Vol 1. Major Construction Equipment . Pictorial

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-Earth Moving Equipment, Road Making Equipment, Hauling Equipment, Piling, Diaphragm Wall And Marine Works, Floating Equipment For Marine Work, Concreting Equipment, Welding Equipment.

- Dozer, Dumper, Excavator, Loader, Tipper, Trailer, Floating Crane, Placer, Concrete Mixer, Batching Plant, Transit Mixer, Jack Up Barge, Deck Barge, Hull, Tug Boat, Floating Crane, Dredger, Bentonite Plant, Mud Pump, Hauling, Arc Welding Machine, Electrode Gun, Wire Feed Gun, MIG Welding, Gas Welding, TIG Welding, Spot Welding, Electrodes, Shielding Flux , Welding Protective Equipment and more...

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Vol 1. Major Construction Equipment . Pictorial

  1. 1. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I INDEX SN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TITLE EARTH MOVING EQUIPMENT ROAD MAKING EQUIPMENT HAULING EQUIPMENT PILING, DIAPHRAGM WALL AND MARINE WORKS FLOATING EQUIPMENT FOR MARINE WORK CONCRETING EQUIPMENT WELDING EQUIPMENT PAGE NO 2 5 8 11 25 36 43 Page 1 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  2. 2. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I I. EARTH MOVING EQUIPMENT a. DOZER A dozer is a crawler (continuous tracked tractor/ tyre based) equipped with a substantial metal plate (known as a blade) used to push large quantities of soil, sand, rubble, or other such material during construction or conversion work and typically equipped at the rear with a claw-like device (known as a ripper) to loosen densely-compacted materials. In Action Page 2 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  3. 3. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I b. WHEEL LOADER A loader (bucket loader, front loader, front-end loader, pay-loader, scoop, shovel, skip loader, or wheel loader) is a heavy equipment machine used in construction and sidewalk maintenance to move aside or load materials such as asphalt, demolition debris, dirt, snow, feed, gravel, logs, raw minerals, recycled material, rock, sand, woodchips, etc. into or onto another type of machinery (such as a dump truck, conveyor belt, feed-hopper, or railcar). In Action Page 3 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  4. 4. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I c. HYDRAULIC EXCAVATOR Excavators are heavy construction equipment consisting of a boom, stick, bucket and cab on a rotating platform (known as the "house"). The house sits atop an undercarriage with tracks or wheels. A cable-operated excavator uses winches and steel ropes to accomplish the movements. All movement and functions of a hydraulic excavator are accomplished through the use of hydraulic fluid, with hydraulic cylinders and hydraulic motors In Action Page 4 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  5. 5. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I II. ROAD MAKING EQUIPMENT a. ROAD ROLLER/ VIBRATOR COMPACTOR A road roller (sometimes called a roller-compactor, or just roller) is a compactor type engineering vehicle used to compact soil, gravel, concrete, or asphalt in the construction of roads and foundations, similar rollers are used also at landfills or in agriculture. In Action Page 5 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  6. 6. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I b. ROAD PAVER A paver (paver finisher, asphalt finisher, paving machine) is a piece of construction equipment used to lay asphalt on roads, bridges, parking lots and other such places. It lays the asphalt flat and providing minor compaction before it is rolled by a roller. In Action Page 6 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  7. 7. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I c. ASPHALT CONCRETE PLANT A batch plant usually has feed hoppers where a front-end loader will deposit the raw materials such as gravel and sand. The material is elevated into a mixing chamber high up in the plant where the binder agent is added from a large silo. Usually only a specified quantity is mixed at any time therefore the term batch is used. Once the mix is ready it is deposited into a truck. In Action Page 7 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  8. 8. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I III. HAULING EQUIPMENT a. HAUL TRUCK (Dump Truck or Tipper) Haul trucks are off-highway, two-axle, rigid dump trucks specifically engineered for use in high production mining and heavy duty construction environments. Large quarry-sized trucks range from 40 to 100 tons. A good example of this is the Caterpillar 775 (rated at 70 short tons (64 t)). However, Quarry operations are typically smaller than, say, a gold/copper mine, and require smaller trucks. In Action Page 8 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  9. 9. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I b. TRACTOR TRAILER Road tractor drives and are attached to trailer without a front axle. A large proportion of trailer’s weight is supported by a road tractor, a detachable front axle assembly is known as a dolly, or the tail of another trailer. In Action Page 9 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  10. 10. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I c. TIPPER (Dump Truck or Hauling Truck) A Tipper/ dump truck is a truck used for transporting loose material (such as sand, gravel, or dirt) for construction. A typical tipper/ dump truck is equipped with a hydraulically operated open-box bed hinged at the rear, the front of which can be lifted to allow the contents to be deposited on the ground behind the truck at the site of delivery. In the UK and Australia the road vehicle is known as a tipper, tipper lorry (UK) or tip truck (AU). In Action Page 10 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  11. 11. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I IV. PILING, DIAPHRAGM WALL AND MARINE WORKS a. Piling Rigs Piling rig can be used on piling construction in dry (short screw), wet soil (rotary bucket) and rock (core drill) by equipping with drilling tool, and can be equipped with long screw drill, diaphragm wall grab, vibratory hammer, etc., to realize many functions. It is mainly used in foundation engineering of municipal construction, expressway, bridge, industrial and civil buildings, water conservancy project, Slope protection, etc. Its rated power of engine is around 108–450 kW, output torque 60–400 kNm, maximum pile diameter 1.5–4 m, maximum pile depth 60–90 m. It generally applies hydraulic crawler chassis, automatic lift box-type mast, telescopic drill pipe, auto vertical adjustor, depth indicator, etc. Its operation applies hydraulic pilot control, load sensor, thus it is easy and comfortable to control. Main and auxiliary hoisting can meet different requirements in construction sites. Piling rigs categories 1. Small-sized: Torque is around 60–100 kNm, engine power 108 kW, drilling diameter 0.5–1.2m, drilling depth 40m, total quality 40t. 2. Mid-sized: Torque is around 120–180 kNm, engine power 125–200 kW, drilling diameter 0.8– 1.8m, drilling depth 60m, total quality 42–65t. 3. Large-sized: Torque is around 240 kNm, engine power 300 kW, drilling diameter 1–2.5m, drilling depth 80m, total quality 100t. Page 11 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  12. 12. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I In Action Page 12 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  13. 13. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I b. Rotary, Piling Rigs/ Crane Mounted Rotary Piling Rigs     Offer a larger range of pile diameters and depths than any other piling equipment. Permit pile construction through particularly stiff or hard strata. Offer concrete placement to below commencing surface level. Can permit inspection of the pile during construction. Crane mounted rigs reach far in front of the rig and are most suited to sites where short casings can be used and speed is a primary driver. Modern hydraulic rigs are powerful enough to screw in longer lengths of pile casings and rely less on vibratory hammers. With these techniques, as well as any natural soil conditions, it can overcome many manmade obstructions that would otherwise have to be removed prior to piling. Page 13 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  14. 14. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I In Action Page 14 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  15. 15. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I c. Piling Winch with Accessories Winch as pile driver is a mechanical device for hauling or lifting and consisting essentially of a movable drum around which a cable is wound so that rotation of the drum produces a drawing force at end of the cable. Winches are normally equipped with a ratchet wheel and a pawl to prevent slippage of the load, and brakes that allow a load to be lowered or released at a controlled rate. Page 15 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  16. 16. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I d. Pile Hammer Modern diesel pile hammer is a very large two-stroke diesel engine. The weight is the piston, and the apparatus which connects to the top of the pile is the cylinder. Pile driving is started by having the weight raised by auxiliary means — usually a cable from the crane holding the pile driver — which draws air into the cylinder. Diesel fuel is added/injected into the cylinder. The weight is dropped, using a quick-release. The weight of the piston compresses the air/fuel mixture, heating it to the ignition point of diesel fuel. The mixture ignites, transferring the energy of the falling weight to the pile head, and driving the weight back up. The rising weight draws in fresh air, and the cycle starts over until the fuel runs out or is stopped by the pile crew. Page 16 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  17. 17. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I Page 17 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  18. 18. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I e. Boring Tools and Accessories for Piles of Different Diameters E.g Auger drilling is done with a helical screw which is driven into the ground with rotation. Hollow stem Auger drilling is used for environmental drilling, geotechnical drilling, soil engineering and geochemistry reconnaissance work in exploration for mineral deposits. Page 18 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  19. 19. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I f. High Pressure Mud Pump A mud pump is a reciprocating piston/plunger device designed to circulate drilling fluid under high pressure (up to 7,500 psi (52,000 kPa) down the drill string and back up the annulus. Mud pump is a large reciprocating pump used to circulate the mud (drilling fluid) on a drilling rig. Page 19 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  20. 20. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I g. Vibratory Hammer Page 20 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  21. 21. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I In Action Page 21 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  22. 22. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I h. Bentonite Mixing and Generating Unit One of the aspects of piling is the use of bentonite during piling. This allows deeper and larger piles to be installed. Bentonite is a mud-slurry used to support the pile bore during construction. The bentonite is injected into the bore to displace soil as it is drilled out and is later removed from the bore as concrete is introduced. Important aspects of the bentonite system include the development of purpose built mixing, storage and “desanding” plants to supply and later clean the bentonite for reuse. Page 22 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  23. 23. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I i. Tripod Type Bored Piling Rig Page 23 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  24. 24. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I j. Truck Mounted Direct Mud Circulation Type Bored Piling Rig Page 24 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  25. 25. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I V. FLOATING EQUIPMENT FOR MARINE WORK a. Jack Up Platforms A jack up rig/ Platform or a self-elevating unit is a type of mobile platform that consists of a buoyant hull fitted with a number of movable legs, capable of raising its hull over the surface of sea. The buoyant hull enables transportation of the unit and all attached machinery to a desired location. Once on location the hull is raised to the required elevation above the sea surface on its legs supported by the sea bed. The legs of such units may be designed to penetrate the sea bed, may be fitted with enlarged sections or footings, or may be attached to a bottom mat. Generally Jack up rigs are not self propelled and rely on tugs or heavy lift ships for transportation Jack up platforms are used as exploratory drilling platforms and offshore and wind farm service platforms. Jack up platforms have been the most popular and numerous of various mobile types in existence. Page 25 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  26. 26. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I Page 26 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  27. 27. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I b. Cutter Suction Dredger A cutter-suction dredger's (CSD) suction tube has a cutting mechanism at the suction inlet. The cutting mechanism loosens the bed material and transports it to the suction mouth. The dredged material is usually sucked up by a wear-resistant centrifugal pump and discharged either through a pipe line or to a barge. Cutter-suction dredgers are most often used in geological areas consisting of hard surface materials (for example gravel deposits or surface bedrock) where a standard suction dredger would be ineffective. In recent years, dredgers with more powerful cutters have been built in order to excavate harder rock without the need for blasting. Page 27 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  28. 28. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I In Action Page 28 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  29. 29. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I c. Grab Dredger Grab Dredger can be considered as a motorized crane equipped with clamshell (grabber) that is used to scoop material from the bottom of a body of water. The crane could be located on the bank, or mounted on a barge. If the crane is mounted on a barge, the entire vessel is referred to as a dredger. Page 29 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  30. 30. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I d. Submersible Barge A versatile equipment that can be applied to fixed and floating structures. It is not significantly affected by topsides weight, weather sensitive marine operations and reduces total marine spread requirements. e. Hydro Clam Barge Page 30 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  31. 31. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I f. Multipurpose Hopper Barge A hopper barge is a kind of non-mechanical ship or vessel that cannot move around by itself, unlike some other types of barges. Designed to carry materials, like rocks, sand, soil and rubbish, for dumping into the ocean, a river or lake for land reclamation. Hopper barges are seen in two distinctive types; raked hopper or box hopper barges. The raked hopper barges move faster than the box hoppers; they are both designed for movement of dry bulky commodities. Split barges serve the same purpose, but instead of a door in the hull's bottom, the hull of the whole barge splits longitudinally between the end bulkheads. The vessel consists of two major parts (port and starboard halves), both are mostly symmetrical in design. Both parts of the vessel are hinged at the deck and operated by hydraulic cylinders. Split Barges Page 31 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  32. 32. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I g. Drilling and Blasting Pontoon Drill rigs are installed on pontoon for the purpose of drilling and blasting. Hard rock beds that would seem to be beyond the capacity of "normal" dredgers, such as cutter suction dredgers and dippers, can be pulverized with explosives. Holes are drilled in the rocky bottom with top hammers and airdriven down the hole hammers. After the holes are drilled, the holes will be loaded with explosives and blasted. h. Crane Barge A crane vessel, floating crane is a barge with a crane specialized in lifting heavy loads. The largest crane vessels are used for offshore construction. Page 32 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  33. 33. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I i. Tug A tugboat (tug) is a boat that maneuvers vessels by pushing or towing them. Tugs move vessels that either should not move themselves, such as ships in a crowded harbor or a narrow canal, or those that cannot move by themselves, such as barges, disabled ships, log rafts, or oil platforms. Tugboats are powerful for their size and strongly built, and some are ocean-going. Some tugboats serve as icebreakers or salvage boats. Early tugboats had steam engines, but today most have diesel engines. Many tugboats have firefighting monitors, allowing them to assist in firefighting, especially in harbors. In Action Page 33 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  34. 34. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I j. Hatch Barge/ Deck Barge Hatch Barge or Deck Barges are designed to carry cargo on deck and differ in size and structural design, depending on their intended use. Deck cargos include pipe, piling, fabricated structures, equipment, rock, palletized material or even horses, cattles and rocket boosters. In some instances, certain liquid cargos may be carried in the interior watertight compartments. Deck barges are also used as work platforms for workers and machinery, thereby serving as an extension of land. Some of these barges may have raised rake decks. In Action Page 34 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  35. 35. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I k. Dock Barge With Cement Batching Plant l. Lift and Assembling Barge Page 35 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  36. 36. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I VI. CONCRETING EQUIPMENT a. Batching Plants A concrete plant, also known as a batch plant, is a device that combines various ingredients to form concrete. Some of these inputs include sand, water, aggregate (rocks, gravel, etc.), fly ash, potash, and cement. There are two types of concrete plants: ready mix plants and central mix plants. A concrete plant can have a variety of parts and accessories, including but not limited to: mixers (either tilt-up or horizontal or in some cases both), cement batchers, aggregate batchers, conveyors, radial stackers, aggregate bins, cement bins, heaters, chillers, cement silos, batch plant controls, and dust collectors (to minimize environmental pollution). Page 36 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  37. 37. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I b. Mixer in Batching Plant The center of the concrete batching plant is the mixer. There are three types of mixer: Tilt, pan, and twin shaft mixer. The twin shaft mixer can ensure an even mixture of concrete and large output, while the tilt mixer offers a consistent mix with much less maintenance labor and cost. Successful concrete products companies build their businesses around high performance mixers. Portable Concrete Mixture Batching Plant Page 37 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  38. 38. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I c. Concrete Pump A concrete pump is a machine used for transferring liquid concrete by pumping. There are two types of concrete pumps. 1. Trailer Mounted Boom Concrete Pump: The concrete pump is attached to a truck. It is known as a trailer-mounted boom concrete pump because it uses a remotecontrolled articulating robotic arm (called a boom) to place concrete with pinpoint accuracy. Boom pumps are used on most of the larger construction projects as they are capable of pumping at very high volumes and because of the labour saving nature of the placing boom. They are a revolutionary alternative to truck-mounted concrete pumps. In action Page 38 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  39. 39. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I 2. Truck Mounted or Trailer Mounted Concrete Pump used in Transit Mixer): The concrete pump is either mounted on a truck and known as a truck-mounted concrete pump or placed on a trailer, and it is commonly referred to as a line pump or trailer-mounted concrete pump. This pump requires steel or flexible concrete placing hoses to be manually attached to the outlet of the machine. Those hoses are linked together and lead to wherever the concrete needs to be placed. Line pumps normally pump concrete at lower volumes than boom pumps and are used for smaller volume concrete placing applications such as swimming pools, sidewalks, and single family home concrete slabs and most ground slabs. In action Page 39 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  40. 40. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I d. Transit Mixer A concrete mixer (also commonly called a cement mixer) is a device that homogeneously combines cement, aggregate such as sand or gravel, and water to form concrete. A typical concrete mixer uses a revolving drum to mix the components. For smaller volume works portable concrete mixers are often used so that the concrete can be made at the construction site, giving the workers ample time to use the concrete before it hardens. An alternative to a machine is mixing concrete or cement by hand. This is usually done in a wheelbarrow; however, several companies have recently begun to sell modified tarps for this purpose. Portable Concrete Mixer Page 40 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  41. 41. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I e. Concrete Dumpers Page 41 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  42. 42. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I f. Concrete Placers Manual Concrete Placer side discharge conveyor is ideal for placing concrete ahead of a paver at various depths. The conveyor places all types of concrete and free-flowing materials transversely across any formed slab. The Concrete Placer is completely operator controlled from feeder to placement to machine travel. There is no need for trailers or extra attachments to move the Concrete Placer into place or around the job site. The Concrete Placer is built to handle the toughest concrete placing jobs. Machine Page 42 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  43. 43. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I VII. WELDING EQUIPMENT a. Welding Machine The basic arc welder components consist of the machine that generates the power, the electrode holder or wire feed gun, Consumables, means of shielding the weld as it forms, and protective equipment for the user. 1. Components of Welding Machine i. The Power Source Power sources vary with the type of welding being performed. A machine may be either DC or AC, constant current or constant voltage. Selection is made by the amount and the type of current required, the power available and economic factors. Heat and speed can be adjusted by varying the voltage and current generated. This is necessary since a slower speed is required for thicker metals. Speed on a wire feed type is controlled by the rate at which the wire is fed. ii. Electrode Holder/ Wire feed Gun and Consumables Typically a machine will have either an electrode holder/ a wire feed gun. The type of welding done with the electrode holder is commonly referred to as “stick welding”. Electrode Holder/ Wire Feed Gun A welding rod coated with flux is used for this method (Flux is simply a coating on the rod that emits gases to protect the weld as it forms). The proper term for this type is shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). The wire feed type is often referred to as “MIG welding”, MIG meaning Metal Inert Gas. Page 43 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  44. 44. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) uses a wire that has a core of flux, Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) uses a shielding gas that is emitted from the wirefeed gun. Welding Electrodes and Wire (Filler Material) iii. Means of shielding the weld as it forms Shielding of the weld as it forms is very important. The level of impurities directly affects the strength of the weld. The molten metal is susceptible to impurities such as oxygen and carbon deposits. A shield of gas covers the weld as it forms, protecting it from the air. Shielding can be accomplished by either a coating on the wire or welding rod (known as flux), or a gas. Gasses are released from the flux as it melts with the filler metal, producing a shield. Flux produces slag which must be chipped off after the weld is completed. There is no slag when shielding gas such as argon is used. The gas is fed along with the wire through the gun. While this method forms a cleaner weld, it may not always be convenient since gas cylinders are required. There are many types of welding rods and wire compositions. Fluxes and gases vary as the type of metal to be joined will vary. Typically the weld will always be stronger than the metal it joins. Page 44 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  45. 45. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I iv. Protective Equipment for Welding Page 45 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  46. 46. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I v. The Welding Machine Setup 2. Arc Welding Also known as Manual Metal Arc Welding (MMAW) or Stick Welding uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and base metal to melt the metals at welding point. They can use either Direct Current (DC) or Alternating Current (AC) current, consumable or non Page 46 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  47. 47. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I consumable electrodes. The electrode is made of material that is compatible with the base material being welded and is covered with flux that protects the weld area from oxidation and contamination by producing CO2 gas during the welding process. There are mainly two types of arc welding namely AC welder and DC welder. Arc welding machine is used to weld ferrous metals, cast iron, nickel, aluminum, copper and other metals which are non ferrous. Process of Arc Welding Arc Welding Page 47 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  48. 48. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I 3. MIG Welding Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), sometimes referred to by its subtypes metal inert gas (MIG) welding or metal active gas (MAG) welding, is a semi-automatic or automatic arc welding process in which a continuous and consumable wire electrode and a shielding gas are fed through a welding gun(mig torch).Also known as a CO2 welder. A constant voltage, direct current power source is most commonly used with GMAW, but constant current systems, as well as alternating current, can be used. The most common gases used are carbon dioxide for general purpose welding. It is the cheapest of the welding gases, and creates a good weld. 4. Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW) It is also possible to use a MIG welder without shielding gas. This process is called flux core arc Welding (FCAW). In this welding process the welding wire has a hollow core that is filled with flux. Flux cored arc welding can be done outside, because there is no need to worry about the shielding gas being blown away. The flux core wire has a hotter arc and therefore is used to weld thicker pieces of metal. Page 48 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  49. 49. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I 5. TIG Welding Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding is a welding process that works with the help of a tungsten electrode. TIG stands for Tungsten Inert Gas and is technically called Gas Tungsten Arc Welding or GTAW. The process uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode that delivers the current to the welding arc. A shielding gas, such as Argon gas is used to protect the weld area from atmospheric contamination. A filler metal is normally used. TIG welding is most commonly used to weld thin sections of stainless steel and non- ferrous metals such as aluminium, magnesium, and copper alloys. The process grants the operator greater control over the weld than when comparing it to procedures such as Mig and Gas welding. There are two types of TIG welders, such as a DC (direct current), which are generally used for the welding of ferrous types of metals and the other being the AC/DC (alternating current, direct current) which can weld most types of metals, such as nonferrous and ferrous. 6. Spot Welding Spot welding is a process in which contacting metal surfaces are joined by the heat obtained from resistance to electric current flow. Work pieces are held together under pressure exerted by electrodes. The process uses two shaped copper alloy electrodes to concentrate welding current into a small “spot” and to simultaneously clamp the sheets together. Forcing a large current through the spot will melt the metal and form the weld. Spot welding is typically used for the welding of thin sheets of metal together, within a range from 0.5 to 3 mm (0.020 to 0.12 inch). Page 49 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.
  50. 50. MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT VOL-I Welding In Action Page 50 Divyanshu Dayal, E-mail: dayal1005@gmail.com. www.2purchase.wordpress.com.

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