America and Russia from Alex de Toqueville’s Democracy in America (1839)
America and Russia from De Toqueville’s Democracy in America (1839)There are now two great nationsin the world which, starting from different points, seem to be advancing toward the same goal – the Russians and the Anglo-Americans.
America and Russia from De Toqueville’s Democracy in America (1839)Both have grown in obscurity, and while the worlds attention was occupied elsewhere,they have suddenly taken their place among the leading nations,making the world take note of their birth and of their greatness almost at the same instant.
America and Russia from De Toqueville’s Democracy in America (1839)All other peoples seem to have nearly reached their natural limits and to need nothing but to preserve them;but these two are growing. All the others have halted or advanced only through great exertions;they alone march easily and quickly forward along a path whose end no eye can yet see.
America and Russia from De Toqueville’s Democracy in America (1839)The American fights against natural obstacles; the Russian is at grips with men.The former combats the wilderness and barbarism;the latter, civilization with all its arms.Americas conquests are made with the plowshare, Russias with the sword.
America and Russia from De Toqueville’s Democracy in America (1839)To attain their aims,the former relies on personal interest andgives free scope to the unguided strengthand common sense of individuals.The latter in a sense concentrates thewhole power of society in one man.
America and Russia from De Toqueville’s Democracy in America (1839)One has freedom as the principal means ofaction;the other has servitude.Their point of departure is different andtheir paths diverse;nevertheless, each seems called by somesecret design of Providence one day to holdin its hands the destinies of half the world.
InvasionRussia’s political history began w/ invasion :• 800s Varangian Vikings• 1237-1240 M ongol I nvasion : Genghis Khan’s forces push from North China across the Asian continent to take Moscow – Tatars: a Turkish people also invading Russia – became agents/administrators for Mongols
Characteristics & Themes Pervading Russian History1. Backwardness – technological, social2. Closed to West – . . . except sometimes & at times, not so much1. Invasions / fear of invasions / xenophobia / paranoia2. Alternating periods of repression followed feeble efforts at reform3. Nearly no cultural history of democracy
1240-1480 Mongol/Tatar Rule• Brutal invasion• Russia “hibernated”• During this period the rest of Europe enjoyed the high middle ages and then the beginning of the Renaissance Russia slept through the Renaissance and missed it and its benefits
Paleolithic Europe inhabited originally by “indigenous” matriarchal semi-agrarian tribes • worshipped Mother Earth, • spoke unknown languages.
Indo-Europeans• Semi-nomadic, Horses, mounted warriors• Patriarchal –• a Pantheon of nature gods, of whom Father- in-Sky was chief• Proto-Indo-European = ancestor of nearly all modern So.West Asian, Indian, Iranian, and European languages, as well as many now extinct languages.
SlavsAs late as late 8th Century Slavs were still• nearly Neolithic• subsistence farmers• living on the fringe of the forest• Remote from . . . Everything• Lagging behind . . . Everyone BUT, then . . . a new force arrived
V aRangian V ikings Connecting Baltic Sea &Black Sea,Viking traders & adventurers followed the Rivers: Dnieper, Don, & Volga & connecting waterways, southeastward through what is today Russia . Established fortified trading posts (gorodyi) & secure depots along their river routes to and from Byzantium.
T he R us• 1st “Russian” monarchic dynasty,• local Slavs called them, the Rus,• one of these Viking trade centers grew into the kingdom of Kiev -
The R us became increasingly more connected w/ the 2 Great Civilizations still extant at the close of the 1st millennium AD• the Byzantine Empire &• Islamic Empires
Rome was not the source of Russian civilization,• Russia never comprised part of the Western Roman Empire• No Roman Roads, Roman Aqueducts, Roman Law, or Roman Christianity• It path was different - it did NOT develop along the same track as Western Europe
For Russia, traditional historic divisions of European studies don’t work:Ancient Classical M edieval Renaissance Modern
Russian history is more fittingly divided into periods corresponding to epochs in which various cities served as capital of the Russian state –
Russian history is more fittingly divided into periods corresponding to epochs in which various cities served as capital of the Russian state –Kiev, Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Moscow again.From first “Russian” state originatingabout end of 9th century around Kiev,Russian history has essentially been a tale of three cities
Epochs of Russian HistoryEach capital commanded a sprawling, and expanding Slavic empireon the eastern periphery of Europe,each city left its indelible mark on modern Russian culture.
Prince Vladimir, 988Looked to monotheistic faiths as basis for a unified stateaccepted Eastern Orthodox Christianity for himself & for his people. Christianity became the common faith and the resulting common culture were most important factors which helped to weld and temper the rising Russian state and national identity.
Prince Vladimir, 988Christianity became the common faithand resulting common culture were most important factorswhich helped to weld and temper the rising Russian state and national identity. Orthodoxy provided the Rus a degree of homogeneity and a more clearly defined national identity
Saints Cyrill & Methodius Slavs were an illiterate culture Prechristian RussianByzantine monks, created a Slavic alphabetderived from Greek letters & some Hebrew.Cyrillic - sped the spread of Christianity among the Rus.
Translate words 1-6 from Cyrillic and into Roman lettersand English language.1. Америка2. Россйя3. Цар Иван Грознйк4. Kpemлн5. Катарина Бошоя6. Сталин7.And now, using Cyrillic letters . . . . write the sounds of your full name
But,• But they did NOT live happily ever . . . . .Hey, . . . What’s all that smoke and dust on the eastern horizon?
Mongol HordesMongol Hordes occupy and dominate Russia for the
Early Empire • Ivan III - “gathering of Russian land” • Moscow becomes a powerful state • Cossacks (Turkish word = “free men” - peasants help expand borders • Adopted Byzantine traditions - 3rd Rome
Ivan III Vasilevich (Ivan the Great)• Grand Dukes of Moscow had been attempting for years to overthrow the Mongols• Ivan the Great first subjugated the surrounding cities & autonomous provinces• 1480 refused to pay tribute demanded by Mongols (Tatars).• Russians freed themselves from Mongol overlordship.• Ivan the Great became the 1st national sovereign, (but not the first tsar. )
Ivan the Terrible• Ivan III’s grandson• Began “assemblies of the land” - groups informing Tsar• Military & aristocratic elite (boyars) threatened his power• Oprichnina - centralized power, created strategic network by which Ivan challenged the old nobility - created a loyal govt.• Granted new powers, Tsar Ivan hunted and killed “traitors” and innocents
Ivan the Terrible• Oprichnina• Russia in disarray• Kinda his own fault• Died with no heir• punishable by death to mention "Oprichnina"• Civil War• Polish invasion
Openness to the West• Romanov Dynasty begins in 1613, when Russian independence is restored• First 3 Romanovs work to “catch up” Russia with Europe: – Organized/modernized trade and commerce – Efforts toward education & chronicling histories – Bringing in European artists
Opening to the West Tsar Peter the Great 1689-1725– Traveled widely;– preference for things Western;– contempt for Russian backwardness– “Westernizing”– Modernized expansionistic army– Table of Ranks - linked positions in gov’t to performance & merit– Built St. Petersburg – the Window on the West
Reform, then Repression• 1762-1796 Catherine the Great (Царина, tsarina, czarina)• Initially “open”• reforms . . .• French Revolution, – rebellion at home – led her to become more oppressive
Russian E x p a n s i o n• The Russian empire would stand until 1991• Orthodox rivalry w/ Poland Catholic brings acquisition of Ukraine, partition of Poland• In South, grab lands from the Ottomans - Crimean War• In East, Russians displace natives, – take Manchuria• Claimed Alaska, visited California & Hawaii
Russian Life• Orthodox Christianity controlled by Czar - Caesaropapism• Almost completely agrarian• Most peasants still tied to the land, – Tsars created laws that backed land owners (boyars) - - - WHY?
Nicholas II - the last Czar • ruled 1894 until abdication 15 Mar (ides of March) 1917 • Khodynka Tragedy – 1,389 people trampled to death, 1,300 injured. • Russo-Japanese War • Bloody Sunday, Jan. 1905 • Duma Concessions • Okhrana repressions
World War• Tsar Nicky’s lethal failure• mid-1915, Nicholas made disastrous decision to take direct command of Russian armies. – From then on, every military failure was . . . HIS• Dec. 1916, Rasputin was murdered . . . several times
Bolsheviks• Vladimir Illyich Ulyanov - aka L enin
Russian Civil War 1918-1922• Bolsheviks and their Red Army• Mensheviks (Whites) – any combination of the opposition – disunited, disorganized, well, . . . doomed
War communismThe NEP - НЭПНоваяэкономическаяполитика
Under the NEPThe Soviet promise of modernization rested on one main issue,transforming the USSR into a modern industrialized societyto do so the Soviet Union had to reshape preexisting structures,agricultural system and the class structure that surrounded it.the state was forced to backpedal away from Communist ideals:embraced a more liberal approach to modernizing the economy.Soviet state abandoned idea of nationalizing industries.Soviet govt promoted and reformed the private sectorseverely cut the central govt budget.The Soviet Union welcomed foreign investmentThe NEP was primarily a pragmatic agricultural policy. Privately, Lenin considered the NEP a strategic retreat
Holodomor Ukraine’sforced famine 1932-33 8 million dead in Ukraine another 1.5 million in Kazakhstan
The Soviet State’s massive collectivization effortscaused famines in the early 1930s,wiped out entire rural populationsnot only in Ukraine and Kazakhstan, but also theVolga and North Caucasus, and other Central Asianregions of Russia.A total of 14 million people are believed to have diedas a direct result of collectivizationharvests and livestock were requisitioned en masse,leading to food shortages and starvation.
Millions more died in Stalin’s purges of the late 1930s, and millions more in the forced deportations during and after World War II.Hundreds of thousands of Crimean Tatars, Kalmyks, .Chechens, Ingush, Balkars, Karachais, Volga Germans,”Meskhetian Turks -- virtually any non-Slavic group -- were murdered bythe thousands as a result of aggressive resettlements at thehands of an increasingly paranoid and sadistic Stalinistregime.
TOTALITARIANISMНаше Дело ПравоеВраг Будет РазбитПобеда Будет За Нами!Our Cause Is RightThe Enemy Will Be SmashedVictory Will Be Ours!
Statistics vary, but some historians estimatethat by the mid-1950s as many as 56 millionpeople were killed as a result of Stalin’sdeportations, repressions, purges, murderand collectivization. 56 Million?The sickening scope of Stalin’s State-sponsored violence was so vast that takingan historically accurate measure of hisvictims, the perpetrators, and the motivationswill never be fully accurate . . . or evenpossible.