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  • http://tudorhistory.org/wives/
  • http://tudorhistory.org/wives/
  • Titian. Portrait of Pope Paul III without a Cap. 1543. Oil on canvas. Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples, Italy.
  • Titian. Portrait of Pope Paul III without a Cap. 1543. Oil on canvas. Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples, Italy.
  • Titian. Portrait of Pope Paul III without a Cap. 1543. Oil on canvas. Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples, Italy.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Ch. 17 Section 3: AKINS HIGH SCHOOL Mr. Loessin’s Luther Starts World History the Reformation Room 167 Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:• Analyze the historical forces and religious issues that sparked the Reformation.• Trace Martin Luther’s role in the religious movement to reform the Catholic Church.• Analyze the impact of Luther’s religious revolt.• Explain the spread of Protestantism to England during King Henry VIII’s reign.AGENDA: Begin Warm-up Immediately upon entering classroom !• WARM-UP – Read History Makers “Martin Luther,” Text p. 429• DISCUSSION of Section 3, packet p. 22• Daily QuizNEXT ASSIGNMENT:• Read Chapter 17, Sec. 4, complete p. 27 in your packet.• Begin studying - CHAPTER 17 Test is Thursday!
    • 2. Ch. 17 Section 3: Luther Starts Answer question #1. on handout now ! the Reformation1. LIST FOUR PROBLEMS that existed in the Catholic Church during the time of Martin Luther that he and others criticized and wished to reform: (see packet, p. 26) PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
    • 3. Ch. 17 Section 3: Luther Starts Answer questions #2. – 5. on handout ! the Reformation2. Even before Luther, there were other people who called for reforms in the Church. Name three of these precursors to the Protestant Reformation. (see text, p. 428) Wycliff, Hus, and Savonarola3. What problem did Luther have with a monk named Tetzel? (see text, p. 429) He was selling indulgences.4. What are indulgences? (see text, p. 429) These were pardons from sin that one could buy from the Church in order to not have to perform any other penalty.5. Define “Reformation”: (see text, p. 429) A movement begun in the 1500s to make corrective changes (reforms) to the Catholic Church. What did this event lead to in the history of the Western Christian Church? (see text, p. 429) A split between western Catholics and the Protestants. See chart on back of handout. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
    • 4. Ch. 17 Section 3: Luther Starts Answer questions #5. – 7. on handout ! the Reformation5. Define “Reformation”: (see text, p. 429) A movement begun in the 1500s to make corrective changes (reforms) to the Catholic Church. What did this event lead to in the history of the Western Christian Church? (see text, p. 429) A split between western Catholics and the Protestants.6. Define “Protestant”: (see text, p. 430) Originally the term for Luther’s supporters who “protested” against Catholic loyalists in Germany. Today, a general term for any Christian who attends a non-Catholic church. Following Luther’s break with the Pope, name three of Christianity’s Protestant branches? (see back of handout) Lutheran, Baptist, Anglican (Church of England), Methodist, Presbyterian….7. What pivotal event sparked this Protestant Reformation? (see text, p. 429) Luther nailing his “95 Theses” on his church doors in Wittenberg Germany.Examining a Primary Source: “Ninety-five Theses” of Martin Luther, packet p. 25
    • 5. Luther Starts the Reformation; Text, p. 429; Packet p. 22 CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTSLuther attacks a monk 1. In 1517, Luther posts Luther’s words are printed his 95 Theses on the and spread all over Germanynamed Tetzel for church doors at and attract many followers.selling indulgences. Wittenberg. Above: The church doors At Luther’s church in Wittenberg. Other pics, Wittenberg, 2002. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
    • 6. Luther Starts the Reformation; Text, p. 429; Packet p. 22 CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTSThe Pope realizes Luther is 2. In 1520, Luther Luther is sheltered by the refuses to recant ata threat to papal authority. prince of Saxony where he Worms and isThe H.R.E., is a devout excommunicated. translates Bible into German.Catholic, and also feels In 1521, he is declared When he returns tothreatened by the uproar. an outlaw and heretic. Wittenberg, his followers have become a separate Charles V religious group – the Holy Roman SAXONY Lutherans. Emperor Frederick, Prince of Saxony offered protection to Luther Luther Martin Pope Leo X
    • 7. Luther Starts the Reformation; Text, p. 429; Packet p. 22 CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTSExcited by Luther’s talk When the armies of Germanabout “religious freedom,” 3. The German princes (at Luther’s request)peasants revolt hoping for peasants revolt brutally crush this revoltsocial / economic freedom in 1524. (killing thousands), previous(an end to serfdom). supporters now turn against Luther. Religious Wars begin between Catholics and Protestants.
    • 8. Luther Starts the Reformation; Text, p. 429; Packet p. 22 CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTSCharles V fought a 20 year The peace settlement endedwar against the German 4. The Peace of the war and allowed theProtestant princes and Augsburg is signed ruler of each German state in 1555.defeated them in 1547. to decide his own state’sBut he could not force them religious preference.to remain in the Catholic Martin LutherChurch. continued his writings and lectures until his death in 1546. In 1525 Luther had married a former nun named Katharine von Bora. She bore him eight children and outlived him by six years.Charles V Even today, unlike CatholicHoly Roman priests who take a vow ofEmperor celibacy, ministers in Protestant churches can get married. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
    • 9. England becomes Protestant Text, p. 431; Packet p. 23 Daughter will be Henry’s “Bloody” Mary I Six Catherine of Aragon 1553-1558 Wives : 1509-1533 (divorced) (Catholic). Daughter Elizabeth I 1558-1603 Anne Boleyn (Protestant). 1533-1536 (beheaded) Son Edward VI King Henry VIII of England 1547-1553 [1491-1547] (sickly) He broke England’s ties to the Jane Seymour Roman Catholic Church for 1536-1537 (died)political and personal reasons, not religious ones like Luther.Henry needed a male heir and his Catholic Spanish Queen Catherine of Aragon Anne of Cleves Kathryn Howard Kathrine Parr 1540 1540-1542 1543-1548 was not able to produce one. (divorced) (beheaded) (survived)
    • 10. England becomes Protestant - Text, p. 431; Packet p. 23 CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTSHenry VIII needed to Henry closes all English 5. English Parliamentannul his marriage to monasteries; seizes their approves the Act ofCatherine so he could Supremacy in 1534. lands and other Catholicremarry in order to get a holdings in England;male heir. thereby increasing his royalThe Pope would not allow. power, as well as his ownSo Henry calls Parliament personal wealth.into session and passes theAct of Supremacy. The Act of Supremacy made the ruler of England the official head of the Church of England – no longer the Catholic Pope. Today, the Act of Supremacy remains in effect – Queen Elizabeth II of England is officially the head of the Anglican Church. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
    • 11. England becomes Protestant Text, p. 431; Packet p. 23 Daughter will be Henry’s “Bloody” Mary I Six Catherine of Aragon 1553-1558 Wives : 1509-1533 (divorced) (Catholic). Daughter Elizabeth I 1558-1603 Anne Boleyn (Protestant). 1533-1536 (beheaded) Son Edward VI King Henry VIII of England 1547-1553 [1491-1547] (sickly) He broke England’s ties to the Jane Seymour Roman Catholic Church for 1536-1537 (died)political and personal reasons, not religious ones like Luther.Henry needed a male heir and his Catholic Spanish Queen Catherine of Aragon Anne of Cleves Kathryn Howard Kathrine Parr 1540 1540-1542 1543-1548 was not able to produce one. (divorced) (beheaded) (survived)
    • 12. England becomes Protestant - Text, p. 431; Packet p. 23 CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTSHenry’s daughter Mary had The Anglican church 6. Parliamenttried to restore Catholicism becomes the only legal establishes thein England after her father’s Anglican Church church in England andbreak with the Pope. in 1559. people were required toElizabeth I restores attend. Elizabeth tried toProtestantism and asks create a church that bothParliament to create a moderate Catholics andnational Church of England. Protestants could accept. After everything her father went through trying to get a male heir – even executing her own mother – it is ironic then that his daughter Elizabeth would turn out to be one of the most politically skilled and well-remembered monarchs in England’s history. She was a master at diplomacy with other European powers and at achieving compromises in her own kingdom in order to maintain peace among squabbling religious groups. Elizabeth I The “Virgin” Queen Ruled England for 45 years! PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
    • 13. England becomes Protestant - Text, p. 431; Packet p. 23 CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTS Philip II of The Spanish Armada Spain had been tries to invade England. Elizabeth I married to gives a Mary I of rallying speech England. A to British loyal Catholic, troops instillinghe did not think Elizabeth The confidence in her abilitywas a legitimate heir to “Protestant” to rule as a woman.the English throne. Wind ? Bad weather andHe also believes Elizabeth English “fire ships”is condoning her English destroy thenavy’s piracy of his Spanish Armada.Spanish galleys.When England sides withthe Dutch against Philip’srule in the Netherlandsand Elizabeth has hercousin Mary (Queen ofScots) executed fortreason, Philip decides toinvade England. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
    • 14. Ch. 17 Section 3: AKINS HIGH SCHOOL Mr. Loessin’s Luther Starts World History the Reformation Room 167 Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:• Analyze the historical forces and religious issues that sparked the Reformation.• Trace Martin Luther’s role in the religious movement to reform the Catholic Church.• Analyze the impact of Luther’s religious revolt.• Explain the spread of Protestantism to England during King Henry VIII’s reign.AGENDA:• WARM-UP – Read History Makers “Martin Luther,” Text p. 429• DISCUSSION of Section 3, packet p. 22• Daily QuizNEXT ASSIGNMENT:• Read Chapter 17, Sec. 4, complete p. 27 in your packet.• Begin studying - CHAPTER 17 Test is Thursday!
    • 15. Ch. 17 Section 4: AKINS HIGH SCHOOL Mr. Loessin’s The Reformation World History Continues Room 167 Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:• Explain John Calvin’s Protestant teachings and their spread throughout northern and western Europe.• Describe the beliefs of other Reformers and the role of women in the Reformation.• Trace the reforms begun by the Catholic Church itself in it’s Counter-Reformation.AGENDA: Begin Warm-up Immediately upon entering classroom !• WARM-UP – Read History Makers “John Calvin,” Text p. 433• DISCUSSION of Section 4, packet p. 27• Daily QuizNEXT ASSIGNMENT:• CHAPTER 17 Test is tomorrow! Study! Come to Tutorials!• Begin collecting all of this past semester’s Test Answer Sheets. You will need them in order to Review for Final Exam!
    • 16. The Spread of Protestant Reformation Groups - Textbook MAP, p. 434; Packet p. 21 According to the maps, by 1560 or so, which European countries became mostly Protestant? Which ones remained mostly Roman Catholic? Judging from the way religious beliefs were distributed in Christian Europe, where would you predict religious conflicts were certain to take place? PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
    • 17. Calvin Begins Another Protestant Church - Textbook, p. 433; Packet p. 27 John Calvin was born in France and was only 12 years old when Martin Luther was standing trial and refusing to recant at the Council of Worms. But Calvin heard about the controversy and, even at 12, was intrigued by the excommunicated monk Luther’s bold defense of himself and his belief in the Scriptures.John Calvin To stand in a courtroom and defend oneself against the powerful Church 1509-1564 was an enticing scenario to young Calvin who decides to study law at the University of Paris. Taking up what Luther had begun, Calvin would bring order (an organized system of thought, or theology) to the new Protestant faith.B. Perceiving Relationships predestination – a doctrine (teaching) held by Calvinists; the belief that God has “pre-destined” (already decided) who will be saved and / or damned even before we are born. [Those who God has chosen beforehand to be “saved” are known as the “elect.”] Calvinism – Christian religion or ideas even today that are based on Calvin’s teachings. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
    • 18. Calvin Begins Another Protestant Church - Textbook, p. 433; Packet p. 27 1. Calvinism People are sinful in their nature; only the “elect” will be saved; the doctrine of predestination says that God has known who the elect will be since the beginning of time.John Calvin 1509-1564 Also believes the government should be in the hands of religious leaders (a theocracy) and society should be governed by strict laws of morality.B. Perceiving Relationships predestination – a doctrine (teaching) held by Calvinists; the belief that God has “pre-destined” (already decided) who will be saved and / or damned even before we are born. [Those who God has chosen beforehand to be “saved” are known as the “elect.”] Calvinism – Christian religion or ideas even today that are based on Calvin’s teachings. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
    • 19. Calvin Begins Another Protestant Church - Textbook, p. 433; Packet p. 27 John Calvin was asked to create his vision of the idealIn England, the Puritans society by thewould adopt the ideas ofCalvin and would citizens of Genevaoppose both the Switzerland – aCatholic as well as the strict theocracyProtestant AnglicanChurch in England. where religious leaders rule and Calvinist followers In France rigid moral conduct will be called Hugenots. was demanded. French Hugenots suffered a Punishments for long period of persecution in this largely Catholic country. rule breakers could Read about the be severe – such as St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in your text, p. 434. excommunication and banishment. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
    • 20. Calvinism Spreads- Textbook, p. 433; Packet p. 27 2. Presbyterianism John Knox brought Calvinism to Scotland. This Protestant group takes it name from the elders who were chosen to govern each religious community – they were called presbyters.John Knox1505-1572 Protestant nobles of Scotland were led by Knox (a former Catholic priest) in making Calvinism Scotland’s official religion. They even overthrew the Catholic queen Mary, Queen of Scots and her young son James VI was placed on the throne. Now we can read the Bible…if only we could agree on what it says? DIFFERENCES IN INTERPRETATION CAUSE EVEN MORE DIVISIONS FAITH ALONE? Infant? Or, is there need for Adult? GOOD WORKS? PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
    • 21. Calvinism Spreads- Textbook, p. 433; Packet p. 27 3. Anabaptists Believed only adults are mature enough to make a decision to be baptized; believed in clear separation of Church and State; were pacifists (refused to fight in wars).Ulrich Zwingli 1484-1531 Anabaptists were the forerunners of the Mennonites and Amish. They also influenced the Quakers and Baptists who both split from the Anglican Church. All four of these groups exist in the U.S. and, except for the Baptist, continue to practice pacifism and staunchly defend the ideas of Free Thinking and Conscience. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
    • 22. Women of the Reformation- Textbook, p. 434 - 5; Packet p. 27 NOTABLE WOMEN Marguerite of Navarre was the sister of the King of France, Francis I. She was an important protector of John Calvin and other early reformers of the church, she expressed her intensely felt religious views in poetry and plays. There were other women too who played active, outspoken roles in the call for Church Reformation. But as time passed the Protestant religions became more formally organized, male leaders narrowly limited the roles or activities women could perform. FAVORITE QUOTES from Marguerite “God always helps madmen, lovers, and drunkards.” “When one has one good day in the year, one is not wholly unfortunate.” “Blessed is he who has it in his power to do evil, yet does it not.”“People pretend not to like grapes when they are too high for them to reach.” PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
    • 23. The Catholics Counter with a Reformation of their own - Textbook, p. 435; Packet p. 27B. Perceiving RelationshipsAs Protestantism spread and numerous other sects appeared, the Catholic churchundertook measures to reform itself in order to help Catholics remain loyal.This movement to reform the Catholic church from within is knownas the Catholic Reformation. Ignatius of Loyola left his father’s castle in Loyola, Spain to go fight in Spain’s war with France in 1521. A cannon ball struck his legs and he was severely wounded. During his recuperation he gave serious examination to his spiritual life and began writing a book, Spiritual Exercises. This daily meditation guide attracted many followers over the next 18 years.Eventually Pope Paul III made the group founded by Ignatius of Loyolainto a religious order named the Society of Jesus, or “Jesuits,” – thegroup focused on the education of Catholics in the 1500s in order to bebetter informed about the Scriptures and able to defend themselves againstthe preaching of the Protestants. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
    • 24. The Catholics Counter with a Reformation of their own - Textbook, p. 435; Packet p. 27 4. What were the three major activities of the Jesuits? They founded and staffed schools meant to educate Catholics in Europe; they sent out missionaries all over the world to convert non-Christians; and sought to stop the spread of Protestantism – even conducting trials of the Inquisition where Protestants were tried for heresy. Arriving in the New World Famous Jesuit Schools in the U. S.with the Spanish conquerors, Boston Collegethe Jesuits worked to convert Loyola Marymount Univ. in Los Angeles native Americans, Loyola University in Chicago establishing missions and University of San Francisco schools.5. Why were the effects of the work of the Jesuits so long lasting? They sent out missionaries to all the continents, founding schools, colleges, and universities throughout the world – many of which are still around today. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
    • 25. The Catholics Counter with a Reformation of their own - Textbook, p. 436; Packet p. 27 6. What role did Popes Paul III and Paul IV play in reforming the Catholic Church? Pope Paul III • had Cardinals investigate corruption within the Church. • gave approval to the Jesuits, focusing on education. • used the Inquisition to identify and punish heretics • convened the Council of Trent Pope Paul IV • drew up the “Index of Prohibited Books” • collected and burned these! • carried out the decisions of the Council of TrentB. Perceiving Relationships Council of Trent – a meeting of Catholic bishops and cardinals [1545-1563] held in order to reach agreements on the church’s official teachings (doctrine). PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
    • 26. Michelangelos Last Judgment of Christ was unveiled in the Sistine Chapel in 1541. Christ is shown as a muscular young man and the scene is dominated by nude figures. Many criticized the work as an example of the licentiousness that had pervaded the Catholic church. Four years later, the Council of Trent gathered for it’s first session in 1545.The Council convened to discuss and consider Luthers Theses,the threat of Protestantism, and to verbalize a defense against thecharges being made by critics of the Catholic Church. Inresponse to those who criticized the Church’s emphasis on art,the Council stated that art is an integral part of the process ofhelping the layperson to understand the Scriptures. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
    • 27. The Catholics Counter with a Reformation of their own - Textbook, p. 436; Packet p. 27 6. What role did Popes Paul III and Paul IV play in reforming the Catholic Church? Pope Paul III • had Cardinals investigate corruption within the Church. • gave approval to the Jesuits, focusing on education. • used the Inquisition to identify and punish heretics • convened the Council of Trent Pope Paul IV • drew up the “Index of Prohibited Books” • collected and burned these! • carried out the decisions of the Council of TrentB. Perceiving Relationships Council of Trent – a meeting of Catholic bishops and cardinals [1545-1563] held in order to reach agreements on the church’s official teachings (doctrine). PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
    • 28. The Catholics Counter with a Reformation of their own - Textbook, p. 436; Packet p. 27The INDEX of PROHIBITED BOOKS was drawn up by Pope Paul IV and bishops and cardinals were ordered to hunt down, INDEX collect, and burn these books considered dangerous AVCTORVM to the Catholic faith. – this included all Protestant ET LIBRORVM, QVI AB OFFICIO Bibles written in the vernacular languages.S. Rom. & vniuerfalis inquifi-tionis caueri ab omnibus & fin- The writings of Wycliff, Hus, Luther, Henry VIII, Calvin, and gulis in vniuerfa Chriftiana Re publica mandantur, fub cenfu- other reformers were proclaimed heretical and ordered found ris contra legentes, vel tenen- and destroyed in all Catholic regions. tes libros prohibitos in bulla, quæ lecta eft in cœna Do- mini, expresfis & fub Later big names found on the list included Machiavelli, alijs pœnis in de creto eiufdem Erasmus, Galileo, French philosophers Voltaire (18 th c.) and facri officij Satre (20th c.), Victor Hugo, Daniel Defoe, and even the first conten- published Encyclopedia. tis. The list was relaxed by the Catholic Church in 1966. R O M AE. EX OFFICINA Saluiana. XV. Menf. Feb. 1 5 5 9. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
    • 29. The Catholics Counter with a Reformation of their own - Textbook, p. 436; Packet p. 27 6. What role did Popes Paul III and Paul IV play in reforming the Catholic Church? Pope Paul III • had Cardinals investigate corruption within the Church. • gave approval to the Jesuits, focusing on education. • used the Inquisition to identify and punish heretics • convened the Council of Trent Pope Paul IV • drew up the “Index of Prohibited Books” • collected and burned these! • carried out the decisions of the Council of TrentB. Perceiving Relationships Council of Trent – a meeting of Catholic bishops and cardinals [1545-1563] held in order to reach agreements on the church’s official teachings (doctrine). PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
    • 30. The Legacy of the Reformation - Textbook, p. 436; Packet p. 27 7. What were some effects of the Reformation? • Religion no longer unites Europe. • Church power declines; while the power of kings increased – paving the way for unified nation-states. • More people questioned the teachings of the Church they had always simply been indoctrinated into and began to pursue instead their own independent thinking, scientific study and other intellectual interests. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
    • 31. STUDY!Packet, p. 26 PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
    • 32. Ch. 17 Section 4: AKINS HIGH SCHOOL Mr. Loessin’s The Reformation World History Continues Room 167 Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:• Explain John Calvin’s Protestant teachings and their spread throughout northern and western Europe.• Describe the beliefs of other Reformers and the role of women in the Reformation.• Trace the reforms begun by the Catholic Church itself in it’s Counter-Reformation.AGENDA:• WARM-UP – Read History Makers “John Calvin,” Text p. 433• DISCUSSION of Section 4, packet p. 27• Daily QuizNEXT ASSIGNMENT:• CHAPTER 17 Test is tomorrow! Study! Come to Tutorials!• Begin collecting all of this past semester’s Test Answer Sheets. You will need them in order to Review for Final Exam!