war, convicted criminals, debtors 22
    23. 23. Patriarchal Society Men as landowners Patriarchy: “rule of the father”  Right to sell wives,  Disobedient children could be drive off, sold or even killed Double standard of sexual morality  Women drowned for adultery  relaxed sexual mores for men Yet some possibilities of social mobility for women  Traders, scribes, temple priestesses, court advisers, economic activity 23
    24. 24. Development of Writing Sumerian writing systems form 3500 BCE Pictographs Cuneiform: “wedge-shaped”  Preservation of documents on clay  Declines from 400 BCE with spread of Greek alphabetic script 24
    25. 25. Uses for Writing Trade Astronomy Mathematics  Agricultural applications Calculation of time  12-month year  24-hour day, 60-minute hour 25
    26. 26. Mesopotamian Literature Epic of Gilgamesh, compiled after 2000 BCE Heroic saga Search for meaning, esp. afterlife This-worldly emphasis 26
    27. 27. Kemet - Ancient Egypt Gift of the Nile King Menes Pyramids Mummies Hieroglyphics 27
    28. 28. The Early Hebrews Patriarchs and Matriarchs from Babylon, c. 1850 BCE Parallels between early biblical texts, Code of Hammurabi Early settlement of Canaan (Israel), c. 1300 BCE  Biblical text: slavery in Egypt, divine redemption On-going conflict with indigenous populations under King David (1000-970 BCE) and Solomon (970-930 BCE) 28
    29. 29. Moses and Monotheism Hebrews shared polytheistic beliefs of other Mesopotamian civilizations Moses introduces monotheism, belief in single god  Denies existence of competing parallel deities  Personal god: reward and punishment for conformity with revealed law  The Torah (“the teaching”) 29
    30. 30. Foreign conquests of Israel Civil war  Northern tribes: Israel  Southern: Judah Assyrian conquest, 722 BCE  Exiles Israel: ten lost tribes Babylonian conquest, 586 BCE  Additional exile of many residents of Judah  Returned later than century 30
    31. 31. Israel and Phoenicia, 1500-600 BCE 31
    32. 32. 32
    33. 33. The Phoenicians City-states along Mediterranean coast after 3000 BC Extensive maritime trade  Dominated Mediterranean trade, 1200-800 BC Development of alphabet symbols  Simpler alternative to cuneiform  Easier to learn and use - spread of literacy 33
    34. 34. 34
    35. 35. Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) (3300–1300 BC) At its peak, IVC may have had a pop. of over 5 million Bronze Age civilization noted for its well planned cities built of brick, roadside drainage system, & multistoried houses. 35
    36. 36. Computer generatedpicture of whatMohenjo Daro mayhave looked like. 36
    37. 37. 37
    38. 38. well-planned, precisely measured cities 38
    39. 39. kIVC writingsystemremainsundeciphered 39
    40. 40. 40
    41. 41. 41
    42. 42. Indo-European Migrations Common roots of many languages of Europe, southwest Asia, India Implies influence of a single Indo-European people  Probable original homeland: contemporary Ukraine and Russia, 4500-2500 BCE Domestication of horses, use of Sumerian weaponry allowed them to spread widely 42
    43. 43. The Indo-European Migrations 43
    44. 44. Implications of Indo-European Migration Hittites migrate to central Anatolia, c. 1900 BC, later dominate Babylonia Influence on trade  Iron  Horses, chariots with spoked wheels,  Migrations to western China, Greece, Italy also significant Influence on language and culture  Aryo, “noble, lord”  Aryan, Iranian, Irish  Caste system in India 44
    45. 45. 45
    46. 46. 46
    47. 47. Early Chinese Civilization Began along the Huang He & Yangtze RiversDynasties Xia Dynasty – 2200 -1800 BC  17 emperors Shang Dynasty – 1800 -1046 BC  30 emperors Zhou Dynasty - 1046-256 BC  39 emperors 47
    48. 48. China’sHuang River ValleyThe Huang He is oftencalled by the Chinese“the River of Sorrows”, because of its frequent & disastrous floodingWhy would people choose to settle & builda civilization there despite the danger? 48
    49. 49. Huang He is also the Yellow River  Loess is more!  Loess (les) is a rich, loamy fine soil  useful for farming, but blows away easilyIt is called the Yellow Riverbecause it is one of themuddiest rivers in theworld!At its mouth, it flows outinto the ______ Sea. 49
    50. 50. Shang  the birthplace / cradle of Chinese civilization. 50
    51. 51. The Invention of Writing oracle bone inscriptions are the oldest known form of Chinese writing. Chinese writing has undergone relatively few changes since 1st developed 3,500 yrs ago. 51
    52. 52. oracle bone Oracle bones 52
    53. 53. 53
    54. 54. 54
    55. 55. Shang Religion worshipped “Shang Di,” the supreme god who ruled over lesser gods of the sun, moon, wind, rain, & other natural forces & places. also believed that although their ancestors lived in heaven after their deaths, ancestors were still actively involved in affairs of family & descendants. Shang Kings communicated with their ancestors using oracle bones & made frequent sacrifices to them 55
    56. 56. Levees attempt to keep the HuangRiver under control. 56

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