2. IntroductionThe key principle behind Nutrient Management planningis to balance soil nutrient inputs with crop requirements.• Benefits:• Maintenance of optimum conditions for crop growth• Protection of local and regional water resources• Enhancement of farm profitability• Both farm profitability and water quality can be improved through efficient nutrient use
3. Fertilizers• Fertilizer (or fertilizer) is any organic or inorganic material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is added to a soil to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
4. Manure• Manure is organic matter used as organic fertilizer in agriculture. Manures contribute to the fertility of the soil by adding organic matter and nutrients, such as nitrogen, that are trapped by bacteria in the soil. Higher organisms then feed on the fungi and bacteria in a chain of life that comprises the soil food web. It is also a product obtained after decomposition of organic matter like cow-dung which replenishes the soil with essential elements and add humus to the soil.
5. Manure V/S. FertilizersManure Fertilizer• Manure generates heat as it • Chemical fertilizers are nutrient decomposes, and it is possible for specific. Thus for supplying a manure to ignite particular nutrient we can select spontaneously should it be stored some specific chemical fertilizer. in a massive pile. Once such a For example, super phosphate is large pile of manure is burning, it used in case the soil is deficient in will foul the air over a very large phosphorus. area and require considerable • The excessive use of nitrogenous effort to extinguish. fertilizers concentrates nitrates in• Animal dung has been used for the soil and water. Nitrate rich centuries as a fertilizer for farming, water is unfit for drinking, and is as it improves the soil structure rather difficult to treat (aggregation), so that it holds more nutrients and water, and becomes more fertile.
6. Humus• In soil science, humus (coined 1790–1800; < Latin: earth, ground) refers to any organic matter that has reached a point of stability, where it will break down no further and might, if conditions do not change, remain as it is for centuries.In agriculture, humus is sometimes also used to describe mature compost, or natural compost extracted from a forest or other spontaneous source for use to amend soil. It is also used to describe a topsoil horizon that contains organic matter .The process of ordganic getting decomposed into humus is knowns “HUMIFICATION”.
7. Advantages of Humus• Humus fertilizers are excellent for the soil. The humus in such fertilizers are essential for microorganisms, which build up the soil rich in humus.• The humus release the nutrients in a slow and consistent rate that the plants can utilize. Since the microbes break down the materials, there is little risk of over concentration of any element.• The plants are provided balanced nutrition because of the presence of a broad range of trace elements.• Humus are safe for all types of plants and there is no danger of burning due to salt concentration.• Humus binds to the soil where the roots can access it. So, it is long lasting as the organic fertilizers do not leach out.